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for internal development, and at the time of the raised the standard for James, all the discontented Union she was without manufactures, shipping, or in both kingdoms would join them in an attempt to commerce. With the end of her independent na- restore him to the throne of his fathers. tionality a new social life began, and a spirit of industry and enterprise was awakened, which has

THE JACOBITE RISING. since raised her people to their present eminence in To give to such an attempt the least chance of trade, manufactures, and agriculture. The Union success, three conditions were necessary. First, struck the last blow at the Scottish nobles. They that the rising should take place at the same time were not placed by any means on the same level in both kingdoms; secondly, that it should be with the peers of the sister kingdom. It brought helped by France; and thirdly, that the prince for to the commons, who during this period had been whom it was made should come among his people, much despised and oppressed, an increase in dignity and lead them in person.

All three were wanting and independence, by admitting them to a share in in this unfortunate rebellion. James made no perthe liberty and privileges which the commons of sonal effort to get the crown on the death of his sisEngland had won for themselves with the sword. ter, though six weeks passed before George came But what did even more for the prosperity of Scot- over from Hanover. During this interval James land was the removal of all restrictions on her issued a manifesto from Plombières, Aug. 29, 1714. trade, which was now placed on the same footing as In this manifesto he asserted his right to the crown, that of the larger kingdoin.

and explained that he had remained quiet while his Though the Union was such a good thing for sister lived, because he had no doubt of her good Scotland, the people were a long time in finding intentions towards him. A year, however, was althis out. The old national jealousy was aroused; lowed to pass before any active steps were taken. they thought that their dearly-loved independence Just when the plans for the rising were all made, was being sacrificed. There were riots in different Louis XIV. of France, who was the best friend the places; and though the people were quieted by the Chevalier had, died, and was succeeded by the next assurance that the insignia of loyalty, the regalia or heir, his great-grandson, an infant. The Duke of crown jewels, should not be carried out of the king- Orleans, who became regent, was disposed to be dom, for long afterwards the Union was very un- friendly to the government of England; indeed his popular, and had to bear the blame of everything regency was one of the few times when there was that went wrong. There was still, too, a large any real friendliness between the two countries. By party, chiefly in the Highlands, attached to James his order some ships lying at Havre, which had Stuart, known as the Chevalier de St. George or been fitted out for James, were unloaded, and the the Old Pretender, as the Whigs called him. Jac- arms stored in the royal magazines. These ships obitism, which was in England a mere empty word were intended for the succor of the rebels in Scotused to express any sort of discontent with the ex- land, where the standard was raised for James by isting state of things, meant something more in John Erskine, earl of Mar, at the junction of the Scotland. There it was the traditionary feeling of Clung and the Dee, Sept. 6, 1715. Mar had begun loyalty and love towards the ancient line of kings; life as a Whig, but had changed sides so often that and for James, their representative, there were he was nicknamed “Bobbing John.” He had admany who were ready to venture their lands, or dressed a loyal letter to King George on his accestheir life if need were. As long as Anne lived there sion, but as, by the change of ministry, he lost his was no excuse for an outbreak, for she, too, was a office of secretary of state for Scotland and saw no Stuart, and it was hoped that her brother might hope of getting it back again, he became an ardent succeed her.

Jacobite, and the leader of the party in Scotland. When Anne died, the son of Sophia, George, The very day before he set off to raise the Highelector of Hanover, succeeded without opposition, lands for James he attended a levee of the king. according to the Act of Settlement.

Before long, Before his going north he sent letters to the prinhe and his German favorites became very unpopu- cipal Jacobites, inviting them to a hunting-match. lar. This gave the Jacobites hopes that, if they At this meeting they all swore to be true to gne another, and to Mar, as James's general. The gov- Twelve years later came the Porteous Riots. One ernment suspended the Habeas Corpus Act, and Wilson, a smuggler, was hanged at the Grass Maroffered £100,000 ($500,000) for seizing the Pre- ket. He was, however, very popular, and the tender, dead or alive.

guard at the execution was pelted with stones. On Argyle commanded for the English government, this, Porteous, captain of the city guard, ordered Mar for the Jacobites. The battle of Sheriffmuir his men to fire, and several eminent persons in the was claimed by both. After the battle Argyle went crowd were killed and wounded. Porteous was back to Stirling, and Mar to Perth. There the tried, and condemned to death as a murderer, but clans began to desert him, going home as usual a reprieve was sent down from London. On the with their plunder, while Argyle's force was in- evening before the day which had been fixed for the creased by six thousand Dutch troops.

execution of the sentence, while Porteous was feastJames at last made his appearance, but not till ing with his friends to celebrate his escape from his followers had been taken prisoners in the one danger, the people gathered in great numbers. To country and had lost their spirit in the other. He insure against surprise they disarmed the city landed at Peterhead, Dec. 22, attended by only six guard, took their weapons, and themselves guarded persons. He was met by Mar, and went on to the gates, so as to prevent any tidings being carried Scone, whence he issued six proclamations, and to the regiment quartered in the suburbs. Then fixed his coronation for January 23.

The news of they marched to the Tolbooth, formerly the Parliahis landing had somewhat revived the spirit of his ment House, but now used as a prison. The door followers, but, when they met, both parties were was so strong that it defied all their efforts to burst disappointed; James with their scanty numbers, it open. They set fire to it, upon which the jailor and they with his heaviness and stupidity. Soon threw out the keys. Leaving the door open to let after, a vessel coming from France with gold for the other prisoners escape, they then went straight the rebels was stranded and the money lost. At to Porteous's cell, dragged him out of the chimney, last Argyle began to advance against James, who where he was hiding, and carried him to the Grass retreated from Pertl., greatly to the disgust of the Market, the place of public execution. . There they clans. From Perth they went to Dundee, and from hanged him to a dyer's pole with a rope they had thence to Montrose. Twelve hours after they had taken from a dealer's stall on the way, and in payleft Perth Argyle entered it, but he was so slack in ment for which they had left a guinea. his pursuit of the rebels as to give rise to suspicions of his own loyalty. A few days later, Feb. 4, James

THE FORTY-FIVE." set sail secretly for France with Mar and some other In 1719 there was a small attempt made to get nobles. He left a letter for Argyle, and all the up another Jacobite rising. This attempt was money he had with him for the benefit of the poor favored by Spain, which, just at this time, under people in the villages round Perth, which had been the guidance of Cardinal Alberoni, minister of burnt by his order. His men, grieved and disap- Philip V., once more began to take an active part pointed to find that their leader had deserted them, in European affairs. England had joined the Quadwent back to their native glens. Most of the offi- ruple Alliance against Spain, which was therefore cers escaped to the Orkneys, and from thence to ready to help in an attempt to overthrow the Engthe Continent. The following year another Jacobite lish government. The Marquess of Tullibardine conspiracy was got up. In this both Spain and landed on the Lewis with a body of three hundred Sweden were concerned; Spain promised to help Spanish soldiers. But the stores and arms which with money, while Charles XII. of Sweden was to were to have been sent to him were lost on the way, invade Scotland with twelve thousand soldiers. It and, though about two thousand Highlanders muswas discovered, and prevented by the arrest of the tered, they were defeated at Glenshiels by the regupersons suspected of sharing in it.

lar troops. The Highlanders fled to the hills, while In 1713 there were riots over a proposed malt the Spaniards surrendered, and thus the attempt tax. The brewers of Edinburgh made a compact came to nothing. But the clans were still unsubto brew no more beer unless the tax were taken off. dued, and were ready to break out again at any

time. General Wade, who had been commanderin-chief since 1715, made excellent roads in many places where there had been none before, and an Act was passed for disarming the Highlanders. But this did more harm than good. The clans that were faithful to the government gave up their arms; but this only made them unable to resist the rebels, who kept theirs hidden and ready for use when occasion should come. England was now engaged in a continental war; most of the troops were out of the kingdom, and the time seemed favorable for another effort. France too promised help. Early in 1744 an army of 1,500 men under the command of Marshal Saxe, one of the most skilful generals in the French service, was collected at Dunkirk, and embarked in French transports for the invasion of England. But the fleet was dispersed by a storm, and the French were unwilling to give any further help.

The next year Charles Edward, son of the Old Pretender, called the Young Chevalier, who was to have led this expedition, determined to make a venture on his own account. Without money, without arms, with only seven followers, he landed at Moidart, on the west coast of Inverness, and called on the Jacobite clans to muster and follow him, July 25, 1745.

The standard of James was raised at Glenfillan, August 19, and the commission naming Charles regent in his stead was read to about one hundred motley but enthusiastic followers. Already a small band of them had had a foretaste of victory. Sir John Cope was sent to oppose the rebels with all the troops that the government could raise. Instead of bringing the enemy to battle, he let the Highland army, which was gathering like a snowball, pass him. While he went northward, it came down unopposed upon the Lowlands, entered Perth, and advanced towards Edinburgh, where James was proclaimed. Charles Edward summoned the city to surrender. The magistrates were for gaining time, till one morning a body of five hundred Camerons under Lochiel surprised and entered one of the city gates. They then secured the watchmen, opened the other gates, and thus the city was in the hands of the rebels. At noon of the same day the heralds and pursuivants were obliged to proclaim James at the Cross as King James VIII., and to read his Royal Declaration and the Commis

sion of Regency. Charles entered the city the same day, September 17, and took up his quarters in the Palace of Holyrood. That night all the Jacobites in the city gathered at a ball to celebrate his arrival.

Meanwhile Cope had brought back his troops by sea and landed them at Dunbar. Charles marched out from Edinburgh to meet him. At a village near Preston-pans, so called from the pans used there for crystallizing the sea-salt, the Highlanders defeated the regular troops, and came back triumphant to Edinburgh with the money and the cannon which they had taken, September 20. Charles lingered at Edinburgh, holding his court at Holyrood, till November 1, when he began his march towards England, at the head of an army of five to six thousand men. Carlisle surrendered to Charles, who left a garrison to defend the castle, and marched on unresisted through Preston and Manchester, as far as Derby, which he reached on December 4. Charles was now two days' march nearer London than the army under William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, son of George II., which had been sent to oppose him. A panic pre vailed in London, where the citizens expected hourly to see the wild Highlanders enter and spoil the city. Their fears were, however, unfounded. Jealousies and discord were rife among the rebel chiefs. At Derby Charles held a council of war. Some of his officers advised one thing, some another. But as they would not agree to march on to London without delay, Charles, sorely against his will, was obliged to give the order to retreat. The Jacobites had some further successes till the “butcher" Cumberland came to grapple with them. Charles hurried north, and entered Inverness, but the king's troops were closing round the rebels, who, cooped up in the barren mountains, were in the direst straits. All supplies sent from France were cut off before they reached them, and for several days they had no food but a little raw oatmeal.

Culloden Moor was the scene of the last battle fought on British ground. The rebels, who were nearly starving, and who had been worn out by a long march and an attempted night-attack that had altogether failed, soon gave way, and were easily routed by the duke's well-disciplined and nearly twice as numerous army, April 16, 1746. The French auxiliaries fled towards Inverness,

where they laid down their arms. The rebels lost plied his wants as well as they could, and used to one thousand men, a fifth of their whole number; go in disguise to the nearest town to pick up what the victors only three hundred and ten. About news they could. One day, as a great dainty, they twelve hundred of the fugitives rallied at Ruthven; brought him back a pennyworth of gingerbread. but Charles begged them to disperse, and every When he left them Charles joined two of his adherman sought his own safety as he best might. The ents, MacPherson of Cluny and Lochiel, and he after measures of the victors were disgraceful to all and they stayed in a strange hiding-place called the concerned. No quarter was given; the wounded Cage, on the side of Ben-alder, till two French veswere slaughtered in cold blood, or burnt in the sels appeared on the coast. In one of these he emhouses to which they had crawled for shelter. For barked, Sept. 20, at Lochnannagh, the same place three months martial law prevailed; the country where, fourteen monthis before, he had landed. was wasted, the houses burnt, the cattle lifted, the Thus Charles escaped to the Continent, but his people left to perish. It was not till July that the memory was long cherished in the country that had duke, who in Scotland was called the butcher, went suffered so much for him. He was compelled to back to London, where he was hailed as the deliv- leave France after the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, erer of his country, and rewarded with a pension of and ended an unsettled, discontented, dissipated £25,000 ($125,000) a year.

life at Rome in 1788. His brother Henry, called Charles, whose foolhardy ambition had brought the Cardinal of York, the last of the Stuart line, all this misery on his simple followers, passed five

survived him nearly twenty years. months in perilous wanderings. A great price was The separate history of Scotland, which may be set on his head; but, poor as the Highlanders were, said to have ceased with the Union, ends with the not one of them would stoop to win it by betraying "Forty-Five," and from that romantic episode is him. At one time, when he was tracked by the chiefly remarkable from its unconnected and fragsoldiers, he was saved by a young lady called Flora mentary character. But now that the two nations MacDonald, who got a passport for him under the have become so closely united, national jealousy and name of Betty Burke, her maid. In this disguise national pride are both alike well-nigh forgotten, he escaped to Skye. After this he came back to and Scotchmen are content to throw their energy the mainland, and lived for some time with seven and talents at home and in the colonies into the robbers in a cave. They kept him hidden and sup- common stock of British glory.

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HE national spirit created by the agi- have grown up; but the sad old tale of funds mis.

tation against Wood's halfpence appropriated, officials growing fat and children thin, never again forsook the “Protest- haunted the charter schools, and Howard, who visant garrison.” Their hatred of the ited them toward the end of the century, describes “Papist” softened into contemptuous a scandalous state of dirt, hunger, misery, and

indifference among the worldly, and squalor. among the religious into a desire to "compel them A more successful, because less bigoted, effort of to come in" to the pale of the Establishment. The patriotism was the Dublin Society, which was founded gentler spirits among the Anglicans, the good, high- about the same time as the schools, and which had minded Bishop Berkeley, Primate Boulter, and for its object the increase of industrial knowledge others felt that it was not by penal codes or persecu- and the encouragement of agriculture and manufactions that real conversions would be made, and in ture in Ireland. the hope of moulding the young in the ways of the The patriotism of Swift himself, though sincere, Establishment, charter schools were founded about was not of an exalted nature. For the Anglicans seven years after the close of the copper war. only he reserved his sympathy; and though all the

These charter schools were originally free day severe laws against the Catholics were passed durschools, where children of every creed could be ing his lifetime, he never wrote a word for the detaught and instructed in the orthodox Anglican fence of his oppressed countrymen. faith, but in this form they did not answer. Many of After his death, his place as leader was filled by the Catholic poor preferred ignorance to even a risk a man as honest, more bigoted, and infinitely less of heresy, and among such children as frequented able than the old dean-Charles Lucas, a Dublin the schools, home influence was far stronger than apothecary, now chiefly remembered as the founder any that could be gained at a day school. Accord- of the Freeman's Journal. Lucas entered the Irish ingly the institutions were changed to boarding- Parliament in 1745, four years before the death of schools, where only Papists were received, and that Swift. His career was stormy, and at one time he they might be utterly cut off from the pernicious had to leave the country for some years.

On his influence of home, the children were sent to distant return he was the idol of the people, and again parts of the country. The effect of this may easily headed his party in Parliament; still, the patriots be imagined: the charter schools became more were a small minority, never, throughout the thirtydreaded than the jail. Only in time of famine two years of George II.'s reign, able to count on could the parents be induced to send their children more than eight-and-twenty votes in a Parliament to the institutions, and when once the hour of starva- composed of three hundred members. The powers tion was passed they rescued their little ones from of the Irish Parliament, already stunted by Poythe wiles of the heretic. Perhaps had the schools ning's Law, were further curtailed by an English been well managed, and the wan little children re- bill, passed in the time of George I., by which the turned home fat and rosy, a different feeling would English Parliament was enabled to make laws to

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