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through whose hands the acts pass biennially in Ireland, or annually in the colonies, are in an habitual course of committing impeachable offences. What habitual offenders have been all presidents of the council, all secretaries of state, all first lords of trade, all attornies and all solicitors general! However, they are safe ; as no one impeaches them; and there is no ground of charge against them, except in their own unfounded theories.
The fifth resolution is also a refolution of fact“ That the said general assemblies, general courts, “ or other bodies legally qualified as aforesaid, have “ at sundry times freely granted several large sub“ fidies and publick aids for his majesty's service, “ according to their abilities, when required there
to by letter from one of his majesty's principal - fecretaries of state; and that their right to grant 6 the same, and their cheerfulness and fufficiency “ in the faid grants, have been at fundry times “ acknowledged by parliament.” To say nothing of their great expences in the Indian wars; and not to take their exertion in foreign ones, so high as the supplies in the year 1695; not to go back to their publick contributions in the year 1710; I shall begin to travel only where the journals give me light; resolving to deal in nothing but fact, authenticated by parliamentary record; and to build myself wholly on that folid basis.
On the fourth of April, 1748,* a committee of this house came to the following resolution:
“ Resolved, “ That it is the opinion of this committee, That “ it is just and reasonable that the several provinces « and colonies of Mafsachuset's Bay, New Hamp
shire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, be reim“ bursed the expences they have been at in taking “ and securing to the crown of Great Britain, the “ island of Cape Breton and its dependencies.”
These expences were immenfe for such colonies. They were above 200,000l. sterling; money first raised and advanced on their publick credit.
On the 28th of January, 1756,7 a message from the king came to us, to this effect“ His majesty, “ being sensible of the zeal and vigour with which “ his faithful subjects of certain colonies in North " America have exerted themselves in defence of “his majesty's just rights and possessions, recom« mends it to this house to take the same into “ their consideration, and to enable his majesty to
give them such assistance as may be a proper re“ ward and encouragement.”
On the 3d of February, 1756,f the house came
* Journals of the House, Vol. xxv. + Ibid. Vol. xxvii.
to a suitable resolution, expressed in words nearly the same as those of the message : but with the further addition, that the money then voted was as an encouragement to the colonies to exert themfelves with vigour. It will not be necessary to go through all the testimonies which your own records have given to the truth of my
resolutions. I will only refer you to the places in the journals:
Vol. xxvii.—16th and 19th May, 1757.
30th, 1759–March 26th and
and 20th, 1761. Vol. xxix.-Jan. 22d and 26th, 1762-March
14th and 17th, 1763.
Sir, here is the repeated acknowledgment of parliament, that the colonies not only gave, but gave to satiety. This nation has formally acknowledged two things; first, that the colonies had gone beyond their abilities, parliament having thought it necessary to reimburse them ; fecondly, that they had acted legally and laudably in
and their maintenance of troops, since the compensation is expressly given as reward and encouragement. Reward is not bestowed for acts that are unlawful ; and encouragement is not held out to things that deserve
reprehenfion. My resolution therefore does nothing more than collect into one proposition, what is scattered through your journals. I give you nothing but your own; and you cannot refuse in the gross, what you have fo often acknowledged in detail. The admission of this, which will be so honourable to them and to you, will, indeed, be' mortal to all the miserable stories, by which the passions of the misguided people have been en
aged in an unhappy system. The people heard, indeed, from the beginning of these disputes, one thing continually dinned in their ears, that reason and justice demanded, that the Americans, who paid no taxes, should be compelled to contribute. How did that fact of their paying nothing, stand, when the taxing system began ? When Mr. Grenville began to form his system of American revenue, he stated in this house, that the colonies were then in debt two million fix hundred thoufand pounds sterling money; and was of opinion they would discharge that debt in four years. On this state, those untaxed people were actually subject to the payment of taxes to the amount of fix hundred and fifty thousand a year. In fact, however, Mr. Grenville was mistaken. The funds given for sinking the debt did not prove quite fo ample as both the colonies and he expected. The calculation was too sanguine : the reduction was not completed till fome years after, and at dif
ferent times in different colonies. However, the taxes after the war continued too great to bear any addition, with prudence or propriety; and when the burthens imposed in consequence of former requisitions were discharged, our tone became too high to resort again to requisition. No colony, since that time, ever has had any requisition whatsoever made to it.
We see the sense of the crown, and the sense of parliament, on the productive nature of a revenue by grant. Now search the same journals for the produce of the revenue by imposition—Where is it? -- let us know the volume and the page-what is the gross, what is the net produce ?—to what fervice is it applied ?--how have you appropriated its surplus ?-What, can none of the many skilful index-makers, that we are now employing, find any trace of it ?-Well, let them and that rest together. But are the journals, which say nothing of the revenue, as filent on the discontent? Oh no! a child may find it. It is the melancholy burthen and blot of every page.
I think then I am, from those journals, justified in the sixth and last resolution, which is--" That “it hath been found by experience, that the man“ ner of granting the said supplies and aids, by the “ said general assemblies, hath been more agree“ able to the said colonies, and more beneficial, “ and conducive to the publick service, than the