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THE EARLY HISTORY OF IRELAND, AND ITS APOSTLE PATRICK.

Early colonization of Ireland- The Sacred Island-Threatened invasion by the

Romans-King Cormac “turned to the adoration of God”_First planting of
Christianity in Ireland, and Coelestius-Palladius sent to Ireland by Pope
Celestine-His want of success, Patrick had been already in Ireland-No
notice taken of him by Pope Leo I.-Patrick's Confession ; his history--Not
sent from Rome-Planted in Ireland the ecclesiastical arrangements of Brittany

-Why Palladius unsuccessful in Ireland --The Lives of Patrick not trust.
worthy- Palladius and Patrick confounded-Patrick attempts the conversion
of Laoghaire-His hymn-Great number of bishops ordained by Patrick in
Ireland - Patrick not free from superstition-Early Irish Church used no
images in worship-Did not practise the rite of Extreme Unction, and knew
no Purgatory-Patrick, and the Reform of the Civil Law. .. Page 3-24

All the early Irish bishops not natives—The Welsh Church-Early prevalence of

monasticism in Ireland-Monasticism of earlier growth than Christianity-
Brigid and the nunnery of Kildare-Monks among the Druids-Monasteries
at Armagh, Clonard, Clonfert, Bangor, &c.-Columbkille, his lineage and
character-His dispute with Finnian of Moville-Battle near Sligo—The
Cathach-Columbkille excommunicated - His mission to Iona- Apostle of
Northern Picts-His ecclesiastical polity-Jurisdiction over bishops-His
piety — His death — The Christianity of Columbkille and his contempo-
raries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 25--39

Romish missionaries arrive in England - Their character--Dispute relative to

Easter and the Tonsure--Differ from the Irish in their religious rites and mode
of Church government- The old British Church in Wales-Irish and British

refuse to hold communion with the Romish missionaries---Complaining letter
of the archbishop of Canterbury and two other Romish prelates - Letter to
the Irish from Pope Honorius--Synod of Mazh-Lene-Irish deputies sent all
over the Church to make inquiries respecting the keeping of Easter; their
report-The Southern Irish adopt the Roman mode of keeping Easter— The
epistle of Cummian relating to the Paschal Cycle—Another epistle from
Rome--Some of the Northern Irish conform to the Roman observance-
Thomian of Armagh-Causes of the decline of Iona-Growing importance of
Armagh-Jealousy between Armagh and Downpatrick-Stories invented to
support Armagh-Quarrels between monks of Patrick and Columbkille—The
yellow plague and other disasters-Invasion of Ireland by king of Northum-
bria—Visit of Adamnan to England for the liberation of captives- Adamnan
adopts the Roman mode of keeping Easter, and retires from Hy-Ascendency
of the Southern Hy Niall and ruin of Aileach-Growing pretensions of
Armagh– No metropolitans now in Ireland—Influence of monks from England
in Ireland-Cummian's zeal for Romanism and his Penitential—The Lives of
Patrick-Early Irish forms of religious service-Liturgies in Irish- Increasing
superstition-Scriptures still highly valued . . . . . . - Page 564-89

Monks in Iona and Ireland conform to the Roman mode of keeping Easter-

Papal supremacy not acknowledged in Ireland-Celibacy not obligatory on the

Irish clergy-Irish missionaries on the Continent- The Irish bishop Clemens

and his two sons—The Irishman Virgil disputes with Boniface- Virgil settles

at Salzburg—Two learned Irishmen, Clemens and Albin, patronized by

Charlemagne-Alcuin corresponds with Colgu of Clonmacnois-Charlemagne

does not overlook Ireland–The Apostolic Succession in the Church of Ireland

- No archbishops originally in Ireland-- Brigid and her bishop Conlaedh

-No diocesan bishops in Ireland-Presbyter abbots ordain ; the case of

Findchan-The Irish co-arbs—The old Irish bishops thickly planted-One

bishop ordained bishops-Endowment of the monasteries—Termon-land and

Herenachs—The co-arb of Patrick-His influence with the king of Ireland-

His dislike of the king of Ulidia-Hugh Allan, king of Ireland, promotes

the ambitious views of the abbot of Armagh- Dispute between the monks of

Durrow and Clonmacnois—The Cain Phatraig—Abbot and bishop of Armagh

different- Tribute to co-arb of Patrick extended-Spurious title-deeds of See

of Armagh-A spurious canon—The Book of Armagh—The Book of the

Angel_The abbot of Armagh prepared to acknowledge the claims of the

Pode_Increasing superstitions in Ireland— The staff of Jesus— The arts

cultivated in Ireland-Stone churches-Round towers-Irish use instrumental

music in worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 90-125
CHAPTER VI.

The Vikings—Black and White Strangers-Attacks on Rechrann, Iona, Inish-

murry, Bangor, and Armagh-Turgesius r ns over Northern Ireland ; his

death-Dissensions of native Irish chiefs—Northmen find allies in discon.

tented native dynasts—Black and White Strangers quarrel ; battle of Carling-

ford-Dublin the capital of the Northmen-Learned Irishmen go abroad-

Unfriendly reception of Irish clergy on the Continent-Canon of Council of

Chalons—Canon of Council of Celcyth-No diocesan hierarchy in Ireland

Comparatively pure faith of Irish Church-Evidences of Irish piety-No

image-worship in Ireland –Transubstantiation not acknowledged in Ireland-

Sedulius and his commentaries-Sedulius ignores the supremacy of the Pope ;

opposed to image-worship and transubstantiation; his views as to justification

and the marriage of the clergy ; regards bishops and presbyters as originally

the same-Dungal, the Irishman, settles at Pavia ; opposes Claudius, bishop of

Turin-Claudius of Turin and his views-Claudius not an Irishman, but pro-

bably instructed by an Irishman-Intellectual eminence of Irishmen in the

ninth century; causes of this, Johannes Scotus ; his genius, wit, and learning

--His views relative to reprobation and transubstantiation-Mode of ad.

ministration of the Eucharist in the ancient Church of Ireland-Old Eucha-

ristic hymn-Incorrect modes of speech relative to the Eucharist-John

Scotus, the Saxon monk-Patrick of Glastonbury-Many high-born Irishmen

now ecclesiastics-Cormac Mac-Culinan; his character and remarkable career

-Fighting clergy-Continued attacks of the Northmen-Malachy II. king of

Ireland - Brian Borumha (or Boru), his early career ; his vigorous and wise

administration - Battle of Clontarf ; Brian's religious exercises on that day-

Worship of the Irish at this period-Gradual introduction of Latin-Increasing

power of co-arb of Patrick-Disputes about the co-arbship-Influence of the

Book of Armagh-Pilgrimages to Kome--Brian Boru makes a remarkable

entry in the Book of Armagh. . . . . . . . . . . Page 126-157

FROM THE DEATH OF BRIAN BORUMHA TO THE CLOSE OF THE SYNOD op

RATHBREASAIL, A.D. 1014 TO A.D. ITI0.

State of Ireland after the death of Brian Boru-Ireland has still some literary

reputation-Marianus Scotus, Tighernach, and others - Pilgrimages to Rome
-Conversion of the Northmen to Christianity-Bishops of Dublin, Water.
ford, and Limerick, their ecclesiastical position-Effect of Norman Conquest
of England on Ireland-Letter from Gregory VII. to the Irish-Lanfranc,
archbishop of Canterbury, and the Church of Ireland—Letters of Lanfranc

FROM THE SYNOD OF RATHBREASAIL TO THE CLOSE OF THE SYNOD OF

CASHEL, A.D. TITO TO A.D. 1172.

State of Ireland not improved by recent ecclesiastical legislation-Civil war-

Destruction of churches and monasteries—Malachy O'Morgair and his
biographer Bernard-Malachy son of a clergyman-Ivar O'Hegan and
Malachy-Malachy ordained and acts as vicar for Celsus-Malachy afterwards
instructed by Malchus at Lismore-His acquaintance with King Cormac Mac
Carthy-Malachy becomes abbot of Bangor ; becomes bishop of Connor-
Bernard's account of Connor-Ritualism of Malachy-Irish marriages why
condemned-Malachy's labours at Connor-Appointed archbishop of Armagh

-Driven out of Ulster-Opposition of the family which had long enjoyed the
co-arbship of Armagh-Malachy returns from Kerry to Ulster ; makes a com-
promise and obtains the staff of Jesus ; after some time resigns the primacy;
becomes bishop of Down - Malachy sets out for Rome- Visits Clairvaux-
His intercourse with the Pope-Appointed Papal legate-Directions relative
to the Palls—Cistercian monks settled at Mellifont-Malachy's zeal-Malachy
encounters an opponent of transubstantiation-Bernard's Life of Malachy not
quite trustworthy-Malachy again sets out for Rome-His death at Clairvaux
- His suspicious miracles-Cardinal Paparo now sent to Ireland-Synod of

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