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Art. VII. 1. A Revision and Explanation of Geographical and Hy
drographical Terms. With Descriptions of Winds, Storms, Clouds, Changes which take place in the Atmosphere, &c. By John
Evans, Lieut. R. N. 12mo. pp. 179. Price 6s. Bristol, 1824. 2. A. Sketch of Ancient Geography. By a Lady. 12mo. Pp. 166.
London, 1826. 3. A Concise View of Ancient Geography. By W. H. Bond. Maps.
12mo. pp. 68. Price 4s. 6d. London. 1826. WE have put these small volumes together, for the purpose
of saying briefly of the second and third, that they will be found serviceable in the business of education. The second is the more comprehensive : the third is designed as an introduction to Dr. Butler's well known work on the same subject.
Mr. Evans's is a more original production: it must have cost him much pains, and requires that we dismiss it with somewhat more of ceremony, than the preceding useful but mechanical compilations. The frequent occurrence and uncertain application of hydrographical terms, is at times a matter of annoyance to those who, like ourselves, have only a landsman's knowledge of nautical affairs; and we strongly recommend this
excellent manual as a sufficient and interesting guide. We shall support our opinion by an extract or two.
• ROCKS. • Roc. Roche. French. Rocca. Italian Johnson. • Are insulated masses of stone rising above the surface of the
• They are very dangerous to vessels when but a few feet above the sea, and more so when even with its surface at a distance from land.
· Sunken Rocks are those which lie beneath the surface of the sea, and are still more to be dreaded by seamen than either of the others, as there is, frequently, nothing to indicate their presence.
• The charts in general use are studded with doubtful rocks, shoals and islands, said to have been discovered by various mariners, which have the term Vigie* applied to many of them.
· These undetermined dangers, whether they have existence or not, keep the minds of navigators ever on the alert, and, on this account, perhaps, their supposed sites on the chart may be useful. But although we might suppose that the vessels of Maritime Europe have navigated sufficiently every part of the Atlantic, so as to have left no portion of it unknown, yet we find the same caution now
* A French word, signifying the watch (at sea) corresponding with our “ look out."
thought requisite, which was practised by the early Dutch and Spanish navigators; to whose reports, perhaps, we may correctly attribute most of these doubtful dangers.
• That many of these spots have existence, seems very probable ; and, perhaps, it would be imprudent to be incredulous upon so nice a point, as it is better to undergo a little trouble in using due precaution on approaching their supposed situations, than to run the hazard of encountering peril from a careless disregard of them.
• To shew the propriety of such conduct, we may adduce the circumstance respecting the authentication of the existence of the Esquirques in the Mediterranean, which, for a long time were considered doubtful, yet, at last proved fatal to his Majesty's ship, Athenienne, 64, her excellent captain, and the greater part of the officers and crew, in the year 1806.
• We have been informed that Captain Rainsford had doubted the existence of these rocks, from the circumstance of having cruised near the supposed position, some time previous, when commanding a brig of war, without having seen any thing that indicated such to be there. When his ship struck on them, he was examining the chart, and pointing out to his master and an officer of the army, their supo posed position, observing that, if they had existence, the ship must then be close to them.
• The Esquirques were determined by the survey of Captain Durban, R.N. to be in latitude 37° 47' N. and longitude 10° 46' 30" E. They are now found to consist of two reefs of very large rocks, bearing strong marks of being volcanic productions; and lying two miles north and south of each other.
• As the subject is one of great interest, we shall further enlarge upon it by the addition of some instances of the fortuitous discovery of other marine dangers of the same description.
• In the Crooked-Island passage, which had been the common route of our homeward-bound Jamaica fleets for many years, an iso. lated rock was discovered in 1807, by the Chesterfield Packet having accidentally struck upon it, when under the convoy of the Bellona Government Schooner, commanded by the late Mr. Edgecombe. • His Majesty's ship, Medusa, Captain Sir John Gore, struck
upon a rock situated in the sea near Gibraltar, but which had been long considered doubtful: a similar circumstance to that related of Captain Rainsford, is told, on this occasion, of Sir John Gore. He was standing on the gang-way when his ship struck, and had just before observed to Mr.
Smith, the master, that, if the Rock existed in the spot indicated by the chart, they could not be far from it.'
pp. 59–61. From the second division, we shall extract a part of the article · Hurricane.' After having given some curious calculations, made on this subject by Sir Home Popham, Mr. Evans relates from MS. authorities, the following details.
• The Hurricane experienced by H. M. S. Centaur, Captain H. Whitby, was in latitude 26° 17' N. and in longitude 57° 42' W. the
island of Barbadoes bearing S. 8° W. distant 262 leagues : wind from E. N. E. to S. S. W. 29th July, 1805.
• « On the 27th and 28th, the wind was variable : on the first of those days squally, on the latter moderate and cloudy. At six P.M. on the 29th, the breeze freshened, and gradually increased to a Hur. ricane, which lasted until day-light of the soth; during which time the ship was in a most perilous situation, having lost her main and mizen masts, fore-top-mast, &c., and making eight feet water an hour. It is impossible for language to describe the force with which the wind blew, the high and breaking seas that washed over the ship, or the gloomy and awful state of the weather on this occasion : the most ingenious effort of the pencil, and the most forcible language of description, must alike fall very far short of conveying to the mind an adequate idea of this storm. The ship was saved, under Providence, by the physical strength of the fine company of marines that were on board, by the superior skill of the captain, and the exertions of the other officers and men. The wind ultimately settled in the S. W. quarter, and the ship was towed in her shattered condition to Halifax, Nova Scotia, by H. M. S. Eagle, Captain Colby."
• The Hurricane in which the Dædalus, Lark, and Moselle suf. fered, was in the vicinity of the Mona Passage, between Porto Rico and St. Domingo.
"" On the 3d August 1809, Cape Roxo bearing E. by N. three leagues, it was first felt by the Dædalus. The wind on the 2d was variable and fresh from N. E. ^ N. to E. N. E and east, and the atmosphere hazy. At half.past eight P.M. on the 2d, the gale com. menced with very dark and gloomy weather, and bright Aashes of lightning in the S. E. quarter, without thunder: at nine, it had increased to a heavy gale, with a very high sea : after midnight, the squalls of wind were tremendous, accompanied with rain and lightning, still without thunder. The bow-sprit, fore-mast, main, and mizen top.masts having gone over the side, several fruitless attempts were made to wear the ship, when at last, most fortunately falling broad off, she was, by skilful management, kept before the wind and sea, a short time only before the former shifted to the S. E. by S. quarter, and thus she was saved from a lea-shore full of banks and shallows. At noon of the 3d, the latitude was 170 31' N. and longitude 68° 33' W. Altavella, on the south side of St. Domingo, bearing west, 170 miles. The ship must inevitably have been lost, if the wind had shifted on the evening of the 2d to the S. or S. W. as was expected and dreaded, having sounded in six fathoms water off Cape Roxo the afternoon of that day. The Lark, less fortunate than the Dedalus, foundered with her excellent captain (R. Nicholas ), officers and crew, except two, who were saved in an extraordinary manner by being picked up at night by the Moselle.” M.S. Journal.
• It may be observed, as the opinion of experienced seamen in these seas, that lightning unaccompanied with thunder is a sure indication that a gale of wind will increase to a Hurricane; on the contrary, if thunder follows the lightning, the gale may be expected to break
• The most southern Hurricane experienced in the Caribbean Sea, was in the vicinity of Santa Martha, but it was considerably less violent than those which happen further to the north, among the islands.' pp. 116-118.
The graphical illustrations are numerous, distinct, and as well executed, perhaps, as the nature of the work requires.
Art. VIII. 1. A few Thoughts on the Abolition of Colonial Slavery.
By Thomas Chalmers, D.D. Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of St. Andrews. 8vo. pp. 16. Price 6d. Glasgow,
1826. 2. On Cruelty to Animals : a Sermon, preached in Edinburgh on the
5th of March, 1826. By Thomas Chalmers, D.D. &c. 8vo. pp. 40. Price Is. 60. Glasgow, 1826. 11, T is much to be regretted,' Dr. Chalmers says, “ that the
• abolitionists and the planters have hitherto stood at such an impracticable distance from each other; and more espe• cially, that a whole class of men, comprising in it many hu• mane and accomplished individuals, should have had such an • indiscriminate stigma affixed to them by the most intemperate " advocates of the cause.'
That, among the West India proprietors, resident and nonresident, there are many humane and accomplished individuals, many who regret the existence of slavery, and are anxious, by all the means in their power, to meliorate its evils,-it would be most unjust to deny. But whose fault is it, that they and the abolitionists have seemed to be at variance? It is
impossible that such humane and accomplished persons could be ignorant, that the abolitionists comprise prelates and noblemen, statesmen and patriots, whose motives in the part they have taken are unimpeachable, and against whom the charge of enthusiasm cannot lie. They cannot have shut their eyes to the fact, that the preponderance of talent and of moral worth, as well as the strong current of national feeling, has been on the side of the abolitionists. They could not mistake for a clamour, the reiterated and solemn decision of the British legislature. It must have been very annoying and painful, then, to these humane and accomplished persons, to find the West India party with which they were identified, taxing their opponents with fanaticism, cant, malignity, falsehood, hypocrisy. Respecting, as they could not fail to do, the motives of the philanthropists, and honouring their zeal, even if they differed from them in judgement, they must have been greatly concerned to find their colleagues and agents assailing the characters of such men as Mr. Wilberforce, Sir Samuel Romilly, Mr. Buxton, and Mr. Brougham with vulgar and malignant abuse as enthusiasts and drivellers.
Yet, these humane and accomplished individuals have, year after year, been compelled to listen to the abuse poured on the abolitionists by their own friends; and by their silence, they have seemed to accord in sentiment, though not in spirit and temper, with the more loud-mouthed abettors of the West India system. To a certain extent, they have probably been deceived and carried away by the bold representations of the slavery party. If not deceived, they have been neutralized. What has been worse, their humanity has been made a shield and cover for the inhumanity of others; their respectability of character has been pleaded in defence or extenuation of a system of cruelty and wickedness which they were not willing parties in upholding; and thus, an indiscriminate stigma' has been affixed to these estimable individuals, because they have seemed to stand at an impracticable' and haughty distance from the men who had enlisted in this most holy cause.
We agree with Dr. Chalmers ; this is greatly to be regretted, -although we do not perceive that it supplies any proof of intemperance in the advocates of the cause. If men of humanity tacitly uphold that which is inhuman, if accomplished men are unfortunately associated in a bad cause with men of a character opposite to their own,—they must submit to have their public conduct so far stigmatised. When we speak of the abettors of Popery, we must of necessity speak of a class comprising many accomplished and pious individuals ;-but, wherever the stigma may fall, the system deserves no quarter. And when we speak of slavery, it must be in the same way.
Dr. Chalmers has gone to the opposite extreme,--the most amiable one, we admit; only that, in attempting to wipe away the stigma from the whole class, because it comprises many humane and accomplished individuals, he inadvertently casts an imputation on another larger class, whose humanity is at least somewhat more apparent than that of their opponents.
On the part of the Abolitionists, there is a frequent appeal to the abstract and original principles of the question. But on the part of the proprietors, it may be asked, Who ought to be at the expense of reforming the mischief that has arisen from the violation of these principles ?-whether the traders who have hitherto acted under the sanction and the shelter of existing laws, or the government that framed these laws !--whether the party that have been lured into a commerce which they found to be tolerated and protected by the state, or the party that, by this very toleration, may be said to have given their promise and their authority in its favour?-whether the