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King William, has retailed this story from King, and dates it in the year 1686, in the mayoralty of Sir John Knox. But it is manifest, from Lord Clarendon's authentic account of these matters, that the lord mayor and aldermen of Dublin, and many other corporations, had been prevailed upon before Tyrconnel's time, to admit papists to freedom and offices among themselves ; 5“ for his lordship had himself dispensed with no less than fifteen Roman catholic merchants of Limerick, according to the king's order, from taking the oath of fupremacy, when admitted to the common-council of that city : and, in a letter to Lord Sunderland, July 6th, in this very year, his excellency says, “ that he had sent letters to all the corporations for giving their freedoms to all the Roman catholics as to his majesty's other subjects, without tendering them the oath of supremacy; and for presenting to him such as should be chosen into offices, that he might dispense with their taking the said oath according to the rules; that he had then received returns from about twenty of the corporations, all full of duty and obedience; and that, in some places, where they had two bailiffs, which are there the chief magistrates, they had, without any contest, chosen one of each religion.”

And although, in the year 1686, some seeming opposition, in that respect, was made by the lord mayor and aldermen of Dublin ; or rather, as Lord Clarendon expresses it, “ not so speedy a compliance given to the king's commands as he expected;" yet it is by no means true, that they were so very resolute, or uncomplying in that particular as King and Harris have represented them. On the contrary, it appears, that they afterwards not only complied with the king's orders, but also made a proper and reasonable apology for their not having done so sooner. For his excellency having 8 sent for the lord mayor of Dublin to come to him, he, with the aldermen, expressed great readiness to obey the king in any thing he should command them;


State Lett. vol. i.

6 Ib. p. 304.

8 Ib.

7 Ib.

but said, that it being their constitution, that freemen should be elected only at certain terms, they could not prevail with the commons, without whose consent that rule could not be altered, though they tried twice, by his lordship's pofitive directions, to admit any freemen, till the usual time; and when that time came," adds his lordship, “ all the Roman catholics, who made application, were admitted.1


* The following extracts from papers relating to the admitting of papists into corporations, and sent by Secretary Coventry to Lord Effex, in 1674, chief governor of Ireland, may throw some light on this affair.

“ In most of the corporations of Ireland, the freemen were generally papists in the year 1641, and so continued till about the year 1652, and although most of the persons who were then free, may now be presumed to be dead, yet there being a custom in most corporations, that all the fons of freemen are also free of the corporations whereof their fathers were free, there cannot but be now very many papists living, who are intitled to their freedoms in their several corporations. In the usurper's time, all the papists, that were freemen, were hindered from enjoying the benefit of their freedom.

“ Since the king's restoration, many disputes have happened concerning the papists (in Ireland) who were formerly free, being admitted again into the corporations.

“ By a letter from the king, dated the 22d of May, 1661, his majesty declared his pleasure, that the respective former inhabitants, natives and freemen, and such as had a right to be free,

any of the cities or towns in this kingdom (Ireland), should be forthwith restored to their accustomed privileges and immunities, and admitted to trade, in the said respective cities and towns, as freely as heretofore, without making any national distinction, or giving any interruptions, upon pretence of difference of judgment, or opinion, in matters of religion. Not. withstanding this letter, many of the antient freemen, that were papists, were kept out of several of the corporations.

“ His majesty afterwards, by his letters bearing date 26th February, 1671, in the time of Lord Berkley's government, did again declare his pleasure that all the antient freemen of the respective corporations should enjoy their former freedoms and privileges. Yet in some of the corporations, in which the number of protestants is great, many of the papists are still kept out, and hindered from their freedoms. If they should be hindered from their freedoms, they will complain that there is no law


men in

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The behaviour of the Irish priests, and new recruits,

under King James, impartially considered.

Had Dr. King been as candid in his relation of facts, as he ought, and as he folemnly professed to be ; at the same time that he reproached the papists of Ireland, with the forwardness of some of their clergy, and the infolence of the new recruits,' at this period, in Dublin; he would have given us, at least, fome intimation of the provocations, which both of them had received from the protestant inhabitants of that city; which indeed were so great and notorious, that Lord Clarendon takes frequent notice of them in his dispatches into


to take that benefit from them ; that it is against the king's pleasure expressly declared in his several letters, and since made public by proclamation ; that by the rules, papists, who are foreigners, may be admitted to be free in the corporations, and that it will be hard to bar papists, who are natives, from enjoy. ing that freedom which has been already granted them.” Lord Efex's Letters, p. 185-6-7, &c.

In the heads of the bill to prevent the further growth of popery in 1703, we find these words," and whereas many persons, so professing the popish religion, have if in their power to raise divisions among protestants, by voting in elections for members of parliament, &ç.” Com. Jour. vol. iii. f. 130.

a These recruits were far from being such despicable creatures as Dr. King has represented them. “ They seemed to Lord Clarendon to be very good men, well-sized, and as adroit (in their exercises) as could be expected of new men.” State Lett.

vol. ii. p. 54.

These recruits were mostly Roman catholic natives : Of whom his excellency in another letter says, “ if the king will have one half of the Irish army to be natives, and the other half English, good God, why should not the chief governor be trusted with it, and why should it not be orderly done, which would make it well-digested, and not frighten people out of their wits !" Ib. p. 392. He alludes here to Tyrconnel's rafhly, interfering in these matters, even during his excellency's government of Ireland.

England. In one of these he complains,' “ that the new recruits were often affronted by the boys in Dublin, and that the soldiers, that were put out, did rap them foundly at fifty-cuffs.” From another of these dispatches it appears, that these insults and disorders of the inhabitants of Dublin towards these recruits had risen so high, that his lordship was obliged, “ to send to the ? lord mayor, to let him know, that he expected he would keep the town in order, and not suffer any rudeness to be committed.” And as for the forwardness of the popish priests at that juncture, such provocation was really given them from the pulpit, and otherwise, not only by the inferior protestant clergy, but even by the bishops, “ that his excellency thought himself bound to send for the bishop of Meath to rebuke him, on that account; and to let him know his mind on that head, which that bishop promised to observe." And although he had resolved *to hold the same course with other bishops, and had even suspended some of the


* State Lett. vol. i.

p. 295
3 Id. ib. vol. i. p. 84.

Id. ib. p. 294.

4 Ib.

B On this occafion his excellency “ assured some of the Roman catholic bishops, that he would give effectual orders, that whatever should happen of that kind, the parties should not be countenanced, and that their superiors should have notice of them. For that he was toc well acquainted with the mischief that sort of loose clergy had done, who would submit to no authority; of which,” adds he, " there are too many in all religi

State Lett. vol. i. p. 136-7. In this letter to Lord Sunderland, his excellency acquaints him, “ that he was then giving the necessary orders, which Lord Sunderland had directed, to all archbishops, bishops, sheriffs, &c. that the Roman catholic clergy might not be molested in the exercise of their functi.

Id. ib. “ I believe you will hear a noise, (says Lord Clarendon on this occasion of two fermons which were preached here (Dublin) before me on all-faints day, and the 5th of November. Indeed they were indiscreet and impertinent fermons, and I do as little love to have preachers meddle with controversy or politics, as any body can do; I know neither of the men, but if I had, it had been all one, I would have done what I have done ; the very next day I caused them both to be suspended and filenced." Ib. vol. ii.




turbulent preachers,” yet he says, “ he could not anfwer, but some impertinent things would be said even before himself; and that he durft not undertake to keep the inferior clergy of Dublin within the bounds of duty and good manners.'

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The conduct of the Irish and English army compared. If the new Irish recruits were insolent and flagitious, their officers, according to Dr. King's account of them, were infinitely more so. These officers were, in truth, the fons of some of the best, but despoiled, families of the kingdom. But if we believe the doctor," “ they were the scum' and rascality of the nation, who ruined all the protestant inns; and might have killed whom they pleased, without fear of the law.”

In short, there was no irregularity, vice, or villainy, which he has not represented them to be capable of, and disposed to commit.



s Ib.

· State of the Protestants, p. 47.

à Lord Chief Justice Keating (“ whom,” as Lord Claren. don testifies, “ all parties owned to be a good man.” State Let. vol. i. p. 140.) in a letter dated 1688, says, “ that the Roman catholic nobility and gentry of Ireland were universally concerned both in the Irish army then raised, and in that which was afterwards to be raised.” Append. to King's State of the Protestants, &c.

Lord Clarendon himself, when in the government, had recommended several of these Roman catholic officers to be provided for, as Lord Brittas, Captain Butler, Major M'Carthy, Colonel Lacy, and others. State Let. passim, and vol. i. p. 4. The first and last of the above-named officers, he says, were almost ruined by Oates's villainy. Ib.

b This fcurrility seems less indecently applicable to king William's officers in Ireland; for Marshal Schomberg, in a letter to his majesty from Lisburn, January 1689, tells him, “ that most of the Irish officers under him, particularly those of the En


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