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be the chief flower of the crown, and the support of the people's liberty ; and they unanimously beseeched his excellency, in his hearty desire of the nation's preservation, to leave that authority with them in fome person, faithful to his majesty, and acceptable to the nation; to which person, when he should be made known to them, they would not only afford all due obedience, but would also offer, and propose the best ways and means they could devise for the conservation of his majesty's rights, and the people's liberties and interests; and for the begetting a ready obedience in all places and persons, to his majesty's authority.”
In answer to this request, his excellency told them, “ that he was resolved to make use speedily of the liberty the king had given him as to his own person ; which he found was unacceptable to the people. Yet that, if they could propose to him any way how he could deposit the king's authority, in such a manner as that it might not be exposed to the same affronts it had received in him, and might be applied to the preserving of the people, and the recovery of the kingdom, he should readily agree to it; and he heartily wished they might receive that happiness by his absence, which they could not receive by his presence.”
His excellency wasresolved to trust the royal authority in no body but the Earl of Clanrickard, the only person in the kingdom fit for so high a trust; and on the 7th of December aforesaid, after he had emþarked, he wrote to the assembly, 66 that he had left authority with his lordship, to govern the kingdom, provided their declaration were so far explained, as to give the marquis of Clanrickard full satisfaction, with regard to the expressions they made use of to declare their duty of obedience."
An instrument was hereupon drawn up, wherein ® the assembly declared, that neither the lords spiritual or temporal, gentry or people, clergy or laity, had power to discharge the people from that due and perfect
6 Clarend. Carte.
7 Cart. Orm. vol. ii. fol. 137.
obedience to his majesty's authority vested in the Marquis of Clanrickard; and that, in case of any such act or endeavour, no persons should, or ought to be led thereby; but that, for their disobedience, on any such grounds, they were subject to the heavy censures and penalties of the laws of the land. But to this a proviso was added, that this obedience was not intended to be paid to any person, that should be appointed chief govenor, who had joined in the covenant, or should violate the articles of the peace. Upon this declaration, Lord Clanrickard was prevailed upon to accept the government; and Ormond departed for France.
CH A P.
The presbytery of Bangor's proceedings on the peace.
NONE cenfured the congregation at James-town more severely than the presbyterians in Ulster; yet none had so little right to censure it. For that congregation only followed the example that was set them the
8 Id. ib.
• That proviso was expressed in these words. " And inasmuch as his majesty is at present in the hands of a presbyterian party of the Scots, who have declared themselves enemies to this nation, and vowed the extirpation of our religion, we declare, it is not hereby intended, to oblige ourselves to receive, obey, or observe any governor, that shall come unduly nominated by, or procured from his majesty, by reason of, or during his being in an unfree condition, that may raise a disturbance in the present government, established by his majesty's authority, or cause the violation of the articles of peace." Borl. Hift. of the Irish Rebel. fol.
339. c“ The bishop of Ferns, (says Borlase) hitherto averse to the king's authority, more particularly importuned him (Clanrickard) in the name of the clergy, not to decline a charge, which could only preserve the king's power in that kingdom, and the nation from destruction, promising fo entire a submission and co-operation from the whole clergy, that his authority should not be disputed.” Irish Rebel. fol. 338.
year before, by the presbytery of Bangor ; - with this difference, that the former, as we have seen, had fome provocation given them, which the latter could not pretend.
For on the conclusion of the peace in 1648, the king having sent a commission to Hugh Viscount Montgomery of Ards, to command all the forces within that province, his lordship thought it necessary to fig. nify to his majesty's subjects of Ulster his investiture with that commission, and accordingly published a declaration, July 4th, 1649, for that purpose.
A prefbytery was thereupon convened at Bangor, July 7th, in which a declaration was drawn up, containing several virulent reflections on his lordship. He is therein charged, among other things,' “ with lifting up his hand against them ; with betraying the covenant ; with owning King Charles the second ; with cloathing himself with a commission from him; with receiving commands from the Marquis of Ormond, and joining with malignants, who blafphemed the covenant. For this cause," said they, “ as embaffadors of Christ, we beseech the people, " in his stead," not to join hands to such a course, not to join in executing such a com
See Presbyterian Loyalty, p. 256.
year 1642 into
· The 10,000 Scots, that were sent about the Ulster by the English parliament, “ were pofseffed of Carrickfergus as their head quarters, brought over their ministers along with them, who being of the presbyterian persuasion (says my author) did associate for the exercise of discipline; and such ministers of the same persuasion as then resided in the kingdom joined with them, and founded a presbytery, which was that very presbytery who framed the declaration at Bangor in 1649. The Lord Viscount of Ards and the Lord Viscount of Claneboy, shewed an early zeal for the interest of the presbytery; for on the 19th of July, 1642, (which was but nine days after their first meeting) my Lord of Ards fent Capt. Magill to the presbytery then met at Carrickfergus, with a message to them, promising that he would join with them in discipline, and my Lord Claneboy writ them a letter, delivered the very fame day, and giving the same assurance for himself, as my Lord of Ards had done by his message.” Presbyter. Loyalty, p. 253.
mission, by ferving either as officers or soldiers, or they shall wring the dregs of the cup, which the malignants have been drinking these many years past. We do also, in the name of Jesus Christ, warn the people of our charge from all compliance with their ungodly course, either by speaking favourably of them, acknowledging the authority of the present command under the Marquis of Ormond and the Lord of Ards i by imposing cess for the maintenance of their unlawful power; or by obeying their orders, or paying cess to their army, or supplying them with that which is the finews of war, money and viduals."
I have said that the presbytery at Bangor could not pretend such provocation for this outrage on the royal authority, as the congregation at James-town really had; for, by the king's having taken the covenant, the latter were threatened openly with the utter extirpation of their religion ; but the presbytery were promised, and assured of the preservation, and extenfion of theirs. Lord Montgomery,' who was himself a zealous presbyterian, folemnly engaged in his declaration, “ in the presence of God, that he would use his uttermoft endeavours, while he was entrusted with power, to countenance and assist the exercise of their religion, as it was then practised ; and likewise, that
. Ib. p. 409.
b In February 1649, “ the general affembly of the church of Scotland had set them an example, by publishing a remonstrance wherein, “ they declared, and folemnly protested, among other things, against the Lord of Ards and others having entered into a peace and association with the Marquis of Ormond, that they might the more easily carry on the old designs of the popish, prelatical and malignant party.” See Borl. Hift. of the Rebel. fol. 289.
c“ In April following, 1650, this fame Lord of Ards, Lord Moor, and Colonel Trevor, came from the Irish quarters to Oliver Cromwell at Clonmell, soon after he had taken that town, to render themselves to him, being persons of great note and eminence in the kingdom, and the first of quality of the protestant party, that came from the Irish army unto them." Borl. Hift. of the Irish Rebel. Append. fol. 22.
he would solicit his majesty, and, (as he had good grounds to hope) with success, for a confirmation under his hand.” And, two days before that declaration issued,' Lord Inchiquin · wrote to the same prefbytery, “ that he being a well-wisher to the presbyterian government, and honoured with a public trust by his majesty, knew that his majesty was resolved, for their satisfaction, to establish the presbyterian government in them parts; and, he believed, in other parts also of the kingdom. And no man knows,” adds his lordship,“ whether the whole number of protestants may not agree to embrace it."
The total defection of the protestant forces. SHORTLY after the presbytery's declaration was published, there was such a general defection in the northern army, that the Marquis of Ormond told the king, in December 1649,' “ that his majesty might account that province, if not wholly lost, yet in a low and desperate condition ; and that he expected to be strongly invaded from thence next summer.” In that letter it was, that he desired his majesty's permission to withdraw himself out of the kingdom,“ because it was unable of itself, and without powerful aids from abroad, to resist the growing power of the rebels.” Yet, when his lordship did withdraw himself, some months after, he greatly encreased these rebels power, by permitting, or rather transmitting, the forces then under his immediate command to join and assist them. For, when he
3 Presbyterian Loyalty, p. 409, · Carte's Orm. vol. ii. p. 422.
· Id. ib.
• Borlase says, “ that amongst the presbyterians he went for a patron.' Irish Rebel. fol. 243. He says also, “ that the Lord of Ards (a little before this) had been chosen by the presbyterian ministers, their commander in chief, thereby possessing himself of Carrickfergus and Belfast.” Ib. fol. 273.