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in the city of Dublin, most of them having never seen or known the places for which they were returned, and others of contemptible life and carriage. And what outrageous violence was offered yesterday to a grave gentleman, whom men of all sorts that know him, do and will confefs to be both learned, grave, and discreet, free from all touch and imputation, and whom those of the lower house, to whom no exceptions could be taken, had chosen to be their speaker, we leave, for avoiding tediousness to your highness, to their own further declaration. And forafmuch as, most renowned and dread sovereign, we cannot in any due proportion of reason expect redress in these our diftressed calamities, where many of those who represent the body
your estate were the chief authors of them, upon the knees of our loyal and submissive hearts, we humbly pray, that it would please your majesty to admit some of us to the access of your royal presence ; where, if we fail in the least point of these our assertions, and declarations of other evils, which do multiply in this estate, we willingly submit ourselves to any punishment, as deserved, which it shall please your highness to lay and inflict upon us. For we are those, by the effusion of whose ancestors blood, the foundation of that empire, which we acknowledge your highness by the laws of God and man to have over this kingdom and people, was first laid, and in many succeeding ages preserved. To us it properly appertain, eth, both in the obligation of public duty and private interest, to heed the good thereof, who never laid the foundation of our hopes upon the disturbance of it, garboils and dissentions being the downfal of our estate, as some of us now living can witness ; and therefore, we cannot, but out of the consideration of our bounden duty and allegiance, make known unto your highnets the general discontent which those strange, unlooked for, and never heard of courses particularly have bred; whereof, if the rebellious and discontented of this nation abroad do take advantage, and procure the evil-affected at home, which are numbers, by reason of that already settled, and intended plantation, in any hostile fashion to set disorders on foot, and labour fome underhand relief from any prince or estate abroad, who peradventure might be inveigled, and drawn to commiserate their pretended distresses and oppressions; however, we are affured the prowess and power of your majesty in the end will bring the authors thereof to ruin and confusion ; yet it may tended with the effusion of much blood, exhausting of masses of treasure, the exposing of us, and others your highness's wellaffected subjects, to the hazard of poverty, whereof the memory is very lively and fresh among us; and finally, to the laying open of the whole commonalty to the inundation of all miferies and calamities, which garboils, civil war, and diffen, tions do breed and draw with them, in a rent and torn estate.
For preventing whereof, we nothing doubt but your majesty
Your majesty's most faithful subjects,
[From Defiderat. Curiof. Hibern.] To the Right Honourable the Lords of his Majesty's Most
Honourable Privy Council. The humble Petition of the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses of the Counties, Cities, and ancient Boroughs of Ireland.
[See Review, p. 93, vol. i.] Most humbly declaring to your lordships, that the affurance of his majesty's most princely inviolable justice, whereof your lordships, in matters of state and government, are the high and supreme distributors, doth embolden us, in our oppressions, to address these our submissive lines to your honours; wherein our purpose is, not to be pleaders, the strangeness of our extremities finding no fit words to express them; and therefore, in declaration of the naked truth, your lordships shall understand that we, the knights, citizens, and burgefies of the counties, cities, and ancient boroughs of this realm, coming, according to our bounden duties, into the parliament house, we find there fourteen counsellors of state, three of the judges, having before received writs to appear in the higher house, all his majesty's council at law; and the rest of the number, for the most part, consisting of attornies, clerks in courts, of the lord deputy's retinue, and others his houshold servants, with fome lately come out of England, having no abiding here ; and all these, save very few, were returned from the new corporations erected, to the number of forty or thereabouts, not only in places of the new plantation, but also in other provinces, where there be corporations of antiquity; few or none of them having been ever resident, and most of them having never seen these places: the rest, who possessed the rooms of knights of shires, save four or fix, came in by practice, and dishonest devices, where
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I . No. IV. unto themselves were not strangers ; and some there were from ancient boroughs, who intruded themselves into their places, by as undue and unlawful means; as the knights and burgefses duly elected were ready at the parliament door to prove and avouch. For redress whereof, we of the ancient shires, cities, and towns, to whom no exceptions could be taken, being desirous to take the usual and accustomed course, what outrageous violence ensued, by the fury of some there, we humbly leave to your lordships to be informed by our declarations; whereunto a schedule, by direction of my lord deputy, subscribed with our hands, is annexed. And forasmuch, right honourable, as the strangeness of these proceedings, in a chriftian commonwealth is such, as we think his majesty, and your lordships will hardly be induced to believe ; they being, in the likelihood of impossibility, equal to that of Meffalino unto the emperor Claudius in ancient Rome; or to any other accident, how rare soever, transmitted to posterity in modern or ancient shires, we humbly pray, that your lordships, in commiseration of our distress, will be a mean to his highness, that some of us, with some of our nobility, may be licensed to present ourselves there, for the proof of our affertions ; wherein if we fail in any one point, we utterly renounce all favour ; and that in the mean time his majesty will be pleased to suspend his gracious judgment, in the apprehension of what to our prejudice may be informed here ; those from whom his highness doth usually receive information, being the authors of the carriage of what is done amiss.
[From Defiderat. Curiof. Hibern.] Abstract of the Report and Return of Commissioners sent by
the King to Ireland, to enquire into the Grievances and Complaints of the Irish, in 1613.,
[See Review, p. 105, vol. i.] UPON our arrival in Dublin the 11th of September, we caused his majesty's commission and instructions to be inrolled, and presently directed our letters to the governors of Munster and Conaught, as also to divers lords, archbishops, and bishops, and to several of the sheriffs of counties, and others, concerning the articles of the said instructions, whereby our arrival, and the cause of our employment were made known to the people in most parts of the kingdom. Yet during the space of one month at the least, after our landing, no one petition was exhibited to us complaining of any grievances. Never
theless afterwards, .upon the coming over of the lord Killeene and Sir Christopher Plunket, two of the late petitioners to his majesty, they exhibited unto us particular instances of oppreffion and exactions by soldiers, provoft-marshals, and some others, specially those that reside nearest the state; out of which particulars, being many, we selected three-score or thereabouts, as meetest to be examined; whereby we might discern, what were the several kinds of the soldiers oppressions towards the people ; for proof of which selected articles, divers days were assigned to them to produce their witnefles : at which time fome of the captains of horse and foot, provoft-marshals, and some of their soldiers we warned to appear before us, and thereupon we proceeded in presence of the Lord Killeene and Sir Christopher Plunket, and some of the parties grieved, and we proceeded to a summary examination of those disorders; and by these examinations, and by other means, it doth appear unto us, that the soldiers, both horse and foot, have extorted upon his majesty's subjects in manner following: first, in all their journies and thoroughfares, where, by their warrant from the lord deputy, they are commanded to take meat and drink in the country, paying ready money, or giving tickets for the same; the foldiers nevertheless, for the most part, neither pay, money, nor give tickets, as they ought to do; and in cases where the collectors receive tickets for the payment of the country for victualling of soldiers, they, and fometimes persons authorised by the principal gentlemen of the country, do get these tickets into their hands, and obtain payment from his majesty's treafurer, and feldom make distribution thereof to the poorer fort to whom it is due.
The soldiers, where they are cessed, do extort money from the poorer people (besides meat and drink) for every night's lodging three shillings for a horse-man, and two shillings for a foot-man, sometimes more, and sometimes less; and certain petty sums are also taken for their boys and attendants, besides victuals; and it happeneth sometimes, that the foldiers that take cess, take money, as well for themselves as for other foldiers absent, which the country call Black-men, because they are not seen; and sometimes soldiers in pay, and others discharged out of pay, and divers vagrants in the name of soldiers, take meat and money of the people without warrant, or after the date of their warrant is expired, in extortious manner, by two or three or more in a company. And in all these cases, when the people have not money to pay them, they take divers times, forcibly, either fome of their cattle, or some of their houshold stuff for pawns in lieu thereof, whereby breach of peace and affrays are occasioned.
Likewise the foldiers, although they be always enjoined by the lord deputy's warrant to pass to and fro the direct way in
their journies, yet do they sometimes make a circular and long course in their thoroughfare, whereby they cess and hurt the people, more days than is limited unto them, or is requisite for their journey:
Also the foldiers in journies, being cessed in small numbers in villages by the collectors, according to the ability of the places, they do fometimes take money in the towns, wherein they are affigned to take their lodgings and victuals, and depart the same and lodge themfelves, without warrant, near the same place, whereby the people bear a double charge.
Moreover it appeareth, that some officers of bands have taken monies of townships, to forbear to cess upon them in their journies, and have cessed upon the towns not far distant from thence ; and these exactions are committed by soldiers in counties where the composition in lieu of cess is paid, as in other places; wherein is to be observed, that by the tenor of the composition, the counties are to victual the foldiers in their paffage at usual rates, a matter reserved for necessity of state.
The soldiers do not only commit these abuses in their thoroughfares, but when they are sent into the country upon other employments.
The provost-marshal (whereof there is one at the least in every province) has likewise certain men to attend him, who do exact victuals and money in their passage up and down the country from the people, and commit other disorders as soldiers do; which extortions have been committed by the soldiers and the rest of themselves, without any warrant at all, or connivance of any, so far as hath appeared unto us.
And notwithstanding the oppressions in these kinds are very many (as may be seen by their informations to us exhibited from divers parts of the kingdom), yet, for any thing appearing unto us, very few have complained thereof to the lord deputy; who upon their complaints, hath given order for redress of such grievances, as hath been manifested unto us.
The reasons wherefore the people pretend to have forborne to make their complaints, is the fear they have had to be worse used by the soldiers complained of at other times, and that the charges of the complaint would far have exceeded their damages and losses, although they cannot deny but the lord deputy hath given as easy access and as speedy remedy, as hath been given by former governors.
The names of some few soldiers that are offenders in these kinds, and are yet in pay, appear in our examinations, others are dead or discharged, and in many of the complaints against soldiers, their names are not known to the parties, neither have the soldiers, or others complained to us for want of pay by their captains, although some of them have been by us required publicly to deliver us their knowledge therein..... There be di