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the ball has lodged in the face or in the muscles of the neck. It is usual to aim a little behind the elbow in a quiet shot; but if the deer is going at any pace, a foot in front of this part will only compensate for it. With these slight indications of what is necessary for deer stalking, I must close the subject, repeating that my want of personal experience does not allow of further details.

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BOOK II.

THE ANIMALS USED BY THE SHOOTER, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT IN THE KENNEL

AND THE FIELD.

CHAPTER I.

POINTERS AND SETTERS.

POINTERS (SPANISH AND ENGLISH)—SETTERS (ENGLISH, IRISH, AND RUS

SIAN)-INTRODUCTORY REMARKS ON BREAKING-PREPARATORY EDUCATIOX-BREAKING AT PAIRING TIME-AUTUMNAL BREAKING TO THE GUN-REMEDIES FOR FAULTS.

POINTERS (SPANISH AND ENGLISH). In this country there are several varieties of the pointer still tolerably distinct from each other, but all running the one into the other so as to make the divisions far from distinct. Of these varieties, the old Spanish dog, now very rare, the heavy English pointer, and the light English dog, may be taken as the three types, as exhibited on the opposite page. The old Spanish pointer is now very seldom met with, but he is undoubtedly the original of all the existing breeds. The Spanish dog is generally considered to be descended from the hound, one of which is supposed to have shown a disposition to point, and this faculty being encouraged and "bred to,” in time there has been produced the peculiar animal which is now so common. No dog is gifted with a more keen sense of smell, and in none is the development of the cavities of the nose more marked. He has also a large brain, and shows great intelligence and docility, as well as high scenting powers. It is from the extraordinary condition of the nervous system that he becomes rigid when excited by the scent of game; and though this state may be

imitated to some extent in other breeds, yet in none is it so clear as in this, resembling in the highly-bred pointer the disease known by the name of catalepsy. But, coupled with this large brain and broad nose, is a heavy and unwieldy body, which is soon tired by work, and thus this kind of dog can only be used for three or four hours at a time.

The modern English pointer is the result of a cross of the Spanish dog with the greyhound or foxhound, by which the delicacy of the nerves of the nose, and of the other parts of the nervous system, is to a certain extent diminished, while the body is rendered much more light and elegant. In proportion to the amount of Spanish blood in any breed is the size of the head, while according to the number of crosses from the greyhound or foxhound is the body made light, strong, and active. The former of these is the better of the two for the purpose of crossing with the Spanish pointer, because he gives all the advantages of the foxhound without the disadvantage of the tendency to stoop in hunting and to chase “fur.” As the foxhound is crossed with the greyhound for the same purpose—that is, to give speed and endurance, the latter is in either case the real source of these qualities, and for this reason there is little doubt as to the desirability of choosing him in preference to his de scendant, the foxhound. It is said that some breeds, though light and active, are descended from the pure-bred Spanish pointer by choosing out the lightest puppies to continue the breed; but I fully believe that none are free from one or other of the strains above mentioned, excepting those which show a certain degree of heaviness about the shoulders and

a disproportion between the hind and fore quarters, which is not by any means desirable. This, however, is purely conjectural, as there are few pedigrees which can be traced back for many generations. The late Mr. Edge's breed is said to be so descended, and probably it can be carried back as far as any other; but even his is lost in obscurity, and cannot be proved to be pure any more than those of Lord Derby or Lord Sefton.

The points which are looked for in the modern English pointer, whether of the heavy or light breed, are as follows: Head wide rather than long, flat at the top, with a forehead

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