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when James died: Among the lower ranks, there was a legendary record of English barbarities; the power of the old Irish, and of the old English chieftains, had been destroyed by the wisdom of James ; yet, among these septs, there were many who valued the direct gratification of pride, afforded by princely consequence, to the indirect gratification of pride, which is ac- quired through the medium of property : who preferred to be poor tanists, elected by their clan, rather than rich landlords dependant on law. The title of Monarch of Ireland was still cherished by the O'Neils, and that it was still allowed, at least by the northern Irish, is evident from the great power acquired by Sir Phelim O'Neil, in the great rebellion under Charles I. James's confiscations, but particularly the attack made on the titles of the province of Connaught, the practice known to be a favourite one with him, even as a systematical degree, kept men's minds in an uneasy state of susperise for what was to come, and rage for what had past.

The persecution of the Catholics had, for the first time, produced a resistance on

the part of the old English Catholics of the Pale, hitherto the most efficient supporters of the English power; it had alienated their minds—it had detached their sympathy from the ancient object of their love, the English government; and gradually attached it to the ancient object of their detestation, the Irish enemy. That this was the effect, not of religion, but of the persecution of the religion, is clear. Had it been the effect of the religion, it would have commenced in Henry VIII's time with the Reformation, which it did not; it would have been apparent in Edward VI's time, which it was not; it would have proved fatal to the English power in Elizabeth's wars; yet, at that time, there was little or no apprehension of it. But on the contrary, it did not exist before the persecution began; it originated with the persecution, and it grew and waxed strong, as the persecution encreased. . in


W e now approach a period of Irish

" history, when increased civilization gave a more distinct order, and a clearer light to the transactions of the times.

The records of these days are copious, . and are entirely in favour of our argument, and may be relied on with certainty.

We shall still pursue the same arrangement, pointing out the causes which generated rebellion, and distinguishing the effects produced by the injurious treatment of the professors of the Catholic religion, from the influence of the religion itself, until that influence being roused and exasperated by persecution, acquired a force from its continual struggles, which swept before it every obstacle of prejudice and reason, of oppression and law.

Independent of this new influence of religion, which now rapidly encreased, we are to consider, that many previous causes of discontent continued to exist. We are not

to omit, the unappeased hatred; which the Irish subjects bore to their English conquerors. The injuries done to individuals by confiscations and plantations, particularly those of Ulster. The regrets of the descendants of the Irish chieftains for the loss of their principalities, and the ever wakeful ambition of the house of O'Neil. The more effect these causes had in producing the succeeding rebellion, the less must be ascribed to the Catholic religion.

That these causes had a principal effect, and produced the rebellion of 1641, though they did not entirely supply its force, is very clear, from the following account of its commencement, extracted from Leland:

Roger Moor was the head of that powerful family who had possessed the dynasty of Leix, now called the Queen's county. They were his ancestors, who in the reign of Mary, had been expelled from their princely possessions, by violence and fraud ; the sept had been almost exterminated by military execution. Those that remained, were distinguished by an hereditary hatred of the English. In the progress of an obstinate contest, they had re-possessed them

HISTORICAL APOLOGY FOR selves of a great part of the territories, and fought under the O’Moor, of Elizabeth's reign, with great resolution and perseverance, but were ultimately defeated, and again driven from their possessions.

Roger O’Moor possessed all the qualities of the heroic character, talents, promptitude, courage, and love of his country ; his person was remarkably graceful, his aspect dignified, his manners courteous. The old Irish beheld the gallant representative of one of their kings with an extravagance of rapture and affection, and stimulated his spirit by the expectations they attached to him. It was a proverbial expression, “our dependence is on God, our Lady, and Roger O’Moor.He was tenderly attached to young O'Neil, the son of the great Hugh O'Neil ; with him he dwelt on the calamities of their fathers, their brave efforts in the cause of their countrymen, and the hopes of still reviving the ancient splendor of their families. With such interests to confirm his purpose, with such passions to fire his imagination, is there any necessity to suppose, that religious bigotry was his

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