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abandoned the throne by a second and final abdication on the reached 80s. a quarter. The prohibition was after22d of June. On the 29th of June he left the neighborhood of wards modified by a sliding-scale, lowering the duty Paris, and proceeded to Rochet in the hope of escaping to America; but the coast was strictly watched, and on the 15th

with the rise of the price, 1829. The reform agiof July the ex-emperor surrendered himself on board of the tation was renewed, with its adjuncts of political English man-of-war the Bellerophon.

clubs, mob orators, and government prosecutions. Meanwhile the allied armies had advanced steadily upon

The Habeas Corpus Act was suspended in 1817, on Paris, driving before them Grouchy's corps, and the scanty force which Soult had succeeded in rallying at Laon. Cam

account of an attack on the prince regent as he rebray, Peronne, and other fortresses were speedily captured; turned from opening Parliament. A reform meetand by the 29th of June the invaders were taking their posi- ing at Manchester, in August, 1819, at which the tions in front of Paris. The Provisional Government, which acted in the French capital after the Emperor's abdication,

yeomanry were called out and some lives lost, was opened negotiations with the allied chiefs. Blucher, in his long remembered as “the Peterloo Massacre." quenchless hatred of the French, was eager to reject all pro- The last years of George III. were clouded with posals for a suspension of hostilities, and to assault and storm

mournful events in the royal family, in addition to the city. But the sager and calmer spirit of Wellington pre

the king's continued illness. The Princess Charvailed over his colleague; the entreated armistice was granted; and on the 3d of July the capitulation of Paris

lotte, only daughter of the prince regent, formed a terminated the War of the Battle of Waterloo.

marriage of affection with Prince Leopold, of Saxe

Coburg, afterward king of the Belgians, May 16,1816; Napoleon reached Paris on the 21st of June; and, on November 6, 1817, she died in childbirth, and, after a brief struggle with the Chambers, he amidst great grief. Marriages were now contracted abdicated in favor of his son, Napoleon II., and fled by the dukes of Clarence, Kent, Cumberland, and to Rochefort, intending to embark for America, Cambridge. The Duke of Kent espoused the June 29. Thus ended the Hundred Days of his Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg, who gave birth second empire, March 21-June 29. Louis XVIII. to the present queen, May 24, 1819; but the duke re-entered Paris on July 8; and Napoleon, after died on January 23, 1820. In less than a week he writing to the prince regent that “he came, like was followed to the tomb by his father, George III., Themistocles, to throw himself on the hospitality who expired January 29, 1820, in the eighty-second of the British people," embarked for England on year of his age and the sixtieth of his reign; the board the Bellerophon, July 15. By the decision longest in English annals. Queen Charlotte had of the Allies, he was conveyed to the island of St. already died in November, 1818. Helena, where he died on May 5, 1821. A new The accession of the prince regent to the throne as Peace of Paris was signed by the Allies, Nov. 20. George IV., 1820-1830, involved little more than a The affairs of Europe were regulated by the Con- change of title. He was in his fifty-eighth year. gress of Vienna, which parcelled out kingdoms re- His accomplished manners had gained him the chargardless of the wishes of their inhabitants; and a acter of the "first gentleman in Europe," and he second Congress, at Aix-la-Chapelle, arranged for was a patron of literature and art.

But he was the withdrawal of the allied troops from France, vain, selfish, insincere, and a monster of lust. September, 1818. The Duke of Wellington, who 1795, he was forced, as a condition of the payment had remained as generalissimo, returned home in of his debts, to abandon Mrs. Fitzherbert, and November. The war had raised the English na- to marry the Princess Caroline of Brunswick, to tional debt from a little less than 228 millions to whom he took a deep disgust. After the birth of nearly 800 millions, involving an annual charge of the Princess Charlotte, January 7, 1796, they sep28 millions. In 1816 the piracy of the Algerines arated, and the Princess of Wales lived abroad, was suppressed by Sir Edward Pellew (Lord Ex- giving color by her imprudence to charges against mouth), who bombarded Algiers, Aug. 27, and her chastity. On her return to England, June 6, compelled the Dey to release 1,083 Christian slaves. 1820, to claim her rank as queen, a bill of pains

The war was succeeded by much distress and dis- and penalties against her was brought into the content. Trade languished, and the high price of House of Lords, and passed its third reading by a bread was aggravated by the mistaken policy of a majority of only nine. As there was no hope of corn-law, closing the ports till the price of wheat success in the commons, and the popular agitation was extreme, the bill was abandoned. But the gal in favor of his daughter, Donna Maria, at the queen's name remained excluded from the liturgy, same time giving the people a constitution. The and she was repulsed from the door of Westminster usurpation of the throne by Dom Pedro's brother, Abbey at the coronation, July 19, 1821. She died, Dom Miguel, a ferocious tyrant, 1827, led to a civil broken down by her troubles, on August 7, 1821, war, which lasted till May, 1834. England declared at the age of fifty-two. Her remains were conveyed in favor of Donna Maria, who was ultimately estabto Brunswick for interment, by way of Harwich; lished on the throne. In the east of Europe Russia and the passage of the funeral cortège through pursued a course of aggrandizement at the expense London was attended with serious riots. The trial of Turkey, and the Greeks took up arms for their of Queen Caroline was the death-blow to George independence. The combined fleets of England, IV.'s popularity in England; but Ireland and Scot- France, and Russia, destroyed the Turkish and land were rejoiced at receiving visits from the only Egyptian fleet at Navarino, Oct. 20, 1827. This king whom they had seen since the Revolution. blow decided the war, and Greece was erected into Meanwhile the Tory government were alarmed by a kingdom, the crown of which was ultimately acthe radical agitation, and by the Cato Street Con- cepted by Prince Otho of Bavaria. spiracy to assassinate the ministers and change the Meanwhile the Catholic question had become form of government.

pressing. In 1824 Daniel O'Connell, a barrister of In 1822 Lord Sidmouth was succeeded as home great eloquence, organized the “Catholic Associasecretary by Mr. Peel, and the suicide of Lord Lon- tion." In 1825 a relief bill was brought in, passed donderry (Lord Castlereagh) called Canning to the the commons, but was lost in the lords, where the post of foreign secretary. He devoted all his energy Duke of York uttered a solemn oath that, if he to resisting the “Holy Alliance," which had been came to the throne, he would never consent to the formed, after the Peace of Paris, between France, repeal of the Catholic disabilities. The duke, howRussia, Austria, and Prussia, for the maintenance ever, died on January 5, 1827. A Tory government of despotism on the Continent. At the Congress of removed the disabilities both of the Protestant DisVerona they resolved on an armed intervention senters, and of the Roman Catholics. Lord John against the constitutional party in Spain, which Russell, the younger son of the Duke of Bedford, was executed under the Duc d'Angoulême in the moved the Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts following year, 1823. Unable to resist this move- passed under Charles II. Mr. Peel was left in a ment, Canning formed treaties of commerce with minority, and withdrew his opposition. In the the American colonies which had revolted from lords the measure was supported by Lord Holland, Spain, and boasted that he “had called the New the nephew of Charles James Fox, and the Duke of World to redress the balance of the Old," 1824. Sussex, the sixth son of George III., to whom his In the House of Commons, the splendid eloquence consistent support of civil and religious liberty had of Canning and Henry Brougham was called forth been most distasteful, as it now was to George IV. by these foreign questions, and by debates on Par- The passing of this act gave a new stimulus to the liamentary reform and Catholic emancipation. In agitation for Catholic relief. The crisis was brought 1825 occurred a terrible commercial crisis; and the on by the election of O'Connell for the county of failure of many banks led to new laws to regulate Clare. The Duke of Wellington was convinced that the paper currency. The systematic adoption of his choice lay between concession and a civil war, emigration as a remedy for distress gave a new im- the horrors of which he deprecated with deep feelpulse to the colonies of Canada and Australia. ing; and his ministry announced a measure for the Great changes occurred on the thrones of Europe.

relief of the Catholics in the king's speech, 1829. In France and Russia, Louis XVIII. and Alexander Mr. Peel, who had always opposed the Catholic I. were succeeded by their brothers Charles X., claims, was rejected by his constituents of the Uni1824, and Nicholas I., 1825. In 1825, John VI. of versity of Oxford, in favor of Sir Robert Harry InPortugal erected Brazil into an independent empire glis, a kind-hearted simple-minded Tory, who alunder his eldest son Dom Pedro, who on John's ways held that “wherever the king carried his flag, death, March, 1826, renounced the throne of Portu- there he should carry his church."

Peel came back to the house as member for West- lasted three days, and ended in the Revolution of bury, and introduced the bill, which passed the 1830. lords on April 10, after earnest opposition. Lord Charles X. fled to England, and the Duke of OrEldon was moved to tears, and Lord Winchelsea leans, son of Philippe-Egalite, was made “king of came forward as the champion of religion in a duel the French” by the title of Louis-Philippe I. An with the Duke of Wellington. The act opened Par- equally sudden revolution separated Belgium from liament and offices of state to the Catholics on their the kingdom of Holland, to which it had been taking a new oath in place of the oath of supremacy; united by the Congress of Vienna. Ultimately, but they were excluded from the offices of regent, Prince Leopold became king of the Belgians. viceroy of Ireland, and lord chancellor both in These events had a marked effect on the English England and Ireland. The exclusion from the elections, which were unfavorable to ministers. crown, and its forfeiture by marriage with a Cath- The tone of the king's speech, and the declaration olic, remained in force. The words of the new of the Duke of Wellington against any change in oath, on the true faith of a Christian," had the the representation, produced the greatest ferment. effect of excluding the Jews from Parliament till There were rumors of vast bodies of reformers 1858, when they were admitted. The separate form marching up to London from the north, and the of oath for Catholics was done away with in 1866. king's visit to the city on Nov. 9 was put off. A

The king gave his assent to the bill, but showed bill for Parliamentary reform was brought in by a resentment against the ministry, which was shared Lord John Russell. A dissolution produced a Parby the Tory party. Meanwhile the king was living liament pledged to "the Bill, the whole Bill, and in peevish seclusion at Windsor, where he died on nothing but the Bill." It was carried by large maJune 26, 1830, in the sixty-eighth year of his age jorities in the commons, after tremendous strugand the eleventh of his reign, and was succeeded by gles, but rejected in the lords by a majority of 41, his next surviving brother, William Henry, duke of Oct. 8. Formidable riots ensued. Nottingham Clarence.

Castle, the residence of the Duke of Newcastle, was William IV., 1830–1837, the third son of George burnt; and Bristol was in the hands of the mob for III., was within two months of his sixty-fifth year several days, and a large part of the city was burnt when he came to the throne. He was married to down. Amidst these commotions, England was the Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, July 11, visited in the autumn by that new plague, the 1818, by whom he had two daughters, who died in Cholera, which had gradually advanced from India infancy. He had entered the navy at an early age, across Asia and Europe. A second great outbreak and as he never affected statesmanship, gained popu- of it occurred in 1849. larity by his sailor-like frankness and simplicity of The Reform Bill was brought in again on the manner.

meeting of Parliament in December, and passed the He ascended the throne at a great crisis in Europe commons in March, 1832. It received the royal as well as England. The Continental princes had assent on June 7, 1832, fifty years and a month cast to the winds the liberal professions which had after Pitt's first motion. The first reformed Parraised the hopes of their people during the last liament met on Feb. 5, 1833. The Tory party conflict with Napoleon, and relied on their vast seemed almost destroyed, but the tactics of Sir armies and the support of Russia. In France, the Robert Peel organized a steady though small oppoCharter had been tolerably observed by Louis sition, who assumed the name of Conservatives. XVIII., but Charles X. followed a reactionary pol- The king died June 20, 1837, in the seventy-secicy, which became more decided under the ministry ond year of his age. He was succeeded by his of Polignac, 1829. The ordinances against the niece, the Princess Victoria of Kent, and in Hanfreedom of the press caused a revolt in Paris, which over by his brother Ernest, Duke of Cumberland.

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LAVERHOUSE, Viscount Dundee, western corner of Argyleshire. On the last day,

was in treaty with the exiled December 31, Maclan and his principal clansmen James, and at the battle of Kill- went to Fort William to take the oaths, but found iecrankie, July 27, 1689, having that there was no one there who had authority to worsted the English, fell on the administer them. There was no inagistrate nearer

field. The clans gathered together than Inverary, and, as the ground was deeply again under an officer named Buchan, who came covered with snow, it was some days before Maclan from James with a commission to act as his com- got there. But the sheriff, in consideration of his mander-in-chief in Scotland. They were surprised goodwill and of the delay that he had met with, and beaten at the Strath of the Spey, and this action administered the oaths, Jan. 6, and sent an account ended the Civil War in Scotland. The castle on the of the whole affair to the Privy Council at EdinBass, a rock in the Firth of Forth, was the last burgh. Unfortunately for Glencoe, Breadalbane place which held out for James, but the garrison was his bitter personal enemy, and along with Sir were at last obliged to give in, from want of food. John Dalrymple, the Master of Stair, he deter

Still the chiefs did not take the oaths to William, mined on his destruction. An order for the extirand were clearly only waiting for the appearance of pation of the whole tribe was drawn up and pre& new leader to break out again. To win them sented to William, who signed it, and it was carried over to the government a large sum of money was out with cold-blooded treachery. A party of solput into the hands of John Campbell, earl of diers, under the command of Campbell of Glenlyon, Breadalbane. He was accused of cheating both the appeared in the glen. They gave out that they clans and the king by keeping a part of this sum came as friends, and as such they were kindly welhimself, and he never gave any clear account of comed, and shared the hospitality of the MacDonwhat he had done with it. At the same time a alds for a fortnight. Without any warning they proclamation was put forth which offered pardon to turned on their hosts, and before dawn of a winter's all the rebels who should take the oaths to William morning slew nearly all the dwellers in the valley, and Mary before or on December 31, 1691. All old and young together, Feb. 13, 1691. They then who did not take advantage of this offer were after burnt the houses, and drove off the cattle, so that that day to be dealt with as enemies and traitors, nothing was left for the few wretched beings who and warlike preparations were made for carrying had escaped death but to perish miserably of cold out the threat.

and hunger. Whether William knew the whole

state of the case or not when he signed the warrant THE MASSACRE OF GLENCOE.

is not certain, but he did not punish those who had By the day named the clans had all come in, ex- dared to commit this wholesale murder in his name. cept Maclan, chief of a tribe of MacDonalds, who And though four years after, when a stir was made lived in Glencoe, a wild mountain valley in the north- about it, he did grant a commission to the Privy Council to inquire into the matter, he did not

THE UNION. bring to judgment the Master of Stair, who was very clearly pointed out as the guilty person.

It was clear that, if the two kingdoms were to Just at this time the public attention was taken

go on together in peace, it could only be by joining up with a scheme for founding a new colony on the

their Parliaments and their commercial interests into one.

Commissioners from both sides were Isthmus of Darien, and people's minds were so full

appointed to consider the best way of effecting this of it that nothing else was thought of. It was got up by William Paterson, who is to be remembered

union. Godolphin, the treasurer of England, and

the Duke of Queensberry, the royal commissioner as the originator of the Bank of England. He fan

in Scotland, were its chief promoters. The Comcied that he had found, what Columbus and the

missioners drew up a Treaty of Union, which was other navigators of his day had sought in vain, a short cut to the Indies. His plan was to plant a

approved by the Parliaments of both countries. By

the Articles of Union the succession to both crowns colony on the isthmus which unites North and

was settled in the Protestant heirs of Sophia; and South America, and to make it the route by which

each country was secured in the possession of her the merchandise of the East should be brought to

national church as then established. Scotland was Europe, thereby shortening the long sea-voyage. He drew glowing pictures of the untold wealth that

to send sixteen representative peers,. elected from would thus fall to the lot of those who were clear

the whole body of peers, and forty-five members sighted enough to join in the venture.

from the commons, to the Parliament at WestminA charter

ster, henceforth to be called the Parliament of was granted to the new company, and half the

Great Britain. It was further settled that one seal, capital of Scotland was invested in the scheme. The

with the arms of both kingdoms quartered upon it, whole affair ended in fiasco, after 1,200 emigrants

should serve for both countries, that both should had settled New Caledonia on the Gulf of Darien.

be subject to the same excise duties and customs, Just as the project of an Union was about to be

and should have the same privileges of trade. The considered in the English Parliament, William died,

same coins, weights, and measures were to be used March 8, 1702. Both crowns now passed to Anne,

throughout the island. The law-courts of Scotthe younger daughter of James VII. It was in

land, the Court of Justiciary and the Court of Sesthis reign that the system of National education,

sion, were to remain unchanged, only there was now which has made the Scotch, as a people, so intelli

a right of appeal from the Court of Session, which gent and well-informed, was recast. James VII. had died in France a few months before his nephew,

had hitherto been supreme in all civil cases, to the

IIouse of Lords. In addition to the twenty-five and his son had been proclaimed there as James

Articles of Union, a special Act was passed for VIII. This made the Whigs anxious to have an act passed in Scotland similar to the English Act

securing the liberty of the Church of Scotland as it

then stood in all time coming, and declaring that of Settlement. By this act the Parliament had

the Presbyterian should be the only church gove settled that, if Anne died without heirs, the crown

| ernment in Scotland. The first Parliament of Great should pass to the nearest Protestant heir, Sophia,

Britain met October 23, 1707. electress of Hanover, granddaughter of James VI., or to her descendants. But the Estates still felt in

THE RESULTS OF THE UNION. jured and angry about the late differences with England, and passed an Act of Security, which Twice before this time the Legislature of the made express conditions that the same person two kingdoms had been thus joined together into should not succeed to the throne of both kingdoms, one, under Edward I. and under Cromwell. But unless, during Queen Anne's reign, measures had these two unions, each the result of conquest, had been taken for securing the honor and indepen- lasted but a little while. This Union was destined dence of the Scottish nation against English influ- to be more enduring, and to lead to increased prosence. The right of declaring war against England perity in both kingdoms. For Scotland it was the at any time was to remain with the Scottish Parlia- beginning of quite a new state of things. Hitherto, ment.

the struggle for national life had left her no leisure

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