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tuous, the covetous, and the religious. Time. But Time will have someThe night before which they must thing to do with him, and sends him attain thither is the end of their life. that unwelcome messenger, Sickness, The gates are the opportunity of to warn him of the near approach of grace and mercy. The enemies that impartial Death. Now he calls for surprise them if they be shut out are his physician, Repentance. He would Satan and his angels. The first re- leave all vanity and begin his journey; solves to be at heaven by night, but but, alas ! his time is short and the trouble meets him in the form of a way is long. There is no hope of wicked law-broker, and puts such his seasonable arrival. tricks into his head, whereby he may The third is the covetous churl. vex his neighbours, that he presently “And I promise you,” saith he, draws his sword, which is some writ Jerusalem is a goodly place. I will or process, and furiously lays about thither sure.” But temptation meets him, till, having tired out all his ad- him in the form of a wedge of gold. versaries, he wearies the judge, the He likes it well; it dazzleth his eye, advocate, the attorney, and, which is and fires his heart with a desire to most strange, his indefatigable soli- get it. He is advised to betake citor, and makes his peripatetical himself to his tools, and refuse no profession tedious to him. The labour for it, without which he canlawyer hath his term and vacation; not hope to obtain it. What are but this man hath no term, of his those engines? The mattock of opterm no vacation. till death serve a pression, to strike into the bowels of subpoena upon him from the star the innocent; the spade of labochamber of heaven. Now, perhaps, riousness, wherewith he must toil he would make his peace and be and tire his own flesh; the hook of quiet, but now, alas ! he must enter plausible attraction, to draw in cheatinto everlasting disquiet, and fall able customers; the rake of peminto the hands of worse furies than rious business, whose teeth are always ever before he had either found, scraping together; the shovel of dismade, or employed.

sembling closeness, whereby he may The next is the profane wanton,and accumulate and multiply his heaps he would also be saved, but tempta- and hoards; the mine of policy, to tion meets him in the shape of plea- take all advantages; the petard of sure, which so bewitcheth him with usury, to blow up whole estates. her painted beauty, that he thinks With these instruments he must her all sweetness. Not unlike Issa- work, starving the poor, his servants, char (Gen. xlix. 14, 15), he sees the himself; for he is good to none, land pleasant, and he even lays him worse to himself. He lives miserdown couching like an ass between ably to die damnably. the two burdens of excess and un- For the last, he that fears God and cleanness. Time remembers him by loves the Lord Jesus travels on tohis looking-glass, and diseases pinch ward eternal life, yet not without him by the arm to break off his some interruptions. Sin is somemethod of sensuality and vicissitu- times wrapped up in the temptation dinary sins ; but he will not believe of wealth, and he may stay to look them, pleading against them-yea, upon it; sometimes in a beauteous rather, against himself—that his face, as Michal was given David to bones are full of marrow, his roses ensnare him, and he may cast a are not withered, old age and he are transient eye upon it, often in the strangers, he hath nothing to do with disguise of friendship, and that pre

me

vails so far with him as to discourse it. He that is much in prayer with it. He ineets with divers as- shall

grow rich in grace. He shall saults; but though, like Jonathan, thrive and increase most that is he tastes of the world's honey, he will busiest in this, which is our very not feed on it; and whensoever he traffic with heaven, and fetches the wanders, the Spirit of grace recollects most precious commodities thence. him, and draws him as the angels But the true art of this trading is did Lot out of Sodom; otherwise he very rare. Every trade has somewere in danger of being benighted, thing wherein the skill of it lies; and, do what he can, he hath time but this is deep and supernaturalis little enough.

Therefore he con- not reached by human industry. Includeth, “If I loiter, I shall be locked dustry is to be used in it, but we out. Unloose me from the bonds of must know the faculty of it comes sin, happy repentance ! Defend me, from above—that spirit of prayer, faith! Hold up, patience! without which learning, and wit, and Strengthen me, zeal! I come! Lord religious breeding can do nothing Jesus, open the gate! I come! I Therefore, this is to be our prayer come !" - THOMAS ADAMS.

often, our great suit for the spirit of

prayer, that we may speak the lanPRAYER.

guage of the sons of God by the Spirit

of God, which alone teaches the Prayer is not a smooth expression, heart to pronounce aright those or a well-construed form of words; things that the tongue of many hynor the product of a ready memory, pocrites can articulate well to man's nor rich invention, exciting itself in ear; and only the children in that the performance. These may draw a right strain that takes Him, call God neat picture of it, but still the life is their Father, and cry unto Him as wanting. The motion of the heart their Father. And, therefore, many Godwards, holy and divine affection, poor unlettered Christians far outmakes prayer real, and lively, and strip your school-rabbis in this acceptable to the living God, to faculty, because it is not effectually whom it is presented ; the pouring taught in these lower academies; out of thy heart to Him that made they must be in God's own school, it, and therefore hears it, and under- children of His house, that speak His stands what it speaks, and how it is language.

But for advanemoved and affected in calling on ing in this, and growing more skilful Him. It is not the gilded paper and in it, prayer is, with continual de good writing of a petition that pre- pendence on the Spirit, to be much vail with the king, but the moving used. Praying much, thou shalt be sense of it; and to the King that blessed with much faculty for it. discerns the heart, heart-sense is the By praying, thou shalt learn to pray. sense of all, and that which He alone Thou shalt obtain more of the Spirit, regards; He listens to hear what and find more the cheerful working that speaks, and takes all as nothing of it in prayer, when thou puttest it when that is silent. All other ex- often to that work for which it recellence in prayer is but the outside ceived and wherein it is delighted.and fashion of it: that is the life of LEIGHTON.

613

Reviews.

66

The Genius of the Gospel : a Homiletical bosom a thought.” Somebody's religion

Commentary on the Gospel of St. is called a “sacred verbaility," and in Matthew. By David THOMAS, D.D. another place an ordinance is called Edited by the Rev. W. WEBSTER, “ initiational.” A class of persons who M.A. London: Jackson, Walford, & fear the truth are “truth-dreaders,” and Co. 1864. 8vo. pp. 735.

so on.

But a far more serious defect is the For the past fourteen years, Dr. scornful way in which Dr. Thomas speaks Thomas has been wont to place in the of the theologians of past days, and of pages of his magazine, The Homilist, those who still think that the Bible conthe substance, and in some cases the full tains doctrines as well as precepts. “Dogmanuscript, of his Lords’-day discourses. matists,” “theologues," "traditionalists," He has now collected and arranged them “ miserable sectarians," “ traditional in this bulky volume, first submitting saints," " men who live in dogmas and them to the critical revision of the Rev. ceremonies,” are a few of the gentle terms W. Webster. We are not able to con- by which he designates the schools of cur in all the praise Mr. Webster be- theology he dislikes. According to Dr. stows on Dr. Thomas's labours; but, as Thomas, these unfortunate teachers are a whole, these homilies are fresh in guilty of “incoherent declamation," thought, skilfully planned, and often wordy redundancies," " dry formalities impressive in their presentation of truth. of logic;" in their sermons they speak They are homilies-ethical rather than more in the official than in the indivitheological discourses-aiming to enforce dual voice ;” they live in the “ mere expractical truths, more than to expound ternalities” of truth and godliness; they doctrines. With this in view, Dr. are men“ whose conceptions have been Thomas does not always give the true narrow, superficial, material ; whose Gossense of the Evangelist's words--as, for pel has been a little bundle of crude example, in his commentaries on the notions, attractive to the thoughtless, parables. The meaning he attaches to but, verily, repulsive to all other minds." these striking allegories is, in several Such is Dr. Thomas's opinion of his cases, not that primarily intended by our contemporaries. “We are not,” he says, Lord. Yet no one will say that the denouncing obsolete characters ; they moral lessons educed from them are not are living now." fairly within the scope of the language On the other hand, Dr. Thomas's employed.

sympathies are with those who are disAs a literary work, the excellences of tinguished by great spirituality of soul,” the volume are marred by two or three liberality of thought, and “ a philosophic great defects. The first is Dr. Thomas's insight to the laws of the mind;" with fondness for pedantic words and phrases. those rising spirits in every church that Thus, in the course of a few pages,

such are practically indifferent to its little words and phrases as the following are points of ceremony and minor shades of met with, and make one long for creed. Dr. Thomas is, of course, one of some literary academy by which every them. He exhibits no theological dogviolence done to our English speech, and matism: he has broken away from the every violation of good taste, might au- trammels of religious routine! He can thoritatively be condemned. An angel soar into the empyrean, can grasp the is spoken of who shall“ course his down- stars, and flood us poor mortals with the ward way and inbreathe to the distracted purest light!

To speak plainly. Of all the theological drink it into you, as you would drink this writers of the present day, there is not

wine. This is the sublime reality of the one deserving of severer reproof than the

service; the material act is but the form. author of this volume, for the

His self-sacrificing spirit is the water of life, fault

very which he so volubly charges on others.

which He is to give, which, if we drink, we

shall thirst no more; the bread of life which No man dogmatizes more confidently

came down from heaven, which, if a man than he, or displays greater one-sidedness

eat, he shall never die. To have this is to and prejudice. We may say in refe- be made conformable unto His death is to rence to Dr. Thomas what he himself have His life manifest in our mortal bodies. has said of others :

• Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my

blood, hath eternal life;'—that is, whoso ap“We want men who have neither the vanity

propriates the moral spirit of my being, to suppose that they have fully sounded the

hath eternal life.”—pp. 652, 653. depths of theological truth, nor the arrogance to pronounce those heretic who neither adopt Dr. Thomas then proceeds to say that their notions nor use their nomenclature; but there is an “absolving virtue" in the act who, on the contrary, have grace to believe

of participation. Our Lord said, “ Drink in their own fallibility, and, like John, in a teaching higher than their own.”

ye all of it; for this is my blood of the

New Testament, which is shed for many But the above are faults of manner.

for the remission of sins." The comWe must now proceed, at the risk of

mentary is as follows:being regarded as “theologues” and

“The New Testament means the Gospel “ dogmatists,” to question Dr. Thomas's

dispensation, in contradistinction to the fitness as a teacher of Scriptural truth. Mosaic one. The Mosaic one was sealed Dr. Thomas may be a staunch believer with blood, sprinkled by Moses upon the in the doctrine of the Atonement; but this people; the Gospel dispensation was to be volume of more than seven hundred sealed with the blood of Christ. His blood pages on the “Genius of the Gospel was not only the New Testament blood, but iş, to say the least, singularly reticent

blood shed for many'-for all-Jews and about it. Once, Dr. Thomas quotes the

Gentiles; and shed for all, for the remission

of sins. It is through this self-sacrificing passage, " the blood of Jesus Christ his

love of Christ, symbolized by the blood, that Son cleanseth us from all sin ; He is the the remission of sins becomes possible; and propitiation for our sins, and not for

it is only as this self-sacrificing love of Christ ours only, but for the sins of the whole is drunk in by us, appropriated by us, that world,” to prove that God can dispense the remission of our sins is obtained. There pardon on a ground honourable to His is sufficient virtue in Christ's sacrifice to obcharacter, and safe to His government.

tain pardon for the world; but, unless that

principle of sacrifice is taken in by us, acted With this exception, the volume is either silent on this important subject, or em

upon by us, our sins will never be pardoned.” ploys language so like that of the school of Mr. Maurice as to give rise to the In all this, the idea that Christ's fear that Dr. Thomas's views have been

death is an expiation for sin is wholly influenced by them. What, for instance, absent. Attention is entirely given to can be made of the following statements the moral effect of Christ's death on us, in the homily on the Passover and the

not at all to the changed relation with Lord's Supper?

God into which the sinner is brought

by the Great Sacrifice for sin. 'The *Why are we to eat the bread and drink Biblical doctrine is, that the sacrifice of the wine? Because the act symbolizes the Christ consisted in His offering up Himimportant duty of appropriating to ourselves self to God as the victim-substitute for that self-sacrificing

spirit of which the phy- guilty man, whereby an atonement was sical crucifixion of Christ was but the expression and the effect. The spiritual meaning

made for man's guilt. Dr. Thomas's docof these words may be thus expressed:-Take 'trine seems to be, that the crucifixion of my self-sacrificing spirit into you; let your

Christ was but the expression and effect soul feed on it, as your body would on bread; of His self-sacrificing spirit (the italics

-P. 653.

ac

are Dr. Thomas's), and that His blood arrogant contempt of our predecessors was shed for the remission of the sins of so often displayed. those who possess the same self-sacrificing spirit. That the death of the Redeemer was an unequalled act of love is An Apology for the Adoption of Pædotrue enough. But it was more than baptism ; with an Appendix on the this-it was an act of propitiation made Possibility of Union between the to God on behalf of man. This view of Congregational and Baptist DenomiChrist's sacrifice Dr. Thomas has wholly nations. By the Rev. John R. S. omitted from consideration.

HARINGTON, late of the Bristol BapThis reticence is even more remark- tist College. London: John Snow, able in the Homily entitled “ Christ on 1864. Pp. 31. the Cross.' Here, at all events, we might expect a distinct enunciation of Mr. Harington has given his reasons the truth. The lessons that the awful for departing from amongst us in so scene of the Crucifixion suggests would modest and Christian a manner, as to surely include the purpose of that agony, deserve entire credit for conscientiousness the object to be attained by that “ in the step he has taken, and for the sincursed” death. But according to our cerity of his new belief. These moral author, Christ upon the Cross presents excellencies do not, however, secure coronly the four following aspects :—“He rect reasoning ; and in this respect Mr. is to be regarded as the victim of wick. Harington's defence seems to us a conedness; as the exemplar of religion; as spicuous failure. To follow him over all the deserted of Heaven ; and as the the grounds on which he rests the justipower of God.” He exhibited on the fication of his change of position, would cross the highest love for enemies, the involve a discussion of the whole pædohighest filial affection, the highest con- baptist question, for which we have no fidence in the Eternal. He felt distant inclination. Nor is it necessary, since from God, and was in terrible amaze. every point has been amply discussed in ment. He displayed power over nature, the pages of Carson and Stovel. It will and over the spiritual world. And this suffice to adduce two or three speci. is all. “He was delivered for our of- mens of Mr. Harington's mode of reafences ; Christ died for the ungodly," soning to test the intellectual quality of says the Apostle Paul. “Christ died the arguments by which his judgment for our sins, according to the Scrip

has been convinced. tures." Yet of this great purpose Dr. Our author divides his treatise into Thomas says not one word, although two sections-1. The Spiritual Signitreating of that dread hour in which ficance of Baptism. 2. The Unrestricted "He was wounded for our transgressions, Application of Baptism. Under the first and bruised for our iniquities.”

head he treats of the mode ; under the It is probable that, in his horror of second of the subjects of baptism. following in the steps of other theolo- At starting he tells us, that “if bapgians, Dr. Thomas has simply turned tism be the symbol of a spiritual fact, it aside from this great theme as too trite. cannot be also the symbol of a material It is not that he rejects the doctrine of act, such as burial.” Why baptism may the Atonement; he only wishes to take not be a symbol of both a spiritual fact a broader view, and so overlooks the gem and a material act, Mr. Harington does sparkling at his feet. It is truth; but it not explain ; but at once proceeds to is old truth, and the world wants some- state his conclusion, that for this reason thing new. In search of novelties, many arguments for immersion drawn from are drifting they know not where. It the words of the Apostle Paul, buried may be, as they say, that they are seek with him in baptism,' lose their force.” ing to know the Lord's will more fully ; Presently, however, we find that it is but of this we are sure, that the spirit of not the mode which is the symbol of the reverence and humility is a better pre- spiritual fact, but the matter —the water. paration for its discovery than that “The element we contend for, not the

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