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Mr. Belling informs us,“ “ that when the news came of Ormond's being routed by Jones at Rathmines, O’Nial assembled the chief officers of his army and addressed them thus. “ Gentlemen, to demonstrate to the world, that I value the service of my king, and the welfare of my nation, as I always did, I now forget and forgive the supreme council, and my enemies their ill practices, and all the wrongs they did me from time to time, and will now embrace that peace which I formerly rejected out of a good intent.” He sent his forces to Ormond, under Ever M‘Mahon, bishop of Clogher, to whom the Marquis had given a commission to command them. “It must be acknowledged,” says Borlase, from Clarendon, " that this bishop performed and observed the conditions very justly, as he was punctual in what he promised, and applied himself with all dexterity and industry to the advancement of his majesty's interest ; so that, during his time, he restrained the clergy from making any acts, which might discourage the people from their obedience to the king's authority." This bishop was afterwards taken prisoner in an engagement near Enniskillen, after having received many wounds; and ignominiously put to death, by the positive order of Sir Charles Coote, whom, within less than a year, he had relieved when in great extremity.”

The Marquis of Ormond had received frequent warnings of the infidelity of Inchiquin's officers ; and some probable reasons for withdrawing his confidence from Închiquin himself. His excellency, in a letter to that lord, November 16th, 1648, on occasion of the before-mentioned mutiny of these officers, told him plainly, “ that he was very unwilling to have any thing to do with them; and seemed to think that they had but delayed their design, waiting for a more hopeful opportunity to accomplish their end, which he understood to be, to betray his lordship and himself to the independents.”



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4 MSS. History.

> Hift. of the Irish Rebel. fol. 313. * Id. ib. fol. 312. Clarendon. Irish Rebel. ; Cart. Orm. vol. ij.

The defection of these officers soon after to the

parliament, to which Lord Broghill's d treachery and artifice not a little contributed, fufficiently justified these suspicions. For in this favourable conjuncture of the accession of O'Nial's forces, the distress of Cromwell's army,

and the probability there was, by the advantage of a pass, of cutting off his provisions, and of making his retreat to Dublin very difficult, without losing a good part of his men; in these circumstances, I say,

on a sudden, and altogether, all the considerable places in the province of Munster, as Cork, Youghall, Kinsale, Bandon-bridge, Moyallo, and other garrisons,



8 Clarend. Cart. Lel. Hift. vol. iii. p. 357.

* In an engagement near Clonmell, “ this Lord Broghill had taken the titular bishop of Rofs prisoner, and promised to spare his life on condition that he should use his spiritual authority with the garrison of a fort adjacent to the field of battle, and prevail on them to surrender. For this purpose he was conducted to the fort ; but the gallant captive, unihaken by the fear of death, exhorted the garrison to maintain their post resolutely against the enemies of their religion and country, and instantly resigned himself to execution. His enemies," adds my author, “ could discover nothing in his conduct but insolence and obstinacy; for he was a papist and prelate.” Lel. Hift. of Irel. vol. iii. p. 362-3

Broghill's chaplain and panegyrist, Mr. Morrice, informs us, that while his lordship was engaged in a battle against the king's forces in Ireland, “ orders were once given by himself to the chief commanders, to give no quarters that day to any in arms." Broghill's life prefixed to Orrery's State Lett.

« These garrisons (says Cox) by the means of Lord Broghill, &c. revolted all at once.” Hift. of Irel. p. 12.

“ Dungarvan was delivered up to Cromwell the 3d of December, 1649, where he found my Lord Broghill, who partly by his own interest, and the disaffection in the soldiers to Lord Inchiquin, had gotten in all the towns in Munster, that had formerly been under the parliament ; a service most considerable, and such as was of very great advantage to Cromwell, who was now in great straits where to take up his winter quarters for his sick and distressed regiments. His army, partly by leaving garrisons in several places he had taken in, being so much weakened and impaired, so as he brought not, of all the men he


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under Lord Inchiquin, revolted to the English parliament; and thereby gave them a safe retreat, free passage, and necessary provisions of all they wanted; as likewise harbours for their ships, to bring every thing to them they could desire. This defection, in fo fatal a juncture of time, when the straits Cromwell was in by the winter, and want of provisions, had raised the spirits of men; and when they looked upon themselves as like to have at least, some hopeful encounter with him, was not (adds my author) a loss, or a blow but a diffolution of the whole frame of their hopes and designs ; and confirmed that spirit of jealousy and animosity in the army, which no dexterity nor interest, of the lord lieutenant could extinguish or allay.”

This general defection of Inchiquin's forces seems to have given the first rise and occasion to the obnoxious proceedings of the congregation of bishops at Jamestown, they looking upon it, as a new and corroborating proof of Ormond's being privately connected with the English rebels. For, although his excellency had been fully apprised by the confederates, of the ill affections, and actual revolt of several of the officers of these garrisons,' before the general treachery now mentioned ; yet he readily agreed to Inchiquin's suspicious ftipulation, “ that 'o these garrisons should be entirely


9 Cart. Orm. vol.ii. fol. 101-2.

19 Id. ib. vol. ii. fol. 102.

carried over with him, above five thousand horse and foot to Dungarvan.” Borl. Irish Rebel. fol. 289. From Clarend.

Yet, “ the above-mentioned revolting garrisons had been supplied by the Irish during the whole preceding summer, to their excessive charge.” Orm. Lettto the king. Carte's Collect. of Orig. Papers, vol. i. p. 419.

“ To screen Inchiquin, these revolting officers seized and made prisoners of his wife and children, whom, (adds my author) not without much difficulty, he got re-delivered to him.” Borl. Irish Rebel. fol. 287.

s And Ormond's afterwards fhewing particular favour and friendship to Inchiquin, was one of the causes of the people's dislike and suspicion of him. “ Some of the principal persons (among the confederates) and with them some of the bishops,


left to his own disposal ; nor could Inchiquin ever after be prevailed upon to admit any of the Irish forces, though actually in the king's service, into them.'

Before the peace of 1648 was concluded, the Marquis of Ormond, in order to induce the Prince of Wales to come over to Ireland, to take upon him the command of that army, told his highness, “ that in all their judgments, his speedy access was become so abfolutely necessary, that there appeared little hopes that without it that army could be long contained from feeking its own security in a submission to the prevalent party in England; but that if his highness arrived speedily, the awe of his person might confirm such as were wavering." And not long before the marquis's return to Ireland, as lord lieutenant, about the end of September, 1648, Lord Inchiquin, by means of two of his colonels, Townshend and Derby, was said to have fent over to the committee at Derby-house, some propositions for the surrender of the towns in Munster; upon which the committee at Derby-house, says Borlafe, sent back Colonel Temple with power to treat with the Lord Inchiquin ; but before his arrival there, Sir Richard Fanshaw, the prince's secretary, was come


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!!. Cart. Orm. vol. iii. fol. 590.

under shew of great confidence and trust, repaired to the lord lieutenant at Limerick, 1649, and declared unto him, that all that indisposition and waywardness of the people proceeded from the prejudice they had against Lord Inchiquin, who had always, they said, profecuted the war against them with the utmost rigour and animosity, and the places and persons which had been most at his devotion; having treacheroully revolted to the parliament, the people were not confident of him, and jealous that the marquis had too great a confidence in him ; so that if he would difmiss that lord, and discharge the troops thạt yet remained under his command, of which some frequently ran away to the parliament, not only that city (Limerick) but the whole nation, would, as one man, be at his disposal.” Borl. Irish Rebel. fol. 303. From Clarendon. See what follows, ib. fol. 304. Some leading perfons applied to Inchiquin to take the command on him, as being of their ancient families ; but 'tis certain that these hated both Inchiquin and Ormond, but on account of the former's family, would make choice of him as the lefler evil.

from the prince to Inchiquin, with a declaration of the prince's design to send the Duke of York into Ireland with such of the revolted ships as remained in Holland, and to let him know the hopes he had, that by his affiftance and the army under his command, both he and his father might be restored. This (adds my author) so puffed up Inchiquin, that he would hear of no over. tures from Derby-house, and made him absolutely difavow that he had any knowledge of the propositions sent over, though he was said with his own hand to have interlined and approved them in several places.


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The Marquis of Ormond desires leave to quit the

kingdom. His excellency, so early as December 24th, 1649, had requested, and shortly after obtained the king's permission,' “ to withdraw both himself and his majesty's authority out of the kingdom, if he should see occasion.” And the better to secure his retreat on all fides, from a people whose losses under him, and jealousies of him, were daily increasing, his friend’ Dean Boyle, privately procured him a pass from Oliver Cromwell ; which being afterwards discovered, by the ungenerous use that regicide made of it, his lordship returned it by a trumpet, with a letter informing him, that it was officiously fought for and obtained by the Dean, without either his consent or privity:

His excellency's desire to withdraw himself out of the kingdom proceeded not, as has been already hinted, from the supposed refractory and disloyal behaviour of the Irish clergy, but from his own consciousness of the people's great mistrust of him, and their consequent aversion to his government. For, as he himself justly


12 Borl. Hift. of the Irish Rebel. fol. 254-5. · Cart.

> Cart. Orm. vol. ii. fol. 121.

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