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will be served of destroying them as well as the presumed ova of the parasitical worms.
Another preventive is to be found in the preservation of the health of the dog, for if he is kept well, and accustomed to regular exercise in fresh air, his stomach will be so vigorous and the secretions so healthy, that worms will have a hard battle to
a maintain their existence. Still, in spite of the adoption of all these plans, worms will be found to exist in many dogs, and then they must be removed, or the health will be found to suffer in the course of time.
Whatever remedy is used to destroy worms, it must be of an irritating nature, and those drugs which are fatal to the parasite cannot but be more or less injurious to the animal on which it preys. The choice is therefore to be made of the remedy which is least so, and this is found to be the areca nut. There are also several advantages peculiar to this remedy, such as the absence of any disagreeable taste, and its cheapness. But although the areca nut may be given without any risk worth consideration, it cannot be said to be wholly innocuous, as I have known it produce very severe symptoms in one or two instances; but as these were the only ones out of perhaps tens of thousands in which it has been given, the drug may be said to be a safe one. Powdered glass is equally innocent, but then it is not nearly so effective, and it may, I think, be discarded from use on that account. Turpentine and kousso for tape-worm, and Indian pink for round-worm, are the most potent remedies for these varieties, but they are far from safe, and must be given with caution in all cases. The dose for a pointer, setter, or large spaniel in each case is as follows:- Take of powdered areca nut two drachms; mix with some thick broth, and give it directly after mixture to a fasting dog. In six hours follow it up with a dose of oil.—Take of kousso two drachms to three drachms, boiling water half a pint; mix, and when nearly cold, add the juice of half a lemon; then drench the dog after twenty-four hours' fasting. Follow this up also with oil.Take of spirit of turpentine two drachms to four drachms; tie it up in a piece of bladder, and give as a bolus. Four hours afterwards, let the dog have half a pint of broth, in which is stirred up a tablespoonful of castor-oil.—Take of Indian
pink two drachms, boiling water four onnces; mix, and let it stand till cold, then pour off the infusion, and give as a drench.
PREPARATION FOR WORK.
Until the shooting season the dogs are too apt to be neglected, and are often left in kennel for weeks and even months at a time. When this is allowed they become fat, inside and out, and they are not able to work for want of muscular power and wind, as well as from the tenderness to which the feet are subject. Without constant use all the organs of the body become inefficient, and this is more particularly the case with the muscular system. The shooter is well aware of this fact, as exhibited in his own person, and yet he will often ignore it as concerns the inmates of his kennel. He should remember that the pointer travels over six times the ground which he does, and at a fast pace, instead of a walk. But the experienced sportsman is well aware of the necessity of preparation in the case of his dogs, and for at least a month before they will be wanted he sends them to exercise daily. Even this time is not long enough if they have been confined throughout the summer, for though their muscles and wind may be got right in that time, their feet will not be sufficiently hardened. It is in this part that dogs generally fail, and to keep them hard and tough throughout the month of September, in a dry season, they must have been regularly inured to the road by a good run on it once a week, at least, all through the summer. The horny matter which covers the pads inevitably wears away in work, and if it is not rapidly formed again, the foot becomes tender and the dog is lamed. A habit of quick growth in this part is therefore essential, and this is produced by constant friction. Some dogs naturally have thin soles, but even these may be made thicker by use; while the strong, horny pad may be rendered perfectly invulnerable. Let every shooter see that these precautions are used, and he will not suffer from the disappointments which are so frequent, owing to their neglect. Many a mistake is caused by want of condition, and not from want of nose, for a blown and exhausted animal is not in possession of the sense of smell.
MANAGEMENT AFTER WORK.
Pointers and setters, as well as spaniels, often come home in a state of great exhaustion, partly caused by exposure to cold and wet. In this state they are very liable to congestion of some internal organ, and great numbers every year die of “the yellows” in consequence.
When a valuable animal is in this state, with cold legs, ears, and feet, a dry nose, and a look of exhaustion, he should be put into a warm bath and kept there for a quarter of an hour. Just before immersion in it, if he is in a very low state, give him a little spirit and water as a drench, and after he comes out rub him dry, finishing up with a glass of spirit (whisky or brandy), rubbed into his back and sides. Then feed, or if the dog refuses this, drench him with a teacupful of good broth, or of gruel with a little brandy in it. Afterwards let him be put by himself in a moderately warm stable or kennel, with plenty of clean straw in which he can roll himself. Should these measures not be sufficient, recourse must be had to veterinary assistance.
When sore feet are produced by neglect of preparation, they should be soaked in hot water by placing the dog up to his knees in a tub, or a couple of pans if a tub large enough to hold all four is not at hand. A tablespoonful of salt and powdered alum may be added to the water with advantage, unless the pads are absolutely raw, when they are better omitted. After taking the feet out, dry them thoroughly with a cloth, and then dress them with tar ointment. Apply a little of this every six hours, and in a short time the tenderness will disappear; but it takes a long time, if the dog has not been used to hard ground, before the horny sole is restored in sufficient thickness to bear work.
ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF GUNNERY,
ESSENTIAL TO IT.
DEFINITION OF GUNNERY AND GUNS AS APPLIED TO
GUXXERY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AS APPLICABLE TO SPORTING
PURPOSES-CLASSIFICATION OF MODERN GUNS AND RIFLES-SHOT GUNS CONSIST OF A TUBE MORE OR LESS CYLINDRO-CONOIDAL, CAPABLE OF BEING CLOSED AT ONE END-BARRELS-LOCKS-MODES OF EXPLODING -THE DESIDERATA IN THE SHOT-GUN-THE RIFLE.
GUNNERY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AS APPLICABLE TO
It does not come within the scope of this work to enter upon the history of projectiles from the earliest times, a subject which interests greatly the mechanic and the antiquary, but is not always approved of by the sportsman. Nor is it necessary to enter upon a description of great guns, which are used only in war, or upon military small arms, those with which the sportsman operates being called “bird guns” in the trade, in contradistinction to “small arms,” which is a military term. The principle is, however, in all cases the same, that is to say, a sudden impulse is given to a body previously at rest, and in such a way as to drive it forcibly in the direction of the object which is to be struck. In the arrow and the bird-bolt used with the bow or crossbow, this impulse is communicated by the string on its release from a notch which has held it behind the arrow or bolt until it is
let go. The string itself, however, is only the passive agent, the active power residing in the bow. This has an elastic property inherent to it by which it strives to resume its original position when it has been drawn from it. So again in the air-gun, ordinary atmospheric air is compressed by a pump, and its elastic property induces its expansion when the pressure is taken off. In both these cases, then, we have a previous compression of an elastic agent, the release of which causes an impulse to be given to the projectile in front of it. In gunnery, however, the elastic agent is naturally compressed into a small space, and when confined in a chamber open in one direction only, and made to expand by ignition, its elastic power is so great as to give a far greater impulse to any body impeding its expansion, than either the bow or compressed air. In the present century, therefore, advantage is taken of this natural agent, and whether in the shape of gunpowder, guncotton, or any other still more active material, in all cases there is an extraordinary impulse communicated to some projectile which is placed between one or other of these, and the only passage by which the elastic gas resulting from the explosion can escape.
The conditions at present essential to our branch of gunnery are, first, the existence of a tube of iron capable of being closed at one end, with the exception of a small opening for firing its contents. Within this and at the closed end is a charge of some explosive matter, which may be either gunpowder or guncotton, or any other agent, provided that it will suddenly expand to a sufficient extent when fired by contact with a burning substance. Between this and the muzzle is the projectile, which may consist of one mass of lead or of many smaller ones (in the latter case being called shot), which by the sudden explosion of the powder or cotton is driven in the direction of the long axis of the tube, with a tendency to fall to the earth as it progresses, in conformity with the law of gravitation.
CLASSIFICATION OF MODERN GUNS AND RIFLES.
All guns, therefore, consist of a tube more or less cylindroconoidal, closed at one end, with the exception of a small