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(ACT of April 17th, 1800.) Provided, such violations shall be committed after the passing of this act.

ACT of April 17, 1800. 3 Bioren, 342. An act to extend the privilege of obtaining patents for useful discoveries and io.

ventions, to certain persons therein mentioned, and to enlarge and define the penalties for violating the rights of patentees.

11. Sec. 1. All and singular the rights and privileges given, intended, or provided, to citizens of the United States, respecting patents for new inventions, discoveries, and improvements, by the act, entitled “ An act to promote the progress of useful arts, and to repeal the act heretofore made for that purpose," shall be, and hereby are, extended and given to all aliens who, at the time of petitioning in the manner prescribed by the said act, shall have resided for two years within the United States, which privileges shall be obtained, used, and enjoyed, by such persons, in as full and ample manner, and under the same conditions, limitations, and restrictions, as by the said act is provided and directed in the case of citizens of the United States. Provided, always, That every person petitioning for a patent for any invention, art, or discovery, pursuant to this act, shall make oath or affirmation, before some person duly authorised to administer oaths, before such patent shall be granted, that such invention, art, or discovery, hath not, to the best of his or her knowledge or belief, been known or used either in this or any foreign country; and that every patent which shall be obtained pursuant to this act, for any invention, art, or discovery, which it shall afterwards appear had been known or used previous to such application for a patent, shall be utterly void.

12. Sec. II. Where any person hath made, or shall have made, any new invention, discovery, or improvement, on account of which a patent might, by virtue of this or the above mentioned act, be granted to such person as shall die before any patent shall be granted therefor, the right of applying for and obtaining such patent, shall devolve on the legal representatives of such person, in trust for the heirs at law of the deceased, in case he shall have died intestate; but if otherwise, then in trust for his devisees, in as full and ample manner, and under the same conditions, limitations, and restrictions, as the same was held, or might have been claimed or enjoyed, by such person, in his or her life time; and when application for a patent shall be made by such legal representatives, the oath or affirmation, provided in the third section of the before mentioned act, shall be so varied as to be applicable to them.

13. Sec. 111. Where any patent shall be, or shall have been, granted pursuant to this or the above mentioned act, and any person, without the consent of the patentee, his or her executors, ad.

(ACT of February 7th, 1815.) ministrators, or assigns, first obtained, in writing, shall make, devise, use, or sell, the thing whereof the exclusive right is secured to the said patentee by such patent, such person, so offending, shall forfeit and pay to the said patentee, his executors, administrators, or assigns, a sum equal to three times the actual damage sustained by such patentee, his executors, administrators, or assigns, from or by reason of such offence, which sum shall and may be recovered, by action on the case, founded on this and the above mentioned act, in the circuit court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof. 14. Sec. iv. [Repeals Sec. v. of the act of February 21, 1793.]

ACT of January 21, 1808. 4 Bioren, 135. 15. Sec. i. It shall and may be lawful for the secretary of state, on application, in writing, by Oliver Evans, to cause letters patent to be made out in the manner and form prescribed by the act, entitled “ An act to promote the progress of useful arts, and to repeal the act heretofore made for that purpose,” thereby granting to said Oliver Evans, his heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns, for a term not exceeding fourteen years, the full and exclusive right and liberty of making, constructing, using, and vending, to be used his invention, discovery, and improvements, in the art of manufacturing flour and meal, and in the several machines which he has discovered, invented, improved, and applied to that purpose: Provided, That no person who may have heretofore paid the said Oliver Evans for license, to use his said improvements, shall be obliged to renew said license, or be subject to damages for not renewing the same; And provided also, That no person who shall have used the said improvements, or have erected the same for use, before the issuing of the said patent, shall be liable to damages therefor.

ACT of February 7, 1815. 4 Bioren, 792. Sec. I. All the rights and privileges of Oliver Evans, under a patent issued from the department of state, on the fourteenth day of February, one thousand eight hundred and four, for his improvements on steam engines, hereby are, extended to the said Oliver Evans, his heirs, administrators, or assigns, for and during the term of seven years, to commence from, and immediately after, the expiration of the term of fourteen years, granted by said patent as aforesaid, subject to all the provisions of the act, entitled, “ An act to promote the progress of the useful arts, and to repeal the act heretofore made for that purpose,” excepting so far as regards the extension of the term of his said patent herein authorised: Provided, That it shall not be lawful for the said Oliver Evans, his heirs, administrators, or assigns, to charge or receive from any person or persons, a greater sum for the privilege of constructing or using his said improvements on steam engines, during the term for which said patent is hereby extended, than he

(ACT of March 23d, 1796.) has hitherto charged and received for a like privilege, under his said patent as now in force.

ACT of February 15, 1819. Pamphlet edit. 13. An act to extend the jurisdiction of the circuit courts, &c. to cases arising under

the law relating to patents. [See title JUDICIARY, 127, ante page, 424.]

NOTES Under the sixth section of the patent law of 1793, the defendant pleaded the general issue, and gave notice that he would prove at the trial, that the machine for the use of which without license the suit was brought, had been used previous to the alleged invention of the plaintiff, in several places, which were specified in the notice, or in some of them, “ and also at sundry other places in Pennsylvadia, Maryland, and elsewhere in the Voited States." The defendant having given evidence as to some of the places specified, offered evidence as to others not specified. Held that this evidence was admissable. But the powers of the court in such a case are sufficient to prevent, and will be exercised to prevent, the patentee from being injured by surprise. Testimony on the part of the plaintiff, that the persons of whose prior use of the machine, the defendant had given evidence, had paid the plaintiff for license to use the machine, since his patent ought not to be absolutely rejected, although entitled to very little weight. 3 Wheaton, 454.

Oliver Evans may claim under his patent the exclusive use of his inventions, and improvements, in the art of manufacturing flour and meal, and in the several machines which he has invented, and in bis improvements on machines previously discovered. But when his claim is for an improvement on a machine, he must show the extent of his improvement, so that a person understanding the subject, may comprehend distinctly in what it consists." id. ib.

PENSIONS. Militia, 1, 2, 14, 20, 23 | Limitation,

12, 17, 31, 35 Commutation, 2 State pensioners,

13 South Carolina pensioners, 4 Wabash campaign,

16 Revolutiopary pensiouers, 5, 26, 33 | Agents for the payment, 19, 24, 30, 37 Rules, &c. 6, 7, 27, 34, 36 | Privateer pension fund,

19 Increase of pension, 8, 22 Late war pensioners,

20, 25 Amount, 9 Surgeon's affidavit,

29 Transfer not valid,

10, 28 To cease in certain cases, Repeal of former laws,

11 ACT of May 8, 1792. 2 Bioren, 296. 1. Sec. IX. (See title MILITIA 9, ante page, 599.]

ACT of February 21, 1795. 2 Bioren, 470. 2. Sec. 11. No commissioned officer, who has received commutation of half pay, shall be paid a pension as an invalid, until he shall return his commutation into the treasury of the United States, except where special provision has been made in particular cases, for allowing pensions on the return only of certain portions of the commutation,

ACT of March 23, 1796. 2 Bioren, 514. 3. Sec. t. Every commissioned, noncommissioned officer, private, or musician, who has been wounded or disabled, while in the

(ACT of April 10th, 1806.) line of his duty, in actual service, called out by authority of any law of the United States, while he belonged to the militia, or any volunteer not belonging to the militia, who has been wounded or disabled, while in the line of his duty, in actual service, as aforesaid, shall be placed on the list of invalids of the United States, at such rate of pay, and under such regulations, as shall be directed by the president of the United States for the time being: Provided, The rate of compensation for such wounds and disabilities shall never exceed, for the highest disabilities, half the monthly pay received by any commissioned officer, at the time of being so wounded or disabled, and that the rate of compensation to noncommissioned officers, privates, and musicians, shall never exceed five dollars per month; and that all inferior disabilities shall entitle the person so disabled to receive only a sum in proportion to the highest disability: And provided, That these provisions shall not be construed to extend to any person wounded or disabled before the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eightynine, nor to any person wounded or disabled since that time,

who has made application for a pension, under any existing law of the United States, and has been denied, or admitted, on the pension list: And provided, That all applications herein shall be made within one year after the end of the present session of congress.

ACT of March 3, 1804. 3 Bioren, 575. 4. Sec, 1. The persons to whom military pensions have been heretofore granted and paid by the state of South Carolina, in pursuance of the resolves of the United States, in congress as• sembled, for the payment of pensions to the invalids, who were wounded and disabled during the late war with Great Britain, and who have not been placed on the books in the office of the secretary, for the department of war, are directed to be placed on said books, and their said pensions shall be hereafter paid by the United States, in the same manner as to other pensioners of the United States, out of the funds already appropriated for that purpose.

ACT of April 10, 1806, 4 Bioren, 31. An act to provide for persons who were disabled by known wounds received in

the revolutionary war. 5. Sec. 1. Any commissioned, or noncommissioned officer, musician, soldier, marine, or seaman, disabled in the actual service of the United States, while in the line of his duty, by known wounds received during the revolutionary war, and who did not desert the service; or who, in consequence of disability as aforesaid, resigned his commission or took a discharge; or who, after incurring disability as aforesaid, was taken captive by the enemy, and remained either in captivity or on parole, until the close of said revolutionary war; or who, in consequence of known wounds received as aforesaid, has, at any period since, become and continued disabled in such manner as to render him unable to pro

(ACT of April 10th, 1806.) cure a subsistence by manual labour; whether such officer, musician, soldier, marine, or seaman, served as a volunteer, in any proper service against the common enemy, or belonging to a detachment of the militia, which served against the common enemy, or to the regular forces of the United States, or of any particular state, he shall, upon substantiating his claim, in the manner here. inafter described, be placed on the pension list of the United States, during life, or the continuance of such disability, and be entitled, under the regulations hereinafter mentioned, to receive şuch sum as shall be found just and proper, by the testimony adduced.

6. Sec. it. In substantiating such claim, the following rules and regulations shall be complied with, that is to say: All evidence shall be taken on oath or affirmation, before the judge of the district, or one of the judges of the territory in which such claimant resides, or before some person specially authorized by commission from said judge.

Decisive disability, the effect of a known wound or wounds, received while in the actual service and line of duty against the common enemy, during the revolutionary war, must be proved by the affidavit of the commanding officer of the regiment, corps, company, ship, vessel, or craft, in which such claimant served; or of two other credible witnesses to the same effect, setting forth the time when, and place where, such known wound or wounds were received, and particularly describing the same.

The nature of such disability, and in what degree it prevents the claimant from obtaining his subsistence, must be proved by the affidavit of some reputable physician or surgeon, stating his opinion, either from his own knowledge and acquaintance with the claimant, or from an examination of such claimant on oath or affirmation: which, when necessary for that purpose, shall be administered to said claimant by said judge or commissioner. And the said physician or surgeon, in his affidavit, shall particu. larly describe the wound or wounds from whence the disability appears to be derived.

Every claimant must prove, by at least one credible witness, that he continued in service during the whole time for which he was detached, or for which he engaged, unless he was discharged, or left the service in consequence of some derangement of the army, or, in consequence of his disability, resigned his commission, or was, after his disability, in captivity or on parole, until the close of the revolutionary war. And in the same manner must prove his mode of life and employment since he left the seryice, and the place or places where he has since resided, and his place of residence at the time of taking such testimony.

Every claimant shall, by his affidavit, give satisfactory reasons why he did not make application for a pension before, and that he is not on the pension list of any state; and the judge or commis. sioner shall certify, in writing, his opinion of the credibility of the

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