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PRE FACE.
I AUMBLY inscribe the following Memoir to faith, and of the sanctity of treaties, the ordinary
Her most gracious Majesty the Queen ; not in the wholesale slaughters, the planned murders, the
shape of a dedication, or with the presumptuous concerted massacres, which have been inflicted
hope of my being able to produce any work of upon the Irish people by the English Govern.
sufficient interest to occupy the Royal mind. Yet, ments.
there is nothing more desirable than that the It has pleased the English people in general to
Sovereign of these realms should understand the forget all the facts in Irish history. They have
real nature of Irish' history; should be aware of been also graciously pleased to forgive themselves
how much the Irish have suffered from English | all those crimes! And the Irish people would
misrule ; should comprehend the secret springs of forgive them likewise, if it were not that much of
Irish discontent; should be acqainted with the the worst spirit of the worst days still survives.
eminent virtues which the Irish nation have exhi. The system of clearance of tenants at the present
bited in every phasis of their singular fate ; and, day, belongs to, and is a demonstration of, that
above all, should be intimately acquainted with hatred of the Irish people which animated the ad.
the confiscations, the plunder, the robbery, the vice of Spenser and the conduct of Cromwell.
domestic treachery, the violation of all public It is quite true that at the present day Judgen

are not bribed with “ four shillings in the pound,” || -prime favorites at the Castle, countenanced to be paid out of the property in dispute ; but, | and sustained as the nucleus of that anti- Irish fac. may not prejudice and bigotry produce unjust tion which would once again transplant the Cath. jodgments, as well as pecuniary corruption ? olics of Ireland to the remotest regions, if that And, are those persons free from reproach, or faction had the power to do so; and which actu. from guilt, who are ready to select for the Bench | ally drives thosc Catholics to transport themselves of justice, men whose sole distinguishing charac- | in multitudes to every country out of Ireland. teristic has been the exhibition of their animosity The worst result of British prosperity is, the to the religion and to the people of Ireland ? protection it gives to the hard-hearted and bigoted

Did Stanley show none of the temper of Ireton class among the Irish Landlords. in his Coercion Bill? Is none of the spirit of It is also of the utmost importance that the Coote or of Parsons to be found (in a mitigated Sovereign and Statesmen of England should be form) in those who refuse to the Catholic people apprised that the people of Ireland know and feel of Ireland their just share of elective or municipal | that they have a deep and vital interest in the franchises ; and who insist that the Irish shall re- weakness and adversity of England. It was not main an inferior and a degraded caste, deprived of for themselves alone that the Americans gained that perfect equality of civil and religious liberty' the victory over Burgoyne at Saratoga. They of franchises and privileges—which equality could conquered for Irish as well as for American free. alone constitute a Union, or render a Union tolera. || dom. Nor was it for France alone that Dumou: ble ?

rier defeated the Austrian army at Gemappe.-I wish to arouse the attention of the Sovereign The Catholics of Ireland participated in the fruits and of the honest portion of the English people to

of that victory. the wrongs which Ireland has suffered, and which At the present day it would be vain to attempt Ireland is suffering from British misrule. The to conceal the satisfaction the people of Ireland Irish people are determined•lo preserve their abe- feel at the fiscal embarrassments of England.giance to the Throne-ixifraken änd jätäct tur |They bitterly and cordially regret the sufferings they are equally determined to obtain justiçe:for and privations of the English and Scotch artisans themselves ; to insist on the cestoration of iheir and operatives. But they do not regret the weak. native Parliament, and to persevere in that do ness of the English Government, which results mand without violating the liji; -but alsoʻruithout from fading commerce and failing manufacture, remitting or relaxing their exertions, until the ob. For the woes of each suffering individual they ject is achieved and success attained.

have warm compassion and lively sympathy:What the Sovereign and the Ssatesmen of Eng. From the consequent weakness of the Govern. land should understand is, that the Irish peoplement party, they derive no other feelings than feel and know, that there cannot happen a more those of satisfaction and of hope. heavy misfortune to Ireland than the prosperity

Was ever folly-was ever fatuity so great, as is and power of Great Britain. When Britain is evinced in the system of governing such a coun. powerful, the anti-Irish faction in this country try as Ireland in such a manner as to create and are encouraged, fostered, promoted ; Irish rights continue the sentiments and opinions which I are derided; the grievances of Ireland are scoffed | have expressed, and feebly endeavored to de. at; we are compelled to receive stinted franchises scribe ? or none; limited privileges, or none !--to submit

HER MAJESTY's most faithful, to a political inferiority, rendered doubly afflictive

most dutiful, and by the contrast with the advantages enjoyed by

most devoted Subject, the people of England and the people of Scotland.

DANIEL O'CONNELL. The Tory Landlord classe-exterminators and all 18T FEBRUARY, 1848.

N. B. - The proofs and illustrations in this Volume come down to the Restoration. The Second Volams will bring that

down to the present period.

NOTE BY THE AMERICAN PUBLISHERS. The Second Volume of this work will be published in aniform style with the present one, immediately on its receipt from

Dublin, and within six weeks after it is published in Ireland.

AN HISTORICAL MEMOIR

ON

IRELAND AND THE IRISH

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CHAPTER I.

that intervened between the commencement of YEARS 1172-1612.

the English dominion in 1172 and its completion Sec. 1. The English dominion in Ireland com.

in 1612, the Irish people were known only as the menced in the year 1172. It was for some cen.

Irish Enemies.” They were denominated Irish turies extended over only an inconsiderable por. Charters, and Acts of Parliament, during that

Enemies' in all the Royal Proclamations, Royal tion of the island. From various causes the size, sometimes diminished. It did not becometion. English district or Pale sometimes augmented in period. It was their legal and technical descrip

94. During that per:od the English were progenerally diffused over Ireland until the last of Queen Elizabeth, nor universally so, until hibited from intermarrying with the Irish, from shortly after the accession of King James the having their

e hildrěr rursed by the wives of Irish First. The success of the forces of Queen Eliz- Captains : Chefs, br. Lords; and what is still abeth was achieved by means the most horrible; from: senting goods; wares, or merchandizes for

more strange, the English were also prohibited treachery, murder, wholesale massacre, and de. liberately created famine. Take the last instance : sálo, of sėdingo theni upon credit or for ready mo. the growing crops were year

after year destroyed,

ney to the Irish. until the fairest part of Ireland, and in particu- descent might murder a mere Trish man or woman

§ 5. During that time any person of English lar the province of Munster, was literally depop with perfect impunity. Such murder was no ulated. I give here one quotation. It is from the English Protestant historian Morrison :- No more a crime in the eye of the law, than the kill. spectacle was more frequent in the ditches of the ing of a rabid or ferocious animal. towns, and especially in wasted countries, than native Irishman had made legal submission and

$ 6. There was indeed this distinction, that if • to see multitudes of these poor people, the Irish, had been received into English allegiance, he

dead, with their mouths all colored green by could no longer be murdered with impunity, for • eating nettles, docks, and all things they could his murder was punishable by a small pecuniary • rend above ground.'

Mark! Illustrious Lady—oh! mark! The fine: a punishment not for the moral crime of most frequent spectacle was, multitudes of dead murdering a man, but for the social injury of de--of Irish dead-dead of hunger! Lady, after priving the State of a servant. Just as, at no re.. having endeavored to sustain life by devouring, West Indian Colonies was liable

to pay a fine for

mote period, the white man in several of our after the fashion of the beasts of the field, the killing a negro, only because an owner was there. wild-growing herbs. They were dead in multitudes and none to bury them! This was the | by deprived of a slave. consummation of the subjugation of the Irish

CHAPTER II. after a contest of 400 years. Never was a people on the face of the globe so

YEARS 1612-1625. cruelly treated as the Irish.

* Residue of the reign of King James the First.' $ 2. The Irish people were not received into Sec. 1. I have traced the first period of An. allegiance or to the benefit of being recognized as glo-Irish History by a few of its distinctive charsubjects until the year 1612, only 228 years ago, acteristics. It comprised a period of 440 years when the Statute 11 James I. cap. 5, was enact- ll of internal war, rapine, and massacre. The se. ed. That Statute abolished all distinctions of cond period consists only of thirteen years, but race between English and Irish, with the intent possesses an interest of a different and a deeper

that,' as the Statute expresses it, they may grow character. 'into one nation, whereby there may be an utter § 2. Unhappily there had grown up during the 'oblivion and extinguishment of all former dif- first period another, and alas! a more inveterate 'ferences and discorde betwixt them.

source of differences and discorde' between the § 3. During the four hundred and forty years, people. I mean the Protestant Reformation. I

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am not now to give any opinion on the religious the perpetrator of this bribery, STRAFFORD, that grounds of that all-important measure.

I do not

he actually boasted, that he had thus made the treat of it as a theologian. I speak of it merely || Chief Baron and other Judges'attend to the af. historically, as a fact having results of a most in- ||fair as if it were their own private business.' fluential nature.

$ 2. By these unjust and wicked means the 83. The native Irish universally, and the na. ministers of Charles the First despoiled for the tives of English descent generally, rejected the use of the Crown, the Irish Catholic people of Reformation. It was embraced but by compara-upwards of one million of arable acres, besides a tively few, and thus the sources of " differences considerably greater extent of land taken from and discorde' were perpetuated. The distinction the right owners, and granted to the rapacious inof race was lost. Irish and English were amal. | dividuals by whom the spoliation was effected. gamated for the purpose of enduring spoil and § 3. The civil war ensued. Forgetting all the oppression under the name of Catholics. The crimes committed against them, the Irish Cathoparty which the English Government supportedlics adhered with desperate tenacity to the party was composed of persons lately arrived in Ire- of the King. The Irish Protestants, some sooner land, men who, of course, took the name of and others later, joined the usurping powers. • Protestants.

§ 4. During that civil war, the massacres com. $ 4. The intent of the statute of 1612 was thus mitted on the Irish by St. Leger, Monroe, Tichfrustrated, the discorde' between the Protestant bourne, Hamilton, Grenville, Ireton, and Crom. and the Catholic parties prevented the Irish from well, were as savage and as brutal, as the horrible

growing into one nation, and still prevents them | feats of Attila or Ghengis Khan. from being 'one nation. The fault however has § 5. In particular the history of the world prebeen and still is with the Government. Is it not sents nothing more shocking and detestable, than time it were totally corrected ?

the massacres perpetrated by O'Brien, Lord In$5. The reign of James the First was distin-chiquin in the Cathedral of Cashel ; by Ireton, at guished by crimes committed on the Irish people Limerick, and by Cromwell in Drogheda and under the pretext of Protestantism. The entire Wexford. of the province of Ulster was unjustly confisca $ 6. When the war had ceased, Cromwell col. ted, the natives were executed on the scaffold. of lected, as the first-fruits of peace, eighty thousand slaughtered with the sivora a miserable.rcinnani | Irish in the southern parts of Ireland, to transwere driven to the fastnesses of remoto moun: plant them to the West India Islands. As many tains, or the wilds of almost inaccessible bogar- as survived the process of collection were em Their places were filled with Seotcheveniūvors, barked in transports for these islands. Of the

aliens in blood and in reliyions: Deinstation eighty thousand, in six years, the survivors did equal to that committed by King James in Peste not amount to twenty individuals!!! Eighty was never before seen in Christendom save of Ire thousand Irish at one blow deliberately sacrificed, land. In the Christian world there ifever was •å | by a slow but steady cruelty, to the Moloch of people so cruelly treated as the Irish.

English domination! ! ! Eighty thousand-Oh 86. The jurisdiction of Parliament being now

God of mercy! extended all over Ireland, King James created in $7. Yet all these barbarities ought to be deem. one day forty close boroughs, giving the right to ed light and trivial, compared with the crowning elect two members of Parliament in each of these cruelty of the enemies of Ireland. The Irish boroughs to thirteen Protestants, and this, in order were refused civil justice. They were still more to deprive his Catholic subjects of their natural || atrociously refused historical justice, and accused and just share of representation.

of being the authors and perpetrators of assassi.

nations and massacres, of which they were only CHAPTER III.

the victims.

$ 8. No people on the face of the earth were YEARS 1625-1660.

ever treated with such cruelty as the Irish. Sec. 1. The reign of Charles the First began under different auspices. The form of oppression

CHAPTER IV. and robbery varied—the substance was still the

YEARS 1660_1692. same. Iniquitous law took place of the bloody sword: the soldier was superseded by the judge'; Sec 1. We are arrived at the Restoration-an and for the names of booty and plunder, the event of the utmost utility to the English and words forfeiture and confiscation were substituted. Scotch royalists, who were justly restored to their The instrument used by the Government was the properties. An event, which consigned irrevoca* Commission to enquire into defective titles.' The bly and for ever to British plunderers, and espe. King claimed the estates of the Irish people in cially to the soldiers of Ireton and Cromwell, the three provinces. This commission was instituted || properties of the Irish Catholic people, whose fato enforce that claim. It was a monstrous tribu-thers had contended against the usurped powers nal: an attempt was made to bribe juries to find || to the last of their blood and their breath. for the Crown—that attempt failed. Then the § 2. The Duke of York, afterward James the Jurors, who hesitated to give verdicts against the Second, took to his own share of the plunder, people, were fined, imprisoned, ruined. The | about eighty thousand acres of lands belonging Judges were not so chary—they were bribed to Irish Catholics, whose cause of forfeiture was aye, bribed, with four shillings in the pound of nothing more than that they had been the friends the value of all lands recovered from the subjects and supporters of his murdered father, and the enby the Crown before such Judges. And so to.emies of his enemies. tally lost to all sense of justice or of shame was 83. Yet such was in the Irish nation the in

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