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Waterloo at one o'clock, to inform Grouchy that Bulow was coming over the heights of St. Lambert, on the Emperor's right flank, and directing Grouchy to approach and join the main army instantly, and crush Bulow en flagrant delit. It was then too late for Grouchy to obey; but it is remarkable that as early as noon on the 18th, and while Grouchy had not proceeded as far as Wavre, he and his suite heard the sound of heavy cannonading in the direction of Planchenoit and Mont St. Jean. General Gérard, who was with Grouchy, implored him to march towards the cannonade, and join his operations with those of Napoleon, who was evidently engaged with the English. Grouchy refused to do so, or even to detach part of his force in that direction. He said that his instructions were to fight the Prussians at Wavre. He marched upon Wavre and fought for the rest of the day with Thielman accordingly, while Blucher and Bulow were attacking the Emperor.
Napoleon had witnessed with bitter disappointment the rout of his troops,--foot, horse, and artillery,- which attacked the left centre of the English, and the obstinate resistance which the garrison of Hougoumont opposed to all the exertions of his left wing. He now caused the batteries along the line of bigh ground held by him to be strengthened, and for some time an unremitting and most destructive cannonade raged across the valley, to the partial cessation of other conflict. But the superior fire of the French artillery, though it weakened, could not break the British line, and more close and summary measures were requisite.
It was now about half-past three o'clock; and though Wellington's army had suffered severely by the unremitting cannonade, and in the late desperate encounter, no part of the British position had been forced. Napoleon determined therefore to try what effect he could produce on the British centre and right by charges of his splendid cavalry, brought on in such force that the Duke's cavalry could not check them. Fresh troops were at the same time sent to assail La Haye Sainte and Hougoumont, the possession of these posts being the Emperor's unceasing object. Squadron after squadron of the French cuirassiers accordingly ascended the slopes on the Duke's right, and rode forward with dauntless courage against the batteries of the British artillery in that part of the field. The artillery-men were driven from their guns, and the cuirassiers cheered loudly at their supposed triumph. But the Duke had formed bis infantry in squares, and the cuirassiers cbarged in vain against the impenetrable hedges of bayonets, while the fire from the inner ranks of the squares told with terrible effect on their squadrons. Time after time they rode forward with invariably the same result; and as they receded from each attack the British artillerymen rushed forward from the centres of the squares, where they had taken refuge, and plied their guns on the retiring horsemen. Nearly the whole of Napoleon's magnificent body of heavy cavalry was destroyed in these fruitless attempts upon the British right. But in another part of the field fortune favored him for a time. Two French columns of infantry from Donzelot's division took La Haye Sainte between six and seven o'clock, and the means were now given for organizing another formidable attack on the centre of the Allies.
There was no time to be lost-Blucher and Bulow were beginning to press hard upon the French right. As early as five o'clock, Napoleon had been obliged to detach Lobau's infantry and Domont's horse to check these new enemies. They stood under this hurricane of small shot till Halkett sent to order us in, and I brought away about a third of the light bobs; the rest were killed or wounded, and I really wonder how one of them escaped. As our bugler was killed, I shouted and made signals to move by the left, in order to avoid the fire of our guns, and to put as good a face upon the business as possible.
succeeded in doing so for a time; but as larger numbers of the Prussians came on the field, they turned Lobau's right Mank, and sent a strong force to seize the village of Planchenoit, wbich, it will be remembered, lay in the rear of the French right.
The design of the Allies was not merely to prevent Napoleon from advancing upon Brussels, but to cut off his line of retreat and utterly destroy his army. The defence of Planchenoit therefore became absolutely essential for the safety of the French, and Napoleon was obliged to send his Young Guard to occupy that village, which was accordingly held by them with great gallantry against the reiterated assaults of the Prussian left, under Bulow. Three times did the Prussians fight their way into Planchenoit, and as often did the French drive them out: the contest was maintained with the fiercest desperation on both sides, such being the animosity between the two nations that quarter was seldom given or even asked. Other Prussian forces were now appearing on the field nearer to the English left; whom also Napoleon kept in check, by troops detached for that purpose. Thus a large part of the French army was now thrown back on a line at right angles with the line of that portion which still confronted and assailed the English position. But this portion was now numerically inferior to the force under the Duke of Wellington, which Napoleon had been assailing throughout the day, without gaining any other advantage than the capture of La Haye Sainte. It is true that, owing to the gross misconduct of the greater part of the Dutch and Belgian troops, the Duke was obliged to rely exclusively on his English and German soldiers, and the ranks of these had been fearfully thinued; but the survivors stood their ground heroically, and opposed a resolute front to every forward movemeut of their enemies.
On no point of the British line was the pressure more severe than on Halkett's brigade in the right centre, which was composed of battalions of the 30th, the 33d, the 69th, and the 73d British regiments. We fortunately can quote from the journal of a brave officer of the 30th, a narrative of what took place in this part of the field. The late Major Macready served at Waterloo in the light company of the 30th. The extent of the peril and the carnage which Halkett's brigade had to encounter, may be judged of by the fact that this light company marched into the field three officers and fifty-one men, and that at the end of the battle they stood one officer and ten men. Major Macready's blunt soldierly account of what he actually saw and felt, gives a far better idea of the territic scene, than can be gained from the polished generalizations which the conventional style of history requires, or even from the glowing stanzas of the poet. During the earlier part of the day Macready and his light company were thrown forward as skirmishers in front of the brigade; but when the French cavalry commenced their attacks on the British right centre, he and his comrades were ordered back. The brave soldier thus himself describes what passed:
Before the commencement of this attack our company and the Grenadiers of the 73d were skirmishing briskly in the low ground, covering our guns, and annoying those of the enemy. The line of tirailleurs opposed to us was not stronger than our own, but on a sudden they were reinforced by numerous bodies, and several guns began playing on us with canister. Our poor fellows dropped very fast, and Colonel Vigoureux, Rumley, and Pratt, were carried off badly wounded in about two minutes. I was now commander of our company. We
“When I reached Lloyd's abandoned guns, I stood near them for about a minute to contemplate the scene: it was grand beyond description. Hougoumont and its wood sent up a broad flame through the dark masses of smoke that overhung the field; beneath this cloud the French were indistinctly visible. Here a waving mass of long red feathers could be seen; there, gleams as from a sheet of steel showed that the cuirassiers were moving; 400 cannon were belching forth fire and death on every side; the roaring and shouting were indistinguishably commixed-together they gave me an idea of a laboring volcano. Bodies of infantry and cavalry were pouring down on us, and it was time to leave contemplation, so I moved towards our columns, which were standing up in square. Our regiment and 73d formed one, and 33d and 69th another; to our right beyond then were the Guards, and on our left the Hanoverians and German legion of our division. As I entered the rear face of our square I had to step over a body, and looking down, recognized Harry Beere, an officer of our Grenadiers, who about an hour before shook hands with me, laughing, as I left the columns. I was on the usual terms of military intimacy with poor Harry—that is to say, if either of us had died a natural death, the other would have pitied him as a good fellow, and smiled at his neighbor as he congratulated him on the step; but seeing his herculean frame and animated countenance thus suddenly stiff and motionless before me (I know not whence the feeling could originate, for I had just seen my dearest friend drop, almost with indifference), the tears started in my eyes as I sighed out, 'Poor Harry!' The tear was not dry on my cheek when poor Harry was no longer thought of. In a few minutes after, the enemy's cavalry galloped up and crowned the crest of our position. Our guns were abandoned, and they formed between the two brigades, about a hundred paces in our front. Their first charge was magnificent. As soon as they quickened their trot into a gallop, the cuirassiers bent their beads so that the peaks of their helmets looked like vizors, and they seemed cased in armor from the plume to the saddle. Not a shot was fired till they were within thirty yards, when the word was given, and our men fired away at them. The effect was magical. Through the smoke we could see helmets falling, cavaliers starting from their seats with convulsive springs as they received our balls, horses plunging and rearing in the agonies of fright and pain, and crowds of the soldiery dismounted, part of the squadron in retreat, but the more daring remainder backing their horses to force them on our bayonets. Our fire soon disposed of these gentlemen. The main body re-formed in our front, and rapidly and gallantly repeated their attacks. In fact, from this time (about four o'clock) till near six, we had a constant repetition of these brave but unavailing charges. There was no difficulty in repulsing them, but our: ammunition decreased alarmingly. At length an artillery wagon galloped up, emptied two or three casks of cartridges into the square, and we were all comfortable,
“ The best cavalry is contemptible to a steady and wellsupplied infantry regiment; even our men saw this, and be
gan to pity the useless perseverance of their assailants, and, as they advanced, would growl out, 'Here come these fools again!' One of their superior officers tried a ruse de guerre, by advancing and dropping his sword, as though he surrendered; some of us were deceived by him, but Halkett ordered the men to fire, and he coolly retired, saluting us. Their devotion was invincible. One officer whom we had taken pris. oner was asked what force Napoleon might have in the field, and replied with a smile of mingled derision and threatening, 'Vous verrez bientot sa force, messieurs.' A private cuirassier was wounded and dragged into the square; bis only cry was, • Tuez donc, tuez, tuez moi, soldats !' and as one of our men dropped dead close to him, he seized his bayonet, and forced it into his own neck; but this not despatching him, he raised up his cuirass, and plunging the bayonet into his stomach, kept working it about till he ceased to breathe,
• Though we constantly thrashed our steel-clad opponents, we found more troublesome customers in the round shot and grape, which all this time played on us with terrible effect, and fully avenged the cuirassiers. Often as the valleys created openings in our square would the cavalry dash on, but they were uniformly unsuccessful. A regiment on our right seemed sadly disconcerted, and at one moment was in considerable confusion. Halkett rode out to them, and seizing their color, waved it over his head, and restored them to something like order, though not before his horse was shot under him. At the height of their unsteadiness we got the order to right face' to move to their assistance; some of the men mistook it for right about face,' and faced accordingly, when old Major M‘Laine, 730, called out, 'No, my boys, its" right face;" you'll never hear the right about as long as a French bayonet is in front of you !' In a few moments he was mortally wounded. A regiment of light Dragoons, by their facings either the 16th or 23d, came up to our left and charged the cuirassiers. We cheered each other as they passed us; they did all they could, but were obliged to retire after a few minutes at the sabre. A body of Belgian cavalry advanced for the same purpose, but on passing our square, they stopped short. Our noble Halkett rode out to them and offered to charge at their head; it was of no vise; the Prince of Orange came up and exhorted them to do their duty, but in vain. They hesitated till a few shots whizzed through them, when they turned about, and galloped like fury, or, rather, like fear. As they passed the right face of our square the men, irritated by their rascally conduct, unanimously took up their pieces and fired a volley into them, and many a good fellow was destroyed so cowardly.'
“The enemy's cavalry were by this time nearly disposed of, and as they had discovered the inutility of their charges, they commenced annoying us by a spirited and well-directed carbine fire. While we were employed in this manner it was impossible to see farther than the columns on our right and left, but I imagine most of the army were similarly situated: all the British and Germans were doing their duty. About six o'clock I perceived some artillery trotting up our hill, which I knew by their caps to belong to the Imperial Guard. I had hardly mentioned this to a brother officer when two guns unlimbered within seventy paces of us, and, by their first discharge of grape, blew seven men into the centre of the square. They immediately reloaded, and kept up a constant destructive fire. It was noble to see our fellows fill up the gaps after every discharge. I was much distressed at this hillock near La Belle Alliance, in the centre of the French position. Here he was seated, with a large table from the neighboring farm-house before him, on which maps and plans were spread; and thence with his telescope he surveyed the various points of the field. Soult watched his orders close at his left hand, and his staff was grouped on horseback a few paces in the rear. Here he remained till near the close of the day, preserving the appearance at least of calmness, except some expressions of irritation which escaped him, when Ney's attack on the British left centre was defeated. But now that the crisis of the battle was evidently approaching, he mounted a white Persian charger, which he rode in action because the
moment; having ordered up three of my light bobs, they had hardly taken their station when two of them fell borribly lacerated. One of them looked up in my face and uttered a sort of reproachful groan, and I involuntarily exclaimed, “I couldn't help it.' We would willingly have charged these guns, but, had we deployed, the cavalry that flanked them would have made an example of us.
“The 'vivida vis animi '--the glow which fires one upon entering into action—had ceased; it was now to be seen which side had most bottom, and would stand killing longest. The Duke visited us frequently at this momentous period; he was coolness personified. As he crossed the rear face of our square a shell fell amongst our grenadiers, and he checked his horse to see its effect. Some men were blown to pieces by the explosion, and he merely stirred the rein of his charger, apparently as little concerned at their fate as at his own danger. No leader ever possessed so fully the confidence of his soldiery: wherever he appeared, a murmur of • Silence--stand to your front-here's the Duke,' was heard through the column, and then all was steady as on a parade. His aides-de-camp, Colonels Canning and Gordon, fell near our square, and the former died within it. As he came near us late in the evening, Halkett rode out to him and represented our weak state, begging his Grace to afford us a little support. It's impossible, Halkett,' said he. And our general replied, “ If so, sir, you may depend on the brigade to a man!'”
All accounts of the battle show that the Duke was ever present at each spot where danger seemed the most pressing; inspiriting his men þy a few homely and good-humored words; and restraining their impatience to be led forward to attack in their turn.--" Hard pounding this, gentlemen : we will try who can pound the longest,” was his remark to a battalion, on which the storm from the French guns was pouring with peculiar fury. Riding up to one of the squares, which had been dreadfully weakened, and against which a fresh attack of French cavalry was coming, he called to them: “Stand firm, my lads; what will they say of this in England ?” As he rode along another part of the line where the men had for some time been falling fast beneath the enemy's cannonade, without having any close fighting, a murmur reached his ear of natural eagerness to advance and do something more than stand still to be shot at. The Duke called to them: “Wait a little longer, my lads, and you shall have your wish." The men were instantly satisfied and steady. It was, indeed, indispensable for the Duke to bide his time. The premature movement of a single corps down from the British line of heights, would have endangered the whole position, and have probably made Waterloo a second Hastings.
But the Duke inspired all under him with his own spirit of patient firmness. When other generals besides Halkett sent to him begging for reinforcements, or for leave to withdraw corps which were reduced to skeletons, the answer was the same : "It is impossible; you must hold your ground to the last man, and all will be well.” He gave a similar reply to some of his staff, who asked instructions from him, so that, in the event of his falling, his successor might follow out his plan. He answered, “ My plan is simply to stand my ground here to the last man. His personal danger was indeed imminent throughout the day; and though he escaped without injury to himself or horse, one only of his numerous staff was equally fortunate.
Napoleon had stationed himself during the battle on a little
WATERLOO AT THE TIME OF THE LAST FRENCH ATTACK. The White are English, the Black French, the Shaded are Prussians.
troops easily recognized him by the horse's color. He had still the means of effecting a retreat. His Old Guard had yet taken no part in the action. Under cover of it, he might have withdrawn his shattered forces and retired upon the French frontier. But this would only have given the English and Prussians the opportunity of completing their junction; and he knew that other armies were fast coming up to aid them in a march upon Paris, if he should succeed in avoiding an encounter with them, and retreating upon the capital. A victory at Waterloo was his only alternative from utter ruin, and he determined to employ his Guard in one bold stroke more to make that victory his own.
Between seven and eight o'clock, the infantry of the Old Guard was formed into two columns, on the declivity near La Belle Alliance. Ney was placed at their head. Napoleon himself rode forward to a spot by which his veterans were to
pass; and, as they approached, he raised his arm, and pointed the ridge of the hill. To their surprise they saw no troops be to the position of the Allies, as if to tell them that their path fore them. All they could discern through the smoke was a lay there. They answered with loud cries of “ Vive l'Em- small band of mounted officers. One of them was the Duke pereur !” and descended the hill from their own side, into himself. The French advanced to about fifty yards from that “valley of the shadow of death," while the batteries where the British Guards were lying down, when the voice of thundered with redoubled vigor over their heads upon the one of the group of British officers was beard calling, as if to British line. The line of march of the columns of the Guard the ground before him, “Up, Guards, and at them!” It was was directed between Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte, the Duke who gave the order; and at the words, as if by against the British right centre; and at the same time the magic, up started before them a line of the British Guards French under Donzelot, who had possession of La Haye four deep, and in the most compact and perfect order. They Sainte, commenced a fierce attack upon the British centre, a poured an instantaneous volley upon the head of the French little more to its left. This part of the battle has drawn less column, by which no less than three bundred of those chosen attention than the celebrated attack of the Old Guard; but it veterans are said to have fallen. The French officers rushe formed the most perilous crisis for the allied army; and if the forwards; and, conspicuous in front of their men, attempted to Young Guard had been there to support Donzelot, instead of deploy them into a more extended line, so as to enable them being engaged with the Prussians at Planchenoit, the conse- to reply with effect to the British fire. But Maitland's briquences to the Allies in that part of the field must have been gade kept showering in volley after volley with deadly rapidmost serious. The French tirailleurs, who were posted in ity. The decimated column grew disordered in its vain efforts clouds in La Haye Sainte, and the sheltered spots near it, to expand itself into a more efficient formation. The right picked off the artillerymen of the English batteries near word was given at the right moment to the British for the them; and, taking advantage of the disabled state of the bayonet-charge, and the brigade sprang forward with a loud English guns, the French brought some field-pieces up cheer against their dismayed antagonists. In an instant the La Haye Sainte, and commenced tiring grape from them ou compact mass of the French spread out into a rabble, and the infantry of the Allies, at a distance of not more than they fled back down the hill, pursued by Maitland's men, a hundred paces. The allied infantry here consisted of some who, however, returned to their position in time to take part German brigades, who were formed in squares, as it was be- in the repulse of the second column of the Imperial Guard. lieved that Donzelot had cavalry ready behind La Haye This column also advanced with great spirit and firmness Sainte to charge them with, if they left that order of forma- under the cannonade which was opened on it; and passing by tion. In this state the Germans remained for some time with the eastern wall of Hougoumont, diverged slightly to the right heroic fortitude, though the grape-shot was tearing gaps in as it moved up the slope towards the British position, so as to their ranks, and the side of one square was literally blown approach nearly the same spot where the first column had away by one tremendous volley which the French gunners surmounted the height, and been defeated. This enabled the poured into it. The Prince of Orange in vain endeavored to British regiments of Adams's brigade to form a line parallel to lead some Nassau troops to the aid of the brave Germans. the left flank of the French column; so that while the front of The Nassauers would not or could not face the French; and this column of French Guards had to encounter the cannonade some battalions of Brunswickers, whom the Duke of Welling- of the British batteries, and the musketry of Maitland's ton had ordered up as a reinforcement, at first fell back, until Guards, its left flank was assailed with a destructive fire by a the Duke in person rallied them, and led them on. Having four-deep body of British infantry, extending all along it. In thus barred the farther advance of Donzelot, the Duke gal- such a position all the bravery and skill of the French vetloped off to the right to head his men who were exposed to the erans were vain. The second column, like its predecessor, attack of the Imperial Guard. He had saved one part of his broke and fled, taking at first a lateral direction along the centre from being routed; but the French had gained ground front of the British line towards the rear of La Haye Sainte, and kept it; and the pressure on the Allied line in front of La and so becoming blended with the divisions of French infanHaye Sainte was fearfully severe, until it was relieved by try, which under Donzelot had been assailing the Allies so the decisive success which the British in the right centre formidably in that quarter. The sight of the Old Guard achieved over the columns of the Guard.
broken and in flight checked the ardor which Donzelot's The British troops on the crest of that part of the position, troops had hitherto displayed. They, too, began to waver. which the first column of Napoleon's Guards assailed, were Adams's victorious brigade was pressing after the flying Maitland's brigade of British Guards, having Adams's brigade Guard, and now cleared away the assailants of the allied cen(which had been brought forward during the action) on their tre. But the battle was not yet won. Napoleon had still right. Maitland's men were lying down, in order to avoid as some battalions in reserve near La Belle Alliance. He was far as possible the destructive effect of the French artillery, rapidly rallying the remains of the first column of his Guards, which kept up an unremitting fire from the opposite heights, and he had collected into one body the remnants of the variuntil the first column of the Imperial Guard had advanced so ous corps of cavalry, which had suffered so severely in the far up the slope towards the British position, that any further earlier part of the day. The Duke instantly formed the bold firing of the French artillerymen would have endangered resolution of now himself becoming the assailant, and leading their own comrades. Meanwhile the British guns were not his successful though enfeebled army forward, while the disidle; but shot and shell ploughed fast threugh the ranks of the heartening effect of the repulse of the Imperial Guard on the stately array of veterans that still moved imposingly on. rest of the French army was still strong, and before Napoleon Several of the French superior officers were at its head. Ney's and Ney could rally the beaten veterans themselves for anhorse was shot under him, but he still led the way on foot, other and a fiercer charge. As the close approach of the sword in hand. The front of the massive column now was on Prussians now completely protected the Duke's left, he had
drawn some reserves of horse from that quarter, and he had a brigade of Hussars under Vivian fresh and ready at hand. Without a moment's hesitation be launched these against the cavalry near La Belle Alliance. The charge was as successful as it was daring; and as there was now no bostile cavalry to check the British infantry in a forward movement, the Duke gave the long-wished-for command for a general advance of the army along the whole line upon the foe.
It was now past eight o'clock, and for nearly nine deadly hours had the British and German regiments stood unflinching under the fire of artillery, the charge of cavalry, and every variety of assault, which the compact columns or the scattered tirailleurs of the enemy's infantry could inflict. As they joyously sprang forward against the discomfited masses of the French, the setting sun broke through the clouds which had obscured the sky during the greater part of the day, and glittered on the bayonets of the Allies, while they poured down into the valley and towards the heights that were held by the foe. The Duke himself was among the foremost in the advance, and personally directed the movements against each body of the French that essayed resistance. He rode in front of Adams's brigade, cheering it forward, and even galloped among the most advanced of the British skirmishers, speaking joyously to the men, and receiving their hearty shouts of congratulation. The bullets of both friends and foes were whistling fast round him; and one of the few survivors of his staff remonstrated with him for thus exposing a life of such value. “Never mind," was the Duke's answer;-“Never mind, let them fire away; the battle's won, and my life is of no consequence now.” And, indeed, almost the whole of the French host was now in irreparable confusion. The Prussian army was coming more and more rapidly forwards on their right; and the Young Guard, which had held Planchenoit so bravely, was at last compelled to give way. Some regiments of the Old Guard in vain endeavored to form in squares and stem the current. They were swept away, and wrecked among the waves of the flyers. Napoleon had placed himself in one of these squares : Marshal Soult, Generals Bertrand, Drouot, Corbineau, De Flahaut, and Gourgaud, were with him. The Emperor spoke of dying on the field, but Soult seized his bridle and turned his charger round, exclaiming, “Sire, are not the enemy already lucky enough?” With the greatest difficulty, and only by the utmost exertion of the devoted officers round him, Napoleon cleared the throng of fugitives, and escaped from the scene of the battle and the war, which he and France had lost past all recovery. Meanwhile the Duke of Wellington still rode forward with the van of his victorious troops, until he reined up on the elevated ground near Rossomme. The daylight was now entirely gone; but the young moon had risen, and the light which it cast, aided by the glare from the burning houses and other buildings in the line of the flying French and pursuing Prussians, enabled the Duke to assure himself that his victory was complete. He then rode back along the Charleroi road toward Waterloo; and near La Belle Alliance he met Marshal Blucher. Warm were the congratulations that were exchanged between the Allied Chiefs. It was arranged that the Prussians should follow up the pursuit, and give the French no chance of rallying. Accordingly the British army, exhausted by its toils and sufferings during that dreadful day, did not advance beyond the heights which the enemy bad occupied. But the Prussians drove the fugitives before them
in merciless chase throughout the night. Cannon, baggage, and all the materiel of the army were abandoned by the French; and many thousands of the infantry threw away their arms to facilitate their escape. The ground was strewn for miles with the wrecks of their host. There was no rear-guard; nor was even the semblance of order attempted. An attempt at resistance was made at the bridge and village of Genappe, the first narrow pass through wbich the bulk of the French retired. The situation was favorable; and a few resolute battalions, if ably commanded, might have held their pursuers at bay there for some considerable time. But despair and panic were now universal in the beaten army. At the first sound of the Prussian drums and bugles, Genappe was abandoned, and nothing thought of but headlong flight.
The Prussians, under General Gneisenau, still followed and still slew; nor even when the Prussian infantry stopped in sheer exhaustion, was the pursuit given up. Gneisenau still pushed on with the cavalry; and by an ingenious stratagem, made the French believe that his infantry were still close on them, and scared them from every spot where they attempted to pause and rest. He mounted one of his drummers on a horse which had been taken from the captured carriage of Napoleon, and made him ride along with the pursuing cavalry, and beat the drum whenever they came on any large number of the French. The French thus fled, and the Prussians pursued through Quatre Bras, and even over the heights of Frasne; and when at length Gneisenau drew bridle, and halted a little beyond Frasne with the scanty remnant of keen hunters who had kept up the chase with him to the last, the French were scattered through Gosselies, Marchiennes, and Charleroi; and were striving to regain the left bank of the river Sambre, which they had crossed in such pomp and pride not a hundred hours before.
No returns ever were made of the amount of the French loss in the battle of Waterloo; but it must have been immense, and may be partially judged of by the amount of killed and wounded in the armies of the conquerors. On this subject both the Prussian and British official evidence is unquestionably full and authentic. The figures are terribly emphatic.
Of the army that fought under the Duke of Wellington nearly 15,000 men were killed and wounded on this single day of battle. Seven thousand Prussians also fell at Waterloo. At such a fearful price was the deliverance of Europe purchased.
The overthrow of the French military power at Waterloo was so complete, that the subsequent events of the brief campaign have little interest. Lamartine truly says: “This defeat left nothing undecided in future events, for victory had given judgment. The war began and ended in a single bat. tle." Napoleon himself recognized instantly and fully the deadly nature of the blow which had been dealt to his empire. In his flight from the battle-field he first halted at Charleroi, but the approach of the pursuing Prussians drove him thence before he had rested there an hour. With difficulty getting clear of the wrecks of his own army, he reached Philippeville, where he remained a few hours, and sent orders to the French generals in the various extremities of France to converge with their troops upon Paris. He ordered Soult to collect the fugitives of his own force, and lead them to Laon. He then burried forward to Paris, and reached his capital before the news of his own defeat. But the stern truth soon transpired. At the demand of the Chambers of Peers and Representatives, he