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" he did not remember to have met any thing like it in history.” Had the doctor been a little more conversant with, or mindful of the history of his own country, he would have found, that in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and since also, many orders of equal, or greater cruelty had been issued, by some of the most celebrated English commanders of those times, in their several expeditions against the Irish. In the year 1602, Lord Deputy Mountjoy boalted in a letter to the English council,“ “ that with his army, he had destroyed


2 Morris. Hist. of Ireland, f. 115.

the time prefixed. Upon the last day of December, he went to Fort-William, and desired the oaths to be tendered to him by the governor of the fortress, who, as he was not a civil magistrate, refused to administer them. M‘Donald then went to Inverary,


country town, to take them ; but by bad weather was prevented from reaching it, till the term prescribed by the proclamation was elapsed. The sheriff scrupled at first, but was prevailed upon at last to receive his allegiance. Advantage was taken of MDonald's not having complied literally with the terms of the proclamation, and a warrant for proceeding to execution was procured from the king, which was signed both above and below with his own hand. Sir John Dalrymple, the secretary, gave orders that the execution of it should be effectual, and without any previous warning. For this purpose, in the month of February, two companies went, not as enemies, but as friends, to take quarters in the valley of Glenco, where all the clan lived. To conceal the intention the better, the foldiers were of their own lineage, Highlanders of Argyle's regiment. They were all received with the rude, but kind hospitality of the country. They continued in the valley near a fortnight, and then in the night time rose to butcher their hofts ! Captain Campbell of Glenlyon, who was uncle to the wife of one of M‘Donald's fons, and had fupped and played cards with M‘Donald's family the night before, commanded the party. Thirty-eight men were flain. The rest would have shared the fame fate,' had not the alarm been given by one of M'Donald's fons, who overheard one of the foldiers say, to another, “ he. liked not the work; he feared not to fight the M‘Donalds in the field, but had scarcely courage to kill them in their sleep; but that their officers were answerable for the deed, not they. This execution made the deeper impresfion, because the king would not permit any of those who were concerned in it to be punished,


their corn, and caused a famine; that being the only sure way,” adds he, “ to reduce or root them out. ” And his fecretary Morrisson, “ thought the war was then no way so likely to be ended, as by a general famine. Which, as we have already seen, they did at last completely effect. In the list of Sir William Cole's boasted exploits against the insurgents in 1641, we find,+

+ " that within a few months, he had starved and familhed five thousand four hundred and fifty-seven of the Irish.” And when the garrison of Limerick, which was besieged by Ireton in 1650, and like that of Derry, was in great want of provisions, had turned out


3 Hift. Irel. f. 68.

4 Borl. Hist, of the Irish Rebel. conscious that in their case his own was involved.” Sir John Dalrymple’s Memoirs, vol. i. p. 213. Dub. ed.

“ As a mark of his own eagerness to save Secretary Dalrymple, King William signed the warrant both above and below with his own hand. In the night Lieutenant Lindsay, with a party of soldiers, called in a friendly manner at M'Donald's door ; he was instantly admitted. M‘Donald, as he was rising from his bed to receive his guest, was shot dead behind his back with two bullets ; his wife had already put on her cloaths, but she was stripped naked by the soldiers, who tore the rings off her fingers with their teeth. The laughter became general. To prevent the pity of the soldiers to their hosts, their quarters had been changed the night before ; neither age nor infirmity was spared; some women in defending their children were killed; boys imploring mercy were shot by officers on whose knees they hung; in one place nine persons as they sat enjoyingt hemselves at table, were shot dead by the foldiers. The affallins are even said to have made a sport of death. At Inveriggen, in Campbell's own quarters, nine men were first bound by the soldiers, then shot at intervals, one by one : several who fled

to the mountains, perished by famine and the inclemency of the season ; those who escaped owed their lives to a tempestuous night. Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton, who had the charge of the execution from Dalrymple, was on his march with four hundred men, to occupy all the passes, which led from the valley of Glenco; he was obliged to stop by the severity of the weather, which proved the safety of the unfortunate tribe. He entered the valley the next day; he laid all the houses in alhes, and carried away all the cattle and spoil, which were divided among the officers, and soldiers." Macpherson's Hist. Dub. ed. vol. i. p. 628-9.

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several useless persons, " that barbarous commander caused some of them to be executed, and the rest to be whipped back into the town.”

In September 1690, the lords justices of Ireland issued a proclamation, which actually produced a greater famine among the Irish, than that which De Rosen's driving was only intended to produce in the garrison of Derry. By that proclamation, “ the wives, children and families of all those who were in arms against King William, and of all those who had been killed in the same cause, and of all absentees, were ordered to quit all places under his majesty's obedience, upon pain of being treated as spies and enemies ; by which means, great multitudes, especially of women and children, were driven into the Irish quarters, which hastened that famine that was afterwards among them.”

“ But to speak impartially, “ says Mr. Lesley' on that occasion,“ is not the starving of a country, or province, as barbarous as starving a city? And was not crowding all the Irish, men, women, and children over the Shannon in this war, done on purpose to reduce them to famine ? And it had that effect. Many of these wretches died, many women miscarried, and numbers were starved in that driving over the Shannon; infomuch that some of the protestant officers, who were employed in that expedition, expressed the greatest regret to see such lamentable spectacles, and were asham


s Ludlow's Memoirs. 6 Lesley, ubi supra.

7 Answer to King, p. 185.

d The celebrated Mr. Spencer, after having mentioned that Lord Deputy Gray (whose fecretary he was) in carrying on the war against the Irish in Munster, in 1580, “ had driven them to such an extremity of famine, that they digged dead carcasses out of the

graves for food," was not ashamed to conclude in these shocking words, “ therefore, by all means it must be assured, that after once entering into this course of reformation, there be afterwards no remorse, nor drawing back, for the fight of any such rueful objects as must thereupon follow, nor for compassion of their calamities; seeing that by no other' means it is possible to cure them.” State of Irel.



ed of their commissions, and those, who were thus driven, had King William's protections in their pockets.' These historical facts were, it seems, unknown to the Doctor, when he made his charge.


King James countermands De Rofen's order.

I AM far from vindicating, or even meaning to extenuate the cruelty of De Rosen's order, from any former examples of the same kind; though many more than those I have mentioned, might be produced in the commanders of armies, on such occasions.' “ King James himself expressed the highest refentment of it, and put a stop to its execution on the first notice ; and in his circular letters to the governors of towns a and


· Lesley, ubi supra.

4.6 Circular letter from King James forbidding to put Do Rosen's proclamation in execution :"

“ Trusty and well-beloved, we greet you well. Whereas we are informed, that our field marshal general, the Marquis De Rosen, hath sent orders to several places, requiring the relations of such as are now in rebellion against us in Derry, of what sex or age

soever they be, to be delivered to him, and exposed by him, as he hath projected and declared in the said order ; our will and pleasure is, that if any such order hath been sent to you from the said marshal, you positively refuse obedience thereto, and make it known to all our people, that such orders have been given entirely without our knowledge, and are positively contrary to our inclinations, which have always been to reclaim even the worst of our subjects by mercy, and inviolably preserve the affurances we have given, either by our royal declaration in general, or by any particular protections, to such as live peaceably under our government: we do therefore reiterate our orders to you, that you afsure all our loving subjects of our real intentions in this matter, and you shall assure them that such as live peaceably in their stations, shall, without distinction, enjoy our protection, and so requiring your obedience to this our absolute will


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to the officers commanding in chief in the North, he
commanded them by no means to obey it; and accord-
ingly, that order was not executed in most parts of that
province. This, adds ? Mr. Lesley, I had from the
officers, to whom these orders were fent, and from
several protestants who have seen them, and can pro-
duce them.” Mr. Lesley also : appeals to the Earl of
Granard, then living," whether the same day, that
the news of this order of De Rosen's came to Dublin,



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ever in

Lesley, ubi fupra

3 Ib. p. 100. and pleasure, we bid you heartily farewell. Given at our court at Dublin-castle, this 3d day of June, 1689, and in the fifth year of our reign.

By his majesty's command, Macphers. Orig. Pap. vol. i. p. 280. MELFORT.”

The Irish officers likewise, who were employed in De Rosen's driving, “ executed these orders against their countrymen, (says Sir John Dalrymple) weeping, and obeying ; and

many of them owned, that the cries they then heard


for their ears." Memoirs, part ii. p. 40.

Those very protestants whom De Rosen cruelly ordered to be thus driven before the walls of Derry, and whom King James immediately ordered to be discharged upon the first notice, « confess (says Mr. Lesley) that Lieutenant General Hamilton (who was much against that driving, but De Rosen commanded) ordered meal and other provisions to be distributed

among the poor people." Answ. to King, p. 186.

" It would be inhuman to the memory of the unhappy, to impute the disgrace of this action to King James. He revoked the order as soon as he heard of it, because his own sufferings had probably taught him to feel for those of others.” Dalrymple's Mem. part ii. p. 41.

« The French fleet which carried King James into Ireland, took some English merchantmen while his majesty was aboard, and some of the masters were brought before King James, who expecting nothing but death, fell down upon their knees begging their lives, which brought tears into the king's eyes, and he not only restored them their ships with all their effects, but ordered two frigates to attend them and see them fafe through all the French fleet.” Lesley's Answ. p. 150.

• This earl was accounted very is zealous for the protestant interest; his lady was a presbyterian, and he had constantly received five hundred pounds a year from King Charles the second, to be distributed among the presbyterian clergy in the North of Ireland, even when he permitted a cruel persecution of their brethren in England." Harris's K. William, f. 105. Note.

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