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not to hurt the Irish, In consequence he
was joined by Bryan Maç Phelemy i
who soon deserted him, probably on dis-
covering his real views. The expedition
failed, as likewise did another fitted out by
Sir Thomas Smith, whọ sent his natural
son to make a plantation in the Ardes.
As if these measures were not sufficient
to force the miserable natives to take up
arms, fresh instructions were sent to let
Leix and Offaly to English undertakers. ,
· Can we be surprised to read in the next :
page that “The Lord Deputy found Ulster
in a flame!" or are we to allow that the
fame was kindled by Catholic zeal?

The rebellions of the Cavenaghs, of the Knight of the Glynns, and of the Seneschal of Imokilly, arose froin the same cause. Barry of Barryscourt was despoiled of his territory merely on a complaint being preferred against him by Raleigh. Sir Peter Carew set up an antiquated claim to half the kingdom of Çork, which was supported by the Lord Deputy and Council, although they were sufficiently aware of its probable effects, as, “Sir Peter was advised not to alarum the Irish by beginning with them

first. "* But the claims of the Queen, who seems to have had an eager spirit for rummaging into the ragged title deeds of the Irish, were more formidable. If priority of possession could make a good title, the Irish had the best in the world, as their genealogical tree was full of fruit before the other nations of Europe had thought of planting one. .

But this title the English maintained, was destroyed by the confiscations which took place after the successes of the English arms. The Irish might have replied by the same rule, when they re-conquered the lands that had been confiscated (which they had done,) the right derived by the English from confiscation, should merge in superior right of conquest. But unluckily the Irish, according to their own proverb, had to go to law with the devil when the court was held in hell. We find directions from the Queen toescheat granted lands; to escheat lands which chieftains had surrendered, and which had

.* This claim of Sir Peter Carew's, which was allowed, was from so distant a date as the reign of Edward III, Sir Peter obtained a large consideration by way of compromise, from the actual holders of the property. ..',

been regranted to them, if the Queen or any other person could shew 'a title to them ; which must always have been the case, as a previous confiscation was always held to be a title, and there was scarce an acre of land in Ireland but what had been confiscated. '

i ta'po 1 . 303 After the defeat of the Earl of Desinond, and the confiscation of that quarter of Ireland called Munster, the Queen advanced a step farther in the destruction of every security of property, ..? . There were some men of property who had sense enough neither to care about the Earl of Desmond or the Queen—who had not taken arms, and whose property could not be decently confiscated. The Queen thought they might be inconvenient in her plan of making a colony in Munster; and therefore required them to prove their titles ; which if they could not do to the satisfaction of her cominissioners, they were turned out; and which, if they could do, why they were turned out too; only they were to be insulted by a compensation, allotted by these saine commissioners, Mr. Smith and Mr.

Meagle, “ meet men, and apt in the prófésé sion of the law." .?!KA 02

Are we to be surprised, that" a fresh rë bellion * broke out? or is this too to be ascribed simply to the effect of Popish zeal ? ;. will .

::. The fourth cause we have assigned for the rebellions in Elizabeth's reign, was the intention shewn by Elizabeth, to reduce the old chieftains of English blood who had become independent, and exercised princely prerogative, to the rank of mere subjects.”

This was à difficulty which the English government had created for itself. It gave away the lands of the Irish with such libe- · rality to its own subjects and dependants, that it made them too great for subjects. .,

Ulster (a whole province) was given to John de Courcy; the county of Meath to Hugh Lacy. The kingdom of Cork was granted to Cogan and Fitzstephens, the

* The rebellion under James Fitz-Thomas, commonly called the Sugan Earl. His proclamation, like that of O'Neil's, is full of devotion to the Catholic faith, evidently with the same view, to gain supplies from the Pope and the king of Spain.

kingdom of Limerick to William de Braosa;

Sir Thomas de Clare obtained a grant of · Thomond, Ottho de Grandison of Tipperary, Robert de la Poer of Waterford, and William Fitzadlem, of a large portion of Connaught. But a more material grant was the licence allowed to these men and their descendants, to raise troops, and take by force as much more territory as they were able. In consequence of such drains upon the sources of pillage, the crown had no more to bestow ; every inch of land which had been obtained, or which it was possible to obtain by force, was engrossed by the chieftains of English blood. . .

This event had taken place even as early as Edward III.'s reign só completely, that in order to satisfy the voracity of a horde of disappointed adventurers, who had been drawn to Ireland on the speculation of new confiscations and grants, Edward was obliged to resume the grants made in his and his father's reigns. This invidious measure gave rise to the distinction of English by birth and English by blood, which afterwards produced so much animosity. The English born in England,

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