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IN ACTIONS

IN THE

COURTS OF RECORD IN THE STATE OF

NEW YORK,

UNDER

THE CODE OF PROCEDURE,

AND OTHER STATUTES, WHERE APPLICABLE.

WITH

AN APPENDIX OF FORMS.

BY

HENRY WHITTAKER,

COUNSELLOR AT LAW.

THIRD EDITION, IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

NEW YORK:

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR. SOLD BY J. S. VOORHIES, NEW YORK, AND ALL THE PRINCIPAL LAW BOOKSELLERS

THROUGHOUT THE STATE

1863.

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Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1852, by

HENRY WHITTAKER, AUTHOR AND PROPRIETOR,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the

Southern District of New York.

Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1854, by

HENRY WHITTAKER, AUTHOR AND PROPRIETOR,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the

Southern District of New York.

Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1863, by

HENRY WHITTAKER, AUTHOR AND PROPRIETOR,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the

Southern District of New York.

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TABLE OF CONTENTs.

BOOK WILL

PAGre

§ 159. Proceedings before appearance........................................... 1

(a) Examination of papers served..................................... 1

(b.) Removal to United States Courts.................................. 2

§ 160. Appearance and its incidents............................. - - - - - - - - - - ... ... 7

(a) Demand of copy of complaint...................................... 10

§ 161. Motions consequent on, or preliminary to appearance..... -------------- ... ... 10

(a.) Motions on ground of defects in summons........................... 12

(b.) Motion to dismiss for want of service.............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 12

(c.) Motions on ground of defects in summons and complaint....... . . . . . . . 13

(d) Motion to stay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

(e.) Motion to elect............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15

(f) Other preliminary applications....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . 16

(g) Motions in relation to parties or interpleader........................ 16

§ 162. Proceedings to obtain information.

(a.) Demand of account or particulars.................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 17

(b.) Discovery, &c.......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21

$153. Precautionary proceedings.

(a.) Security for costs................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22

(b.) Change of venue into proper county........... -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29

(c) Tender. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32

§ 164. Offer to compromise.

(a.) Compromise, generally considered........................... . . . . . . . 37

§ 165. Proceedings preliminary to answer.

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§ 166. Time to plead.................. -------------- -------------------------- 39

(a) Extension of time by consent............................. --------- 41

(b.) Extension of time by order........................................ 42

(c) Neglect to extend in due time. ----------------------............... 44

(d) Extension of time by effect of amendment........................... 46

(e.) Extension by effect of arrest....................................... 46

§ 167. Relief where default suffered........................ --------------------- 46

CHAPTER II.

DEMURRER.

§ 168. Its nature and office..................................................... 48

§ 169. Grounds of demurrer.................................................... 51

(a.) Subdivision 1. Want of jurisdiction................................. 52

(b.) -- 2. Want of legal capacity to sue......................... 53

(c.) ... 3. Pendency of another action .......................... 54

(d) i. 4. Defect of parties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................. 55

(e.) -- 5. Misjoinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

(f) -- 6. Insufficiency....................................... 59

$170. Form and mode of demurrer.............................................. 61

(a) Statement of grounds............................................ 62

(b.) Demurrer and answer, how far compatible .......................... 64

§ 171. Omission to demur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

§ 172. Frivolous demurrer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . es

§ 173. Course on service of decision on demurrer.................................. 69

(a) Demurrer by answer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- - - - - - - - - 71

CHAPTER III.

ANSWER.

§ 174. Its office and requisites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 71

(a) Matters of form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 72

(b.) Relief as between co-defendants............ ...................... 73

(c.) Restrictions on answer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

(d) Personal requisites or privileges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................... 73

§ 175. Demurrer by answer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 74

§ 176. Denial of plaintiff's case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

§ 177. Statement of new matter... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

(a.) General considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

(b) Further division of subject. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

§ 178. Statement of new matter, continued. Special defences...................... . 88

(a) Estoppel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.

(b) Former adjudication... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 103

(c.) Accord of satisfaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

(d.) Payment....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

(e.) Tender... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

(f) Statutory defences. General remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

(g) Statute of Frauds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

(h) Statute of Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

(i.) Plea of Plene Administravit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Page

(k) Illegality......... - - - - - - - - - - ---- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 126

(l) Usury.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . 127

$179. Statement of new matter. Ordinary defences............................ ... 133

(a.) General considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Subdivision 1. Defences in tort.................. ------------- - - - - - 134

(b.) Libel and slander................... - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

(c.) Assault and battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - . 136

(d) False imprisonment and malicious prosecution ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

(e.) Seduction. Breach of promise. Actions for breach of duty or contract... 137

(f) Escape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - 138

(g) Common carriers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

(h.) Actions on the ground of fraud............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 139

(i) Trover, &c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 139

(j.) Replevin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ----------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 140

Subdivision 2. Defences in contract.

(k) Bills, promissory notes, and checks.................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 141

(1) Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 143

(m.) Judgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 143

(*) Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

(2) Goods sold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

(p.) Work, labor, and service................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 145

(4) Executory contracts ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

(r.) Stockholders and subscribers...................................... 145

Subdivision 3. Defences in equitable actions.

(*) Divorce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

(t) Specific performance............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

(*) Foreclosure .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 147

Subdivision 4. Defences in real estate actions.

(*) Partition.................................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 148

(w) Ejectment.................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... . . . . . 148

(z) Trespass................................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 149

$180. Counter-claim or set-off............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... . . . . 149

(a.) General considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......' 150

(b) Recoupment........................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ..... 153

(c.) Set-off, strictly considered..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 155

(d) Counter-claim........................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... . . . . . 161

CHAPTER IV.

CotsRSE OF THE PLAINTIFF ON RECEIPT OF THE DEFENDANT's PLEADING.

§ 181. Proceedings in impeachment of adverse pleading............................ 169

(a) General examination, formal defects................................ 169

(b.) Substantial defects, how impeached................................ 169

(c) Applications under section 152. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

(d) Application under section 247..................................... 176

(e.) Form and incidents of above motions...... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 178

(f) Motions to elect. . . . . . . .......................................... 180

(g) Motions on ground of contempt.............................. ... . . 181

$182. Motion to satisfy admitted portions of demand.............................. 182

$183. Amendment of complaint................................................ 185

$184. Discontinuance.......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . 186

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