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knobbers, with small brow antlers; the SPIRE, a brow antler and half-developed beam, called uprights; a STAGGART, brow, tray, and uprights; a STAG, brow, bay, and tray, with one horn crocketted and the other single; a WARRANTABLE Stag has brow, bay, and tray antlers, with crockets on both horns. After this no rule can be given, as the horns constantly vary in all points; but if they have three points, the harts are called royal. The slot is the proper name, according to the laws of venerie, for the tread of the deer, which in the hind is much narrower and longer than that of the stag, especially at the toe. In the warrantable stag the heel measures fully two inches; if more than this, and deeply indented into the ground, he is a large heavy old hart; and such usually bring up their hind feet to the impression made by their fore feet. The deer's haunt is called his lair; where he lies, his harbour; where he rolls, his soiling-pool ; where he breaks through a fence, his rack; if he go to water, he takes soil ; if headed back, he is blanched ; if he lies down in water he is said to be sinking himself; an unwounded deer is called a cold hart. The red deer is rather a delicate animal, and bites close like a sheep, requiring an enormous range of pasturage to afford him such a choice and change as shall keep him in health. The hart ruts about the end of September, or beginning of October; and this period is exceedingly short, as compared with the sheep and goat, only lasting a single week. They show the change by a peculiar swelling of the neck, where they throw out a ruff of long hair; and at this time their flanks are tucked
from their refusing food and their tendency to fret. While rutting they are very restless, and roll constantly in the peat mosses, becoming often perfectly black with the soil that adheres to them. They are now wholly unfit for human food, and are never sought after by the sportsman, who selects, in preference, the more backward harts and the hinds, which are then just coming into season, but seldom yet fat and of good flavour. The rutting harts are exceedingly pugnacious, and terrible battles are constantly taking place for the possession of the females, a whole harem of which are the spoil of the conqueror. The period of gesta
tion in the hind is eight months; the fawn is left during the day concealed in the heather, and is only suckled at night. The suckling hind is poor and tasteless, and should be allowed to escape from the rifle-ball. Hinds which do not breed are called yeld-hinds. The direction of the deer's flight is almost always up-wind, in order to be forewarned, by their acute sense of smell, of any approaching danger. There is great difficulty in changing this instinctive course, but it may be done under certain circumstances. The hinds are always the most vigilant, and are set to give notice to the harts. The hinds are also always put first in the run, except in cases of great danger, when the master-hart comes forward and boldly faces it. The timidity of the red deer is very remarkable, and he can scarcely, except by compulsion, be induced to remain near the haunts of man. Every movement alarms him, from the cry of the plover to the flight of the hill-fox. He is more especially timid when he cannot make out the exact nature of the danger which threatens him; while, if he sees his great enemy-man, even com. paratively close to him, he is much more composed, though still wary, and never confused or flurried. When pressed he stands at bay, and in this position is a very dangerous antagonist for both dog and man, as he will defend himself with horns and hoof till the last extremity. By choice he selects water if pursued by dogs, as his instinct tells him that in this element his superior size and length of leg will give him a great advantage. Here few dogs can pull him down, and when they attempt to reach him by swimming they soon fall victims to the sharp points of his formidable horns. The red deer in Great Britain are confined to the most retired and inaccessible parts of the Highlands of Scotland, to the Quantock Hills of Somersetshire, and to some of the adjacent ranges of Devonshire; but, in addition to these, may be mentioned the deer confined in certain parks, as Richmond Park, &c.; but these can only be considered as deer in confinement. In Scotland only are they stalked, being reserved for hunting in the west of England.
The ROEBUCK (Capreolus caprea) is also an inhabitant of some of the Scotch deer-forests; but it is chiefly confined to the wooded parts, not choosing the mountainous and open
situations like the red deer. In size it is not to be compared to its larger congener, being only twenty-four inches in height. This little deer is seldom stalked, however, being easily driven towards the spot where the shooters are posted. Buck-shot are more frequently used than the bullet; but in many cases the rifle is preferred.
The Fallow DEER (Dama vulgaris) is only known in Great Britain as a denizen of our parks, where the individuals intended for the table are killed by the keeper with his rifle; but this can scarcely be considered sport, and it therefore will not be alluded to as such.
THE DEER-FORESTS OF SCOTLAND.
The following is a short summary of the deer-forests of Scotland according to Mr. Scrope, who is the chief authority in this matter:
First, those of Sutherland, the chief of which are the Dirrie-Chatt and Dirrie-Moss; the former being fifty miles long by an average of twenty miles wide, and the latter being about thirty miles by twenty. But, besides these, three smaller and detached forests are comprehended within this district — viz., the Parph, the Clibreck, and the DirrieMeanach. It is supposed that about 1500 red deer are at large in Sutherland.
Secondly, those comprised within Ross-shire are the Forests of Applecross and Gairloch, most of which are only adapted for the red deer, and are too wild and rugged even for sheep. Balnagown Forest is partly devoted to sheep, but red deer also are found here, and in Loch Broom, Castle-Leod, Novar, and Tulloch. The estate of Foulis is peculiarly adapted for the red deer, but is now too much frequented by the shepherd. Coigach, the property of Mr. Hay Mackenzie, is strictly preserved; and, in addition, the islands of Harris and Lewis are sure haunts of this noble specimen of the deer kind. At Coul, the property of Sir George Stuart Mackenzie, the red deer are very numerous, though it is only of late years that they have become so. Applecross is a celebrated forest, and contains large numbers of deer within its secure and sheltered corries and on its hill sides.
Thirdly, Inverness-shire contains the celebrated Glengarry Forest, which, from east to west, is about seven miles in extent; also, Glenfeshie, containing 13,704 Scotch acres, but now used as a sheep-walk. Gaick, consisting of 10,777 acres, strictly preserved by Sir Jos. Radcliffe; Drumauchtar, comprehending 5,782 acres, now used as a deer-forest by the Marquis of Abercorn; Glenavon, containing 22,086 acres, and held by the Duke of Richmond as a deer-forest, in connexion with Glenbuily and Glenfiddich, the former in the same shire, and containing 3,396 acres, the latter in Banff, and making up 5,522 acres: these all formerly belonged to the Duke of Gordon.
Fourthly, Aberdeenshire has within its limits Invercauld, eighteen miles in length by about three miles in width, and containing an enormous
number of deer, though these fluctuate so much as to be difficult to calculate. They are generally very fine and large, mainly owing to the excellence of the feed in this district, and the strictness with which they are maintained in an undisturbed condition. The Forest of Mar is also in Aberdeen, closely butting upon Invercauld, and consists of the four following glens, viz, Glenquoich, Glenluie, Glendee, and Glenduildy. Its length is about fifteen miles, and its breadth eight; and it is supposed to hold 3000 deer. It is the property of the Earl of Fife.
Fifthly, Argyleshire contains the Forest of Corrichibah, in the district of Glenorchy, the property of the Marquis of Breadalbane, and holding at least 1500 deer. It extends over 35,000 acres, and the nature of the ground is such as to render it one of the best deer-forests in Scotland.
Sixthly, Perth has also its Forest of Glenartney, the property of Lord Willoughby d'Eresby, and containing 2800 acres, with from 700 to 1000 deer; but its crowning glory, as far as sport is concerned, may be considered to reside in the Forest of Athol, in which 51,708 imperial acres are devoted exclusively to the red deer, with the exception only of Glen Tilt, where sheep are sometimes admitted; 7000 deer are now supposed to be at large in Athol, but, at the lowest computation, there must be from 4000 to 6000. This noble property is strictly preserved by the Duke of Athol, and deer stalking is here carried to that degree of perfection which has been so well described by Mr. Scrope.
And seventhly, in the Hebrides, also, red deer are found, and chiefly in the islands of Jura, Mull, and Skye; but they are here in much less numbers than on the mainland: yet in Jura alone there are said to be 500, and in Skye about half that number,
The dog employed to pull down the wounded red deer is that known as the deer-hound, which resembles a large greyhound in shape, but is clothed with very coarse wiry hair, considerably longer than that of the smooth greyhound; the face is bearded with this hair like that of the Scotch terrier, or otter-hound, but there is no intermixture of wool as in the undercoats of those dogs, and the hair is of a coarser and more wiry character. The deer-bound hunts both by scent and view, abandoning the use of the nose when his game comes within the scope of his eye. The mode of using this dog is to hold him in slips, generally with a companion, till he is wanted, and then slipping him either in view of his game, or else being put on the scent, he follows it up as long and as well as his powers will allow. The true deer-hound is now extremely rare, most of those supposed to be of the breed being merely rough greyhounds. Indeed, it is very difficult to distinguish the one from the other, the only external mark being the carriage of the head in running, which is low in the greyhound and high in the deer-hound. A cross between the greyhound and foxhound has been tried, and found to answer well. According to Mr. Scrope, an infusion of bulldog blood, with the intention of giving courage, fails, because the produce follows the peculiar habit of this breed in attacking the stag in front, and is consequently impaled on his horns.
The telescope is quite as necessary for stalking as the rifle, and it should be of the very best make, especially in deer stalking, in order to detect the stag at a great distance, even if, as is often the case, his horns only are visible. A large field is incompatible with great power, and therefore the