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(penal) laws; and besides many other freedoms and bounties conveyed to them, and their posterity, by these articles; there was a door, and that a large one, not left, but purposely set open, to give them entrance to whatever of honour or other advantage they could reasonably wish.” And yet, about the same time that his lordship made this public and solemn declaration to the assembly, he, in a private letter to Sir Charles Coote, a parliamentarian rebel, “ averred with much confidence,' (they are his own words) that the advantages, which the Romilh professors were supposed to have, in religion or authority, by that peace, were no other but pledges for his majesty's confirmation of the other concessions, and that they were to determine therewith ;” as in truth they did.

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The happy effects of this peace. Ormond's defeat at

Rathmines. Cromwell's arrival in Ireland.


was, for some time, great union and harmony between the English and Irish forces, now joined under the Marquis of Ormond's command. His excellency in a letter to the king, June 28th, 1649, acquainted him,' “ that the ground of his greatest confidence of future success was their present cordial conjunction against the rebels, their former difaffection to each other appearing, then, only in an emulation rather of advantage than hinderance, to his

s Cart. Orm. vol. ii. fol. 52.
! Id. Carte's Orig. Papers, vol. ii. p. 387.

6 Yet the king himself, in a letter to the Marquis of Ormond, March 9th, 1648, told him on this occasion, “ that he had lately received from Lord Byron the articles of the peace, which he had made in Ireland, together with a copy of his létter to him ; that he was extremely satisfied with both, and would confirm, wholly and entirely, all that was contained in the articles.” Cart, Collec. of Orig. Papers, vol. ii. P: 363.

majesty's service.”

To this union it was certainly owing, that their first operations were extremely successful; for in the space of a few months, they became masters of Sligo, Drogheda, Dundalk, Waterford, Trim, Newry, and in short of all the strong holds and towns in the kingdom, except Londonderry and Dublin. Towards this latter city, therefore, his excellency marched the combined armies; hoping to repair the mischiefs he had done by his late surrender of it to the English rebels, and to reduce it once more under his majesty's obedience. His excellency's exceffive confidence in these united forces, though now in want of almost every necessary for his enterprise on Dublin, is one of the supposed causes of his fatal disappointment in that attempt. That this confidence was indeed excessive, appears by his letter of July 18th, to the king, from his camp at Finglas; for there he tells him, ? " that which only threatens any rub to our success, is our wants, which have been, and are such, that soldiers have actually starved by their arms, and many of less constancy, have run home : many of the foot are weak; yet I despair not to be able to keep them together, and strong enough to reduce Dublin, if good supplies of all sorts come not speedily to relieve it. I am confident, I can persuade one half of this army to starve outright; and I shall venture far upon it, rather than give off a game, so fair on our fide, and so hard to be recovered if given over.”

But while his excellency was thus securely making preparations for that enterprise at Rathmines, a place


· Carte's Orig. Pap. vol. ii. p. 389.


And yet Borlase confidently asserts, from Clarendon, « that from the first hour of the peace (of 1648) these English and Irish had not been without that prejudice towards each other, as gave the marquis much trouble ; and that they were rather incorporated by their obedience and submission to the authority and pleasure of their chief commanders, than united by the same inclinations and affections to any public end.” Hist. of the Irish Rebel. f. 287.

three miles from Dublin, his whole army was surprised and routed, by Michael Jones, governor of that city for the parliament, on the 2d of August, 1649.

Jones,' according to the Marquis of Ormond's account, flew six hundred in that engagement; some upon the spot, and in the pursuit; but the greatest part after they had lain down their arms, upon promise of quarter, and had been, for almost an hour, prisoners;' and divers of them were murdered, after they were brought within the works of Dublin." This sudden and unaccountable defeat at Rathmines, re. newed, in the Irish, all their former suspicions, that his excellency had still some private understanding with the English rebels ; and these suspicions were increased, by the constant ill success of all his subsequent undertakings against their partizans in Ireland. To these misfortunes was soon after added a general panic, occafioned by the unparalleled cruelties of Oliver Cromwell, who landed at Dublin, on the 15th of that month, with eight thousand foot, and four thousand horse, two hundred thousand pounds in money, and a vast quantity of ammunition, and all kind of necessaries for war. “ With these forces, he on

the 3 Cart. Orig. Pap. vol. ii. p. 397.

4 Carte's Orm. vol. ii. f. 83. 6 “ Fifteen hundred private soldiers, and three hundred officers, were made prisoners; about fix hundred lain; many of these, to the disgrace of the conquerors, when they had accepted quarter, and laid down their arms.” Lel. Hist. of Irel. vol. iii. p. 346.

< “Soon after this defeat,” says Borlafe, “ Jones was writ to by his excellency, to have a list of the prisoners he had taken from him : to whom it was replied, “My lord, since I routed your army, I cannot have the happiness to know where you are, that I may wait upon you. Michael Jones.” Irish Rebel. fol. 280.

Borlase informs us, “ that this defeat at Rathmines altered the result of councils at court, till then very strong for his majesty's repair into Ireland, the Scots having given ill proof of their integrity and faith. And certainly,” adds he, “the Irish were, at that time, so disposed, as properly they would have submitted to his majesty, whatever afterwards might have been the result of their compliance.” Hist. Ir. Reb. f. 280.

the 3d of September, besieged and took Drogheda by storm. And although all his officers and soldiers," had promised quarter to such of the garrison, as would lay down their arms; and performed it, as long as any place held out, which encouraged others to yield ; yet when they once had got all in their power, Cromwell, being told by Jones that he had now the flower of the Irish army in his hands, gave orders that no quarter should be given; so that many of his foldiers were forced to kill their prisoners." f

The Marquis of Ormond, in a letter to Lord Byron on this occasion, says,

" that Cromwell exceeded even himself, for any thing he had ever heard of, in breach of faith and bloody inhumanity, and that the cruelties exercised there, for five days after the town was taken, would make as many several pictures of inhumanity, as are to be found in the book of martyrs, or the relation of Amboyna.” In this carnage, out of three thousand, he left only about thirty persons alive ; and these he sent to Barbadoes.

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C H A P.

5 Carte's Orm. vol. ii. fol. 44. Lel. Hist. vol. iii. p. 350.

Cart. Collect. of Orig. Pap. vol. ii.


e « Cromwell marched from Dublin to Drogheda, on the 30th of August, 1649, with an army of nine or ten thousand men.” Borl. Irish Reb. f. 282.

“ Cromwell, they say, made his foldiers believe, that the Irish ou

to be dealt with as the Canaanites in Joshua's time." Dr. Anderson's Royal Genealogies, p. 786.

“ The brave governor, Sir Arthur Afton, Sir Edmund Verney, the Colonels Warren, Fleming and Byrne, were killed in cold blood; and indeed all the officers, except fome few of the least consideration, that escaped by miracle." Carte's Orm. vol. ii. fol. 84.

And yet, in the Journals of the Irish Commons, an. 1697, we find recorded, “ the very great and signal services done by this Lieutenant General Jones, in reducing Ireland to the obedience of England :" i. e. to the rebel parliament of England. Com. Journ. vol. ii. f. 864.

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Cromwell's policy to reduce Ireland. Cromwell having soon after repeated the fame cruelties in the town of Wexford, which was betrayed to him by one Stafford, increased the general terror to such a degree,” that towns fifty miles distant from him,' declared against the Marquis of Ormond;


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1 Cart. Collect. of Orig. Papers, vol. ii.

Stafford was governor of the castle of Wexford; “which Cromwell having thus gained, advanced his flag upon it, and turned the guns against the town. Fear feized the townsmen, and the soldiers in confusion quitted their posts. Cromwell's soldiers perceiving this, presently clapped scaling ladders to the walls, and entered without resistance; into the town; wherein all found in arms were put to the sword, to the number of two thousand." Borl. Irish Reb. f. 284.

“ Though Colonel David Synod, governor of the town, had confidence by the propositions he sent:

ist, That the inhabitants of the town should exercise, without disturbance, the Roman catholic religion.

2d, That their religious orders and priests should enjoy their monasteries and churches.

3d, That Nicholas (French) Bishop of Ferns, and his fucceffors, should have the undisturbed jurisdiction of their dioceflcs.

4th, That their officers and soldiers should march out with flying colours, and the other punctilios of honour,

5th, That whoever of the inhabitants should hereafter desire to depart the town, should have whatever was theirs with them,

6th, That all freemen should have their liberties and immunities hitherto enjoyed, they adhering to the state of England.

7th, None to be disturbed in their poffefsions, &c.

« All which (says Borlafe) Cromwell accounting impudent, had no effect.” Hift. Irish Rebel. fol. 284--5. Though he had just before (fol. 284.) faid, that " Synod's commissioners, treating with Cromwell, had procured the safety of the inhabitants of the town, and preservation of it from plunder, as well as leave for the soldiers to depart every one to their own


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