Busing of Schoolchildren: Hearings, Ninety-third Congress, Second Session ... February 19, 20, and 21, 1974
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974 - Discrimination in education - 384 pages
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achieve action agency amendment American appeal areas assignment attendance authorities basis believe bill Board of Education Brown cause Chairman changes Circuit Civil Rights color committee concerned Congress constitutional continue County decision denied desegregation determine discrimination District Court dual effect elementary enforce Equal Protection Clause exercise fact Federal courts forced busing freedom of choice further hearings implement integration involved issue judge judicial jurisdiction Justice legislation LIBRARY OF CONGRESS limited matter means miles Negro neighborhood schools North Office operating opinion opportunity origin parents person present problems proposed public schools pupils question race racial balance reason remedy respect result School Board school district school system segregation Senator Ervin situation Supreme Court teachers tion Title transportation unitary United violation zones
Page 333 - Under that doctrine, equality of treatment is accorded when the races are provided substantially equal facilities, even though these facilities be separate. In the Delaware case, the Supreme Court of Delaware adhered to that doctrine, but ordered that the plaintiffs be admitted to the white schools because of their superiority to the Negro schools. The plaintiffs contend that segregated public schools are not "equal" and cannot be made "equal," and that, hence, they are deprived of the equal protection...
Page 180 - It is a proposition too plain to be contested that the Constitution controls any legislative act repugnant to it, or that the legislature may alter the Constitution by an ordinary act.
Page 319 - To that end, the courts may consider problems related to administration, arising from the physical condition of the school plant, the school transportation system, personnel, revision of school districts and attendance areas into compact units to achieve a system of determining admission to the public schools on a nonracial basis, and revision of local laws and regulations which may be necessary in solving the foregoing problems.
Page 209 - General to institute federal suits, contains the following proviso: "nothing herein shall empower any official or court of the United States to issue any order seeking to achieve a racial balance in any school by requiring the transportation of pupils or students from one school to another or one school district to another in order to achieve such racial balance, or otherwise enlarge the existing power of the court to insure compliance with constitutional standards.
Page 334 - Painter, there are findings below that the Negro and white schools involved have been equalized, or are being equalized with respect to buildings, curricula, qualifications and salaries of teachers, and other "tangible
Page 360 - In fashioning and effectuating the decrees, the courts will be guided by equitable principles. Traditionally, equity has been characterized by a practical flexibility in shaping its remedies and by a facility for adjusting and reconciling public and private needs.
Page 150 - Desegregation" means the assignment of students to public schools and within such schools without regard to their race, color, religion, or national origin, but "desegregation" shall not mean the assignment of students to public schools in order to overcome racial imbalance.
Page 185 - ... restraining order or temporary or permanent injunction in any case involving or growing out of any labor dispute...
Page 360 - Full implementation of these constitutional principles may require solution of varied local school problems. School authorities have the primary responsibility for elucidating, assessing, and solving these problems; courts will have to consider whether the action of school authorities constitutes good faith implementation of the governing constitutional principles.