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herent love of principle,-a principle of honora. • Thus the wife was encouraged and empower. ble, but, in this instance, most mistaken loyalty- ed successfully to rebel against her husband. that when this royal plunderer was afterwards 'If the eldest son of a Catholic father at any driven from the throne by his British subjects, he age however young, declared himself a Protes. took refuge in Ireland, and the Irish Catholic no. tant, he thereby made his father strict tenant for bility, gentry, and universal people, rallied round life, deprived the father of all power to sell, or dis. him, and shed their blood for him with a courage || `pose of his estate, and such Protestant son beand a constáncy worthy of a better cause.
came entitled to the absolute dominion and own. § 4. This section should be devoted to the trea- ||ership of the estate. ty of Limerick. The Irish were not conquered, • Thus the eldest son was encouraged and, inLady, in the war. They had in the year preced- deed, bribed by the law to rebel against his fa. ing the treaty, driven William the Third with defeat and disgrace from Limerick. In this Irish 'If any other child beside the eldest son devictory the women participated. It is no romance. clared itself, at any age, a Protestant, such child In the great defeat of William, the women of at once escaped the controul of its father, and Limerick fought and bled and conquered. On was entitled to a maintenance out of the father's the third of October, 1691, the treaty of Limer. property. ick was signed. The Irish army, 30,000 strong • Thus the law encouraged every child to rebel -the Irish nobility and gentry, and people, capit- against its father. ulated, with the army and Crown of Great Bri. If any Catholic purchased for money any estain. They restored the allegiance of the Irish 'tate in land, and Protestant was empowered by nation to that Crown. Never was there a more * law to take away that estate from the Catholic, useful treaty to England than this was under the and to enjoy it without paying one shilling of circumstances. It was a most deliberate and 'the purchase money. solemn treaty-deliberately confirmed by letters. • This was Law.-The Catholic paid the mopatent from the Crown. It extinguished a san ney, whereupon the Protestant took the estate. guinary civil war. It restored the Irish nation • The Catholic lost both money and estate. to the dominion of England, and secured that * If any Catholic got an estate in land by mar. dominion in perpetuity over one of the fairest por. riage, by the gift, or by the will of a relation, or tions of the globe. Such was the value given by or friend, any Protestant could by Law take the Irish people.
“the estate from the Catholic and enjoy it him. § 5. By that treaty, on the other hand, the
self. Irish Catholic people stipulated for and obtained * If any Catholic took a lease of a farm of land the pledge of “the faith and honor of the Eng as tenant at a rent for a life, or lives, or for any lish Crown, for the equal protection by law of " longer term than thirty-one years, any Protestheir properties and their liberties with all other * tant could by Law take the farm from the Cathsubjects—and in particular for the FREE AND UN. ‘olic and enjoy the benefit of the lease. FETTERED EXERCISE OF THEIR RELIGION.
• If any Catholic took a farm by lease for a
‘term not exceeding thirty-one years, as he might CHAPTER V.
still by Law have done, and by his labor and inYEARS 1692_1778.
dustry raised the value of the land so as to yield Sec. 1. The Irish in every respect performed
a profit equal to one-third of the rent, any Pro
testant might TIEN by Law evict the Catholic, with scrupulous accuracy the stipulations on their
and enjoy for the residue of the term the fruit of part of the Treaty of Limerick.
the labor and industry of the Catholic. § 2. That treaty was totally violated by the
If any Catholic had a horse, worth more than British government, the moment it was perfectly five pounds, any Protestant tendering £5 to the safe to violate it. § 3. That violation was perpetrated by the
'Catholic owner, was by law entitled to take the
horse, though worth £50, or £100, or more, enactment of a code, of the most dexterous but
and to keep it as his own. atrocious iniquity that ever stained the annals of
If any Catholic being the owner of a horse legislation. 84. Let me select a few instances of the bar
worth more than five pounds, concealed his barity with which the treaty of Limerick was vio.
'horse from any Protestant, the Catholic for the lated, under these heads :
crime of concealing in his own horse, was liable to
'be punished by an imprisonment of three months, First.--" PROPERTY."
"and a fine of three times the value of the horse, * Every Catholic was, by Act of Parliament, whatever that might be. deprived of the power of settling a jointure on "So much for the Laws regulating by Act of any Catholic wife-or charging his lands with Parliament, the property—or rather plundering any provision for his daughters-or disposing by | by due course of Law, the property—of the will of his landed property. On his death the · Catholic. 'law divided his lands equally amongst all his I notice *All the relations of private life were thus vio.
*If a Catholic kept school, or taught any per. . If the wife of a Catholic declared herself a son, Protestant or Catholic, any species of litera* Protestant, the law enabled her not only to com 'ture, or science, such teacher was for the crime pel her husband to give her a separate mainten of teaching punishable by Law by banishmentance, but to transfer to her the custody and 'and, if he returned from banishment, he was guardianship of all their children.
subject to be hanged as a felon.
If a Catholic, whether a child or adult, at-the Shaws—the Lefroys-the Verners of the day tended, in Ireland, a school kept by a Catholic, did invent and enact. A code exalted to the ut. or was privately instructed by a Catholic, such most hight of infamy by the fact, that it was Catholic, although a child in its early infancy, enacted in the basest violation of a solemn en'incurred a forfeiture of all its property, present gagement and deliberate treaty. or future.
$ 7. It is not possible for me to describe that 'If a Catholic child, however young, was sent code in adequate language—it almost surpassed 'to any foreign country for education, such infant the eloquence of Burke to do so. •It had,' as child incurred a similar penalty--that is, a for- | Burke describes it;' It had a vicious perfection feiture of all right to property, present or pros. it was a complete syseem-full of coherence and 'pective.
consistency; well digested and well disposed in If any person in Ireland made any remittance all its parts. It was a machine of wise and of money or goods, for the maintenance of any 'elaborate contrivance, and as well fitted for the * Irish child educated in a foreign country, such oppression, impoverishment, and degradation of persons incurred a similar forfeiture.
the people, and the debasement in them of huThirdly.- Person&L Disabilities.
man nature itself, as ever proceeded from the
perverted ingenuity of man. “The Law rendered every Catholic incapable
$ 8. This code prevented the accumulation of of holding a commission in the army, or navy, property, and punished industry as a crime. Was or even to be a private soldier, unless he solemnly there ever such legislation in any other country, * abjured his religion.
Christian or Pagan? But that is not all, because • The Law rendered every Catholic incapable the party who inflicted this horrible code, actually of holding any office whatsoever of honor or emolument in the State. The exclusion was Poverty.
reproached the Irish people with wilful and squalid. • universal.
§ 9. This code enforced ignorance by Statute • A Catholic had no legal protection for life or Law, and punished the acquisition of knowledge• liberty. He could not be a Judge, Grand Juror, || as a felony. Is this credible ?—yet it is true. • Sheriff, Sub-Sheriff, Master in Chancery, Six But that is not all ; for the party that thus perse
Clerk, Barrister, Attorney, Agent or Solicitor, or cuted learning, reproached and still reproach the *Seneschal of any manor, or even gamekeeper to Irish people with IGNORANCE. . a private gentleman.
$ 10. There ;—there never was a people on the A Catholic could not be a member of any Cor-face of the earth só cruelly, so basely, treated as poration, and Catholics were precluded by law the Irish. There never was a faction so stained from residence in some corporate towns.
with blood-so blackened with crime as that Or. Catholics were deprived of all right of voting ange faction, which, under the name of Protest, • for members of the Commons House of Parlia-ant, seeks to retain the remnants of their abused • Catholic Peers were deprived of their right to created and continued the infamous penal perse
power, by keeping in activity the spirit which sit or vote in the House of Lords. • Almost all these personal disabilities were outline.
cution of which I have thus faintly traced an equally enforced by law against any Protestant It would be worse than seditious, nay actually • who married a catholic wife, or whose child, un- | treasonable, to suppose that such a faction can der the age of fourteen, was educated as a
ever obtain countenance from you, Illustrious • Catholic, although against his consent.
Lady, destined, as I trust you are, at length to Fourthly._Religion.
grant justice, by an equalization of rights with "To teach the Catholic religion was a transpor- your other subjects, to your faithful, brave, long table felony ; to convert a Protestant to the oppressed, but magnanimous, people of Ireland. • Catholic faith, was a capital offence, punishable as an act of treason. • To be a Catholic regular, that is a monk or
CHAPTER VI. 'friar, was punishable by banishment, and to re
YEARS 1778-1800. turn from banishment an act of high-treason. $1. The persecution I have described—the per.
"To be a Catholic Archbishop or Bishop, or to secution founded on a breach of national faith and exercise any ecclesiastical jurisdiction whatso- public honor-lasted for eighty-six long years of ever in the Catholic Church in Ireland, was pun- darkness—of shame and of sorrow. ‘ishable by transportation to return from such It was intended to reduce the Catholic people 'transportation was an act of high-treason, pun. of Ireland to the state of the most abject poverty,
ishable by being hanged, embowelled alive, and and by the same means to extirpate the Catholic arterwards quartered.”
religion. $ 5. After this enumeration, will you, Illustri Here a question of some interest arises :-What ous Lady, be pleased to recollect that every one was the success of the experiment? Before the of these enactments, that each and every of these question is answered, let it be recollected that the laws, was a palpable and direct violation of a experiment had in favor of its success the Crown solemn treaty to which the faith and honor of the -the Parliament—the Bishops and Clergy of the British Crown was pledged, and the justice of the established Church--the Judges—the Army, the English nation unequivocally engaged.
Navy—the Corporations-Mayors Aldermen$ 6. There never yet was such a horrible code Sheriffs and Freemen—the Magistracy, the Grand of persecution invented, so cruel, so cold-blooded,|| Jurors--the almost universal mass of the property -calculating—emaciating - universal – as this and wealth of the Irish nation. It had besides legislation, which the Irish Orange faction-the" the entire countenance, concurrence, and support
of England and Scotland not a tongue could exceeding British bravery, rendered the 'meteor utter in public one word against it, or if it so flag of England' once more victorious-crushed uttered even one word, it was stopped for ever the naval power of the enemy-saved not only not a pen could write one word in opposition. the West Indian colonies, but also the honor of
Yet, with all these tremendous advantages, the British" crown, and strewed laurels over a what was the success of the experiment? peace which would otherwise have been ignomi.
Illustrious Lady-it failed it totally failed. A nious as well as disastrous. just estimate would state that the Catholics went $ 6. The relaxation of the year 1782 was a se into the persecution about two millions in num. cond instalment of the debt of Justice to Ira ber; the Protestant persecutorsfor, at that day, land. It was a noble instalment. It enabled the they were all persecutors-were about one mill. Catholics to acquire freehold property for lives, or ion. The Catholics have increased to nearly of inheritance. But it did more ;---for the first seven millions--the Protestants still scarcely ex. time after ninety years of persecuted leaming, it ceed the original million. The comparative in. enabled the Catholics to open schools and to oda. crease of the one under persecution is enormous cate their youth in literature and religion. The -the comparative decrease of the other whilst Catholics wisely accepted that instalment, which persecuting is astounding; in the first instance | restored in full their rights of property, and gavo the Catholics were at the utmost only two to one them the inestimable right of education. They - in the second they are near seven to one : gratefully accepted the instalmont, and wisely and
" Thus captive Israel multiplied in chains." with increased power, commenced a new struggle Blessed be God! So may persecution fail in for the rest. every country until it shall universally be admitted § 7. The admission of the Catholics to the te. to be as useless for conversion, as its exercise is nancy of lands in 1778, incioased considerably the debasing and degrading in those who employ it. rents of the Protestant landlords in Ireland. The
02. The time for a relaxation of the “ Penal permission to the Catholics in 1782 to purchase Code"-that was the technical name given to the estates, enhanced enormously the value of the propersecuting code—had at length arrived. In | perty of all the Protestants of Ireland. Concilia. 1775 the obstinate refusal of the British Govern. tion and prosperity went hand in hand, and that ment to do “justice to America" was checked by which benevolence alone would have suggested, blood. In 1777'a British army, in its “ pride of was proved by experience to be the best means to place,” surrendered at Saratoga to the once des increase the value of their property, which the pised, insulted, and calumniated Provincials." || most rigid and the most selfish prudence would It was in 1778 too late to conciliate America. have dictated to the Protestant proprietors of She proclaimed her independence, and America Ireland. was forever lost to the British crown.
$ 8. There were other events in 1782, which § 3. The ancient enemies of England in Eu- | merit more than the passing glance I can now berope armed, and assailed her. The English Gov. stow upon them--events of the deepest, the most ernment in their adversity learned one lesson from soul-stirring interest. For the present, suffice it fatal experience; they for the first time tried con to say, that the Irish Parliament which assorted ciliation to Ireland. The Penal Code was re the legislative independence of Ireland was not laxed in 1778. Conciliation succeeded as it al- only the most advantageous to its constituents, but ways will with the Irish people. America, it is was at the same time the most loyal to the British true, was lost by refusing to conciliate-but Ire- crown, and the most useful to the British power. land was preserved to the British crown by con It was that Parliament which voted and paid the ciliation.
twenty thousand Irish Catholics who rushed to § 4. The relaxation of the “ Penal Code” in man the British fieets, and contributed to Rod. 1778 was, in its own nature, a large instalment ney's victory. Ireland never had a Parliament of the debt of “ Justice to the Catholic people more attached to British connexion than the Irish of Ireland.” It restored to the Catholics the Parliament which asserted Irish legislative inde. same power and dominion over the property they pendence. then held as the Protestants always enjoyed; and § 9. Ten years followed of great and increas. it enabled the Catholics to acquire as tenants, or ing prosperity in Ireland—but they were years of as purchasers, any interest in lands for any terms peace and power in England, and there was no or years, though they may be as long as one thou- occasion to conciliate or court the Catholies of sand years. But still they could not acquire by Ireland. Accordingly no further advance was purchase, or as tenants, any freehold interests. made in their emancipation. The Catholics how. The Catholics wisely accepted the instalment, ever shared in the universal prosperity of Ireland. and went on with increased security and power § 10. The year 1792 found matters in this conto look for the rest of the debt of justice. dition. The prosperity which the Catholics en.
95. In 1782, England stood alone in a contest joyed in common with their other countrymenwith the greatest power in the world--the com- the property which they were daily acquiring, bined fleets of her enemies, as one of the rare in- made them'impatient for political rights. They stances in her naval annals, rode triumphant and therefore petitioned the Irish House of Commons unopposed in the British channel. Accordingly that the profession of the law might be opened to the . Penal Code was once again relaxed-con. them, and for the elective franchise. It was with ciliated Ireland poured twenty thousand seamen difficulty one member could be procured to move and active landemen into the British navymena. that the petition should be laid upon the table, and bled Rodney to pursue the French fleet to the another to second it. The motion was opposed West Indies; where, in his action with De Grasse, by the member-for Kildare, Mr. Latouche; he Irish valour, emulating, and, if that were possible, 11 moved that the petition should be rejected there
was no danger apprehended from its rejection. It British dominions. It would, by conciliating was accordingly rejected, all the members of the your Irish subjects and attending to their wants Government voting for that rejection.
and wishes, render the separation of Ireland from $ 11. But before the close of 1792, a new scene the lawsul dominion of your crown, utterly inn. was opened.-- The French armies defeated their possible. enemies at every point. The Netherlands were $ 16. No country ever rose so rapidly in trade, conquered, and a torrent of republicanism, driven manufactures, commerce, agricultural wealth, on by military power, threatened every state in | and general prosperity, as Ireland did from the Europe. The cannon of the battle of Gemappe year 1782 until the year 1798, when the" foment. were heard at St. James's--the wisdom of con ed Rebellion” broke out, and for a space, a pass. ciliating the Catholics was felt and understood; ing and transitory space, marred the fair prospects and in the latter end of that same year 1792 of Ireland. in the early part of which the Government had ignominiously rejected the Catholic petition with
CHAPTER VII. contempt—that same Government brought in a bill still further to relax the “ Penal Code;" and
THE YEAR 1800. early in the next year brought in another bill,
§ 1. This year would justify a volume to itself. granting, or I should rather say restoring, greater It was the year that consummated the crimes privileges to the Catholics
which, during nearly seven centuries, the Eng. $ 12. By the effect of both these bills, the bar lish Government perpetrated against Ireland. It was opened to the Catholics—they might be. was the year of the destruction of the Irish legis. come barristers, but not King's counsel—they lature. It was the fatal, ever to be accursed year could be aitorneys and solicitors—they could be of the enactment of the Union. freemen of the lay corporations—the Grand Jury $ 2. The Union was inflicted on Ireland by the box and the magistracy were opened to them combined operation of terror, torture, force, fraud, they were allowed to attain the rank of Colonel and corruption. in the army-and still greater than all, they were 3. The contrivers of the Union kept on foot allowed to acquire the elective franchise, and to and fomented the embers of a lingering rebellion. vote for members of Parliament. This was the | They hallooed the Protestant against the Catho. third great instalment of public justice obtained lic, and the Catholic against the Protestant. They by the Catholics of Ireland.
carefully kept alive domestic dissensions, for the $ 13. But it should be recollected that these purposes of subjugation. concessions were made more in fear than in $ 4. Whilst the Union was in progress, the friendship. The revolutionary war was about to Habeas Corpus act was suspended-all constitucommence-the flames of Republicanism had tional freedom was annihilated in Ireland—MARspread far and near. It was eagerly caught up
TIAL LAW WAS PROCLAIMED—the use of torture amongst the Protestant and especially among the was frequent-liberty, life, or property, had no Presbyterian population of the north of Ireland. protection-public opinion was stifled trials by Belfast was its warmest focus; it was the deep court-martial were familiar—meetings legally con. interest of the British Government to detach the vened by sheriffs and magistrates were dispersed wealth and intelligence of the Catholics of Ire. | by military violence—the voice of Ireland was land from the republican party. This policy was suppressed—the Irish people had no protection. adopted. The Catholics were conciliated. The Once again, I repeat, MARTIAL LAW WAS PROCatholic nobility, gentry, mercantile, and other CLAIMCD—thus the Union was achieved in total educated classes, almost to a man, separated from despite of the Irish nation. the republican party.
That which would other. $ 5. But this was not all--the most enormous wise have been a revolution, became only an and the basest corruption was resorted to. Lord unsuccessful rebellion. The intelligent and lead John Russell is reported to have stated some time ing Catholics were conciliated, and Ireland was ago, at a public dinner, that the Union was car. once again, by the wise policy of concession and || ried at an expense of £800,000. He was much conciliation, saved to the British crown.
mistaken, speaking as he did merely from a vague $ 14. Illustrious Lady--the Rebellion of 1798 recollection. The parliamentary documents will itself was, almost avowedly, and beyond a doubt show him that the one item of the purchase mon. proveably, fomented to enable the British Goy- ley of rotten and nomination boroughs, cost no ernment to extinguish the Irish legislative inde. less a sum than one million, two hundred and pendence and to bring about the Union. But the forty-five thousand pounds. The pecuniary corinstrument was nearly too powerful for the un- ruption amounted altogether to about three millskilful hands that used it, and if the Catholic ions of pounds sterling. wealth, education, and intelligence, had joined 9.6. But this was not all—the expenditure of the rebellion, it would probably have been suc- patronage was still more open, avowed, and profli. cessful.
gate; Peerages were a familiar staple of traffic$ 15. One word upon the legislative indepen- | the command of ships of the line and of regidence of Irelană--that which is now called a ments-the offices of Chief and Puisne Judges, “Repeal of the Union.” It is said to be a sever. the stations of Archbishops and Bishops, Commisance of the empire-a separation of the two coun- | sionerships of the Revenue, and all species of tries. Illustrious Lady, these statements are Collectorships—in short, all grades of offices, made by men who know them to be unfounded. the sanctuary of the law and the temples of reli. An Irish legislative independence would, on the gion, were trafficked upon as bribes, and given in contrary, be the strongest and most durable con exchange for votes in parliament in favor of the nexion between your Majesty's Irish and your Union.
$ 7. But this was not all. Notwithstanding right of Ireland to 176 members would be demon. all the resources of intimidation and terror-of mar- strated. tial law and military torture-of the most gigantic § 14. If the Union had been a fair treaty, no bribery ever exhibited--the Union could not be chicanery could have deprived Ireland of at the carried until several of the nomination boroughs | least 150 members. Yet one-third were struck were purchased, to return a number of Scotch-off at the despotic will and pleasure of the Engmen and Englishmen, all of whom held rank in lish Government. This is indeed a grievous inthe army or navy, or other offices under Govern. justice, and much of the insecurity of the Union ment, removeable at pleasure. The number of rests upon it. Substantial justice in this respect such “ Aliens” was almost as great as the major- has ever been withheld. Thus we are degraded ity by which the Union was carried.
and insulted by the Union. $ 8. The Union was not a treaty or compact, Illustrious Lady. It was not a bargain, or agree.
CHAPTER VIII. ment. It had its origin in, and was carried' by force, fraud, terror, torture, and corruption. It
YEARS 1800—1829. has to this hour no binding power but what it de Sec. 1. The alleged object of the Union was rives from force. It is still a mere name. The to consolidate the inhabitants of both islands into countries are not united. The Irish are still one nation-one people. The most fattering treated as “ Aliens in blood and in religion.” hopes were held out, the most solemn pledges were
§ 9. Thus was the legislative independence of | vowed-- Ireland was no longer to be an alien and a Ireland extinguished. Thus was the greatest stranger to British liberty. The religion of the crime ever perpetrated by the English Govern. | inhabitants was no longer to be a badge for perment upon Ireland consummated.
secution--the nations were to be identified the § 10. The atrocity of the manner of carrying same privileges-the same laws—the same liberthe Union was equalled only by the injustice of|ties. the terms to which Ireland was subjected.
They trumpeted, until the ear was tired and all § 11. I hate to dwell on this detestable subject. good taste nauseated, the hackneyed quotation, I will put forward only two of the features of the the “Paribus se legibus”--the “ Invietæ gentes” injustice done "to Ireland. The one relates to the “ Eterna in federa.” finance—the other to representation.
§ 2. These were words-Latin or English, they § 12. The epitome of the financial fraud per were mere words-- Ireland lost everything and petrated against the Irish is just this. At the got nothing by the Union. Pitt behaved with time of the Union Ireland owed twenty millions some dignity when he resigned the office of Prime of funded debt. England owed four hundred and | Minister, on finding that George tire Third refu. forty-six millions. If the Union were a fair and sed to allow him to redeem the Union pledge of reasonable treaty, the debts of the two countries granting Catholic Emancipation. But that digshould continue to bear the same proportions. nity was dragged into the kennel, when he afterPerhaps even that arrangement would, under all wards consented to be Minister with his pledge the circumstances, be harsh towards Ireland. broken and his faith violated. Yet there are still
But what is the consequence to Ireland of the “ Pitt Clubs” —are there not ?-in England!!! Union? It is this, that all the land, houses, and § 3. Ireland lost everything and gained noother property, real and personal, of Ireland, are thing by the Union. There is one great evil in now pledged to the repayment equally with Eng- | the political economy of Ireland. There is one land of eight hundred and forty millions of pounds incurable plague-spot in the state of Ireland. It sterling!!! At the utmost the Irish ought to is, that nine-tenths of the soil belong to absentees. owe a sum not exceeding forty millions. By the This evil was felt as a curse pregnant with every Union we are made to owe eight hundred and possible woe even before the Union. It has enorforty millions. But for the Union, the entire Irish mously increased since—the Union must inevitadebt would have been long since paid off, and Ire- bly have increased, and must continue to increase land, like Norway, would have no national debt. | absenteeism. Even all the establishments neces. Never was there a people so unjustly treated | sary to carry on the Government save one—that as the Irish!
of the Lord Lieutenant-have become absentees. $ 13. The gross injustice done to Ireland in § 4. Ireland lost all and gained nothing by the the matter of representation in the united Parlia- | Union. Every promise was broken, every pledge ment was this: The ingredients to entitle either was violated. Ireland struggled, and prayed, and country to representation were said by the fabri- cried out to friends for aid, and to Parliament for cators of the Union to bem-population and prop- relief. erty. The only evidences of property that Lord § 5. At length a change came over the spirit of Castlereagh would allow, were exports, imports, our proceedings. The people of Ireland ceased and revenue.
He totally omitted rental-yet, to court patronage, or to hope for relief from their upon his own data, Ireland was entitled to 108–– friends. They became “friends to themselves," out of a total of 658 representatives.
and after twenty-six years of agitation, they for. He took off eight, of his own will and pleas-ced the concession of Emancipation. They comure, and left Ireland but 100 members.
pelled the most powerful as well as the most tricky, But in truth he ought to have taken into calcu- the most daring as well as the most dexterous, of lation the relative rental of each county, and then their enemies, to concede Emancipation. the right of Ireland to 169 members would ap $ 6. WELLINGTON and PEEL-blessed be hea. pear. Still more, had the ingredients of a rela. ven--we defeated you.' Our peaceable combina. tive representation consisted as they ought to have tion, bloodless, unstained, crimeless, was too strong consisted, solely of population and revenue, the l for the military glory--bah! of the one, and for