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dog: but some animals are so delicate, that they refuse to range with it, and yet are difficult to stop; altogether, however, it is an exceedingly useful mode of bringing dogs under command, but it is not so necessary for the pointer as for the spaniel, or even the setter, which is a bolder, hardier, and more headstrong dog than the pointer. In very unruly animals it is applied to a leathern collar containing short spikes in its internal surface, and the cord being suddenly pulled, the “spiked collar” enters the skin and gives considerable pain. With a hearty pull, however, the plain collar punishes sufficiently for most cases, and I should rarely think of using anything more for the purpose of breaking the dog from either of the vices for which this remedy is provided.
FIELD SPANIELS AND THEIR BREAKING.
GENERAL REMARKS ON SPRINGERS AND COCKERS—THE CLUMBER AND
SUSSEX SPANIELS-THE NORFOLK AND OTHER BREEDS-THE WELSH AND DEVONSHIRE COCKER-THE KING CHARLES AND BLENHEIMSHUNTING SPANIELS BY FOOT-SCENT - ALL TAUGHT TO RETRIEVEPRELIMINARY EDUCATION-ENTERING AND BREAKING.
GENERAL REMARKS ON SPRINGERS AND COCKERS.
FIELD spaniels, as distinguished from water spaniels and toy dogs, are divided into springers and cockers—the former being used for hunting pheasants and hares, while the latter are chiefly employed as is designated by their name, for the woodcock. The springer is considerably larger than the cocker, and heavier in frame, as well as in the head. From this large size he is unable to follow out any but large runs in covert, and will often pass the woodcock as a consequence of this. Indeed it sometimes happens that the pheasant or the hare will pass where he cannot squeeze his body, but generally he will contrive to thrust it through with great fatigue to himself. Of the springers there are three chief varieties—the Clumber, the Sussex, and the Norfolk-as shown in the annexed illustration; while among the cockers there are no specific and well-marked kinds now in use, but the Welsh and the Devonshire, though in many parts we meet with small spaniels used for the purpose which cannot be referred to either of these subdivisions of the dog.
The Clumber Spaniel is a large, very long, and low spaniel, of a white and lemon colour, with a wide and flat head, and long ears. This breed has been confined to the Duke of Newcastle's kennels until within the last few years, and hence its name “Clumber;" but it is now very generally dispersed over the south of England-indeed, wherever preserves of pheasants are met with, this spaniel is almost sure to be treasured. His legs are remarkably short and strong, and his pace in hunting is slow; while his muteness is admired by those who only require him in aid of the beaters in a battue. For wild pheasant shooting he is not so useful, as his master cannot tell wbere he is, or when he is on game. His coat is thick, but silky rather than woolly, and he is well feathered all round. A good team of these spaniels is worth 301. a piece.
The Sussex Spaniel resembles the Clumber in being a long, low, and strong dog, but he is not so weasel-like in his proportions, and is of a deep liver colour instead of being lemon and white. He is also rather stronger and heavier, especially in the forehead, but the chief difference is in his “questing,” or giving tongue instead of being mute. This dog is admirably represented in the engraving which faces this article.
The Norfolk Spaniel is shorter in the back than either of the two above described, and he is generally of a black and white colour, sometimes liver and white, but almost always having more or less ticks about the body. All the large varieties of field spaniels, without any crisp curl of the hair, and not coming under the designation of Clumber or Sussex, are usually called Norfolk spaniels.
The Devonshire and Welsh Cockers are two breeds, each used in the part of Great Britain which is implied by the name, and so closely resembling each other that I know no means of distinguishing the one from the other. Both may be described as light-working and active dogs, considerably