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“Numerous patterns of bullet-moulds are now in use, and the point from which the bullet is run varies—the usual places at which the run-hole is placed being, Ist, the point; 2nd, the side ; 3rd, the ridge between the hollow and exterior of base; and 4th, the hollow in the base.

“ However well a bullet is cast, it is always subject to certain defects—which are, an irregular surface at the spot whence the neck has been removed, and generally, or always, an air-hole, which is usually situated just below the place at which the bullet has been run. The great object to be attained is to place these defective parts in such a position as to exert the least possible influence on the motion of the bullet when passing through the air. The first defectirregularity of surface-injurious to the correct flight of the bullet, by the air acting on it, and thus altering its direction ; and the latter-internal air-holes—by disturbing the balance of the bullet round its axis of rotation, and thus tending to cause a certain degree of irregularity in its motion ; but if this air-hole be situated on the bullet's axis it will not affect its balance on that axis, and the further it may be from it the more its disturbing influence must be felt.

“ It is clear, therefore, that in order to reduce the influence of the two unavoidable defects pointed out to a minimum, the bullet should be run from the centre of the follow in the base, as the “burr” left is then in a position where the air cannot act on it, and the air-hole is, in all probability, on the axis of rotation. The only moulds that I am aware of that fulfil the conditions required are of a pattern invented and patented by Mr. Charles Lancaster, and are most ingenious in their construction. The plunger which forms the hollow in the base of the bullet is cupped out to the shape of a small basin, in which there is a hole

a slightly eccentric, or just off the centre. To this plunger a small handle is attached, a movement of which in either direction, after the lead has been poured into the mould, detaches the neck and leaves the bullet perfect. It is true that, in order to cut off the neck by a circular movement of the plunger, the run-hole cannot be precisely over the axis of the bullet, but it is so nearly so as to amount practically to the same thing

“Running from the point is, in my opinion, better than from the side or edge of the base, because the bullet is usually cast more uniform on surface, and so slight an unevenness at the point as is left where the neck is carefully removed is not sufficiently acted upon to influence its flight; but no bullet having an open air-hole at the point should be used. Running at the side is objectionable on account of the difficulty of removing the burr so accurately as to prevent its rendering the bullet hard to ram down, should the point at which it was run happen to come opposite to one of the lands in loading.

6 Some moulds are made in which bullets of various lengths may be cast by the adjustment of the plunger, which is fitted on a screw passing through a plate tapped to receive it, and secured to the lower part of one cheek of the mould. On the screw a nut works, by which it is clamped in any position. In these inoulds the run-hole is generally at the point, but might be placed at the side if desired. They would be useful to such persons as propose using the Pritchett bullet, as slightly increased length to that formerly adopted in the service, since by altering the adjustment various lengths might be cast and experimented with, and that which yielded the best results, with the particular patteru of rifle adopted, determined on.

“Mr. Lancaster's is the best description of mould that has yet appeared, the only objection to it being its expense; but as it would not be necessary for a volunteer corps to have more than one or two to supply its members from, the question of cost is not a material one.



Agreeing as I do with every syllable of the contents of this letter, I need make no further remarks upon the subject.


Having the mould ready, the lead should be melted to the proper heat, which experience alone can indicate, in an iron ladle with a fine lip to it, and all impurities being skimmed off, it should be carefully poured into the mould, holding the 7.01. " describing the ans and sarias parts of which it is 1. Inh. · "mitume i masie of song bra paner, and is

Ten, to the end the init some abeste substance; 7 22 Slure to the back of its wai wa surated with tallow :r reventing the mi from fotka aia repeated use, the 2"..1 0; which will be hereafter eaded Br referring to

: illustration it wo be seen that the cartridge is 31. dirttis mier the channel or bore which leads from

2.*** t. Il such a position that when the cap is discharged : : & the hammer, the entiosion of the powder takes

I reutre of the cartridge and not from the end, 3. THE CARE The object of this arrangement is for

er" arisining the tailowed wad in the barrel at zu i ejected from it be the force of the er.

I there remains reads to be forced forward La lla cartridge inserted, and leares the barrel

*uan takes place. It will therefore be

is always a wad left behind every disme ase forward by the following charge.

» the rarious parts of the rifle, the way 2other, and their action when in use: ise ball, c the wad; d is a sliding

ererated on by a rod (e), and fiting an it has been truly ground. Directly

12 barm-chamber f is a cam, or more proin the mari cellar, formed on the rod e, which its

mel?"? oral recess formed in the breech; and - wnioned, by turning it one quarter round, Urusi arts jam themselves into two chambers

ve dem, and form the point of resistance for Le cilarge-chamber; g is a hinged joint which, bodo orns not only a door for the opening h, with the cartridge is placed, but also a lever for

witalls the cam f, and removing the conical ishod. v required to insert a fresh charge.

sille operation is extremely easy, and can be * very short space of time—the hinged door nit in its place by a spring on the back, Lund at right angles to the position it occu

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lip close to the “run hole,” so as to avoid any chance for a bubble or air-hole. In the simple form of mould the two cheeks must be separated, when the bullet readily comes out; but when there is a plunger it must be raised according to the particular form of which it is made. When the bullets are cool they still require to be trimmed, and if conical, and for accurate shooting, they should pass through a die or "swedge."


Messrs. Greenfield and Son, of 10, Broad-street, Golden square, London, who are the chief bullet-mould makers and who have constructed the bullet stamping machines for Government, have lately advertised a very simple bullet-correcting machine, applicable to the Pritchett ball. Its form is as here represented, and its intention is to ensure correctness in



the size of all kinds of cast bullets, whereby the inconvenience experienced with tight fitting balls is entirely removed, and greater correctness of shooting produced. The directions for use are—Place the cast bullet in the mouth of the die, press down the handle which will force the bullet through; occasionally pass a slightly oiled feather into the die.


Patches are made of paper, or of lawn, cambric, or very thin calico, all greased with spermaceti ointment. The intention is to facilitate the application of a lubricating

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