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ruled over it, and the greater part was freed by an Italian blood and name, and was a native of Corsica. insurrection led by General Paoli in 1755. During King Victor Amadeus III. was forced to give up the life of the emperor Francis I., the grand duchy his claim to Savoy and Nizza, for which he had of Tuscany was almost a province of Austria; but been fighting for four years, and on the Italian side on his death, in 1765, it again became an inde- of the Alps to give up Alessandria and Tortona. pendent state under his third son, Peter Leopold. Bonaparte next met the Austrians. In May he enAlthough this sovereign reigned as a despot, yet he tered Milan and Bologna, and from the latter place did much to forward the welfare of his subjects. dictated terms to Pope Pius VI. and Ferdinand of One noble monument of his reign is the improved Tuscany. state of the Val di Chiana. This valley is a tract The victories of Arcola and Rivoli made him of land lying between two mountain ranges, and master of Lombardy. He next invaded the States bounded by the Arno and the Paglia. Leopold of the Church. He made the pope give up part of changed the whole flow of the water, he drained it his territory, and pay tribute; and then plundered into the Arno, and made the valley wondrously the Vatican, and sent part of its treasures to Paris. rich and fruitful. He also began to drain the The French, as they advanced, brought with them Maremma. In 1790 Leopold succeeded to the em- the doctrines of their own revolution. The Italiane pire, and appointed his second son, Ferdinand, to rose against their rulers, overset their governments, succeed him in Tuscany. After the Peace of Aix- and banished the priests and monks. The Italians la-Chapelle, Charles Emmanuel engaged in no more were heavily taxed for the glories of the French wars. Like the rest of the rulers of Italy he was a arms. The Austrian emperor was forced to make despot.

peace, and Bonaparte advanced to Venice. The After the death of Charles Emmanuel, his son, French were hailed with delight by the mob. The Victor Amadeus III., allied himself to the French Bucentaur, or galley, from which the Doge yearly Bourbons. Towards the end of this reign Alfieri wedded the Adriatic by dropping a ring into the began to write; Alessandro Volta, a native of Como, water, was broken up. The Golden Book, which discovered the theory of galvanism by contact, and contained the names of the nobles who ruled the in 1800 invented the voltaic pile. From the time city, was burned. Many splendid works of art were of the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle the popes were in carried off to Paris, and amongst them the bronze constant disputes with the courts of France, Spain, horses of St. Mark's, which Enrico Dandolo had and Naples, about the powers of the church. In brought from Constantinople, and which Luciano 1773 Clement XIV. issued a "Brief" abolishing the Doria had sworn to bridle. society of Jesuits.

The same year, 1797, the Treaty of Campo ForAt the end of the eighteenth century, it seemed mio was made between France and Austria Lomas though the despotism which was crushing Italy bardy, Parma, and Modena, the Papal States of in the Sardinian kingdom and in the dominions of Bologna, Ferrara, and the Romagna, and the Venethe Bourbon families was about to come to an end. tian territory as far as the Adige, were declared inIn 1792 the French abolished their monarchy, and dependent under the name of the Cisalpine Repubformed a republic. They immediately began to try lic. To make up for these and other losses, the to make other nations accept the same form of gov- French gave Venice and her dependencies in the ernment, and invaded Savoy and Nizza, and made Adriatic to the Austrians, who took possession of them parts of their own republic. The troubles of the city at the beginning of the next year. Besides France prevented her army from crossing the Alps the Cisalpine Republic, the French general set up for nearly four years, and during this time she was the Ligurian, Cispadane, and Tiberine republics, opposed by an alliance of all the powers of Western with Genoa, Bologna, and Rome, as their capitals. Europe. In 1795 a new government was formed in At the close of 1798 Naples surrendered, and was France, and peace was made with all the foreign made the seat of the Parthenopæan Republic. The states except England, Austria, and Sardinia. The

same year Charles Emmanuel IV. was forced to give next year the French army crossed the Alps under up his throne, and the French took possession of Napoleon Bonaparte. This famous general was of Piedmont.

Pope Pius VI. fled from Rome, and died in France in 1799. The victories of France were now checked for a time. Austria, Russia, and England formed an alliance against her. Italy became the scene of the war on the continent of Europe. The French were everywhere defeated. A new 'pope, who took the title of Pius VII., was chosen at Venice, and some of the old governments were for the moment restored. But all this soon ended. Bonaparte came back from the war in Egypt, and was made First Consul, and, after the decisive battle of Marengo, regained all that had been lost. He restored the Catholic faith as the religion of the state, and allowed the new pope to remain at Rome, and King Ferdinand at Naples.

In 1804 Bonaparte chose to call himself Emperor of the French, and sent for the pope to anoint him. The next year this successful Corsican changed the Cisalpine Republic into a monarchy, and was crowned King of Italy in the church of St. Ambrose. He joined the Ligurian Republic to the new kingdom; and made his stepson, Eugene Beauhar

nais

, grandson of a West Indian planter, the Viceroy Alli

of Italy. At the close of the year the defeat of the Austrians at Austerlitz forced them to give up the whole of the Venetian territory to Bonaparte, who joined it on to his Italian kingdom. Early in 1806, Bonaparte again turned the Bourbons out of Naples, and made his brother Joseph king, and when he created Joseph king of Spain, in 1808, he appointed Joachim Murat, one of his generals, to succeed him in Naples. A guerilla warfare was waged in Italy.

The French met the brigands with almost equal cruelty, and a savage guerilla war was carried on, which ended, in 1811, in the entire defeat, and almost in the extirpation, of the robber peasants of Calabria. In 1807 Bonaparte changed the constitution of the kingdom of Italy, and did away with everything which remained of the short-lived liberty which the Italians gained by the invasion of the Revolutionary army. He also made Tuscany, where he had made a Bourbon king, a part of the French empire, and turned away Charles Louis, whom he had set up. In 1809 Pope Pius dared to complain of the injuries which had been done to the Holy See, and refused to acknowledge Joachim Murat as king. In reply, Rome was occupied by the French, the Papal States were declared part of

the French empire, and the pope was taken prisoner, and carried off to France. The same year Bonaparte again made Tuscany into a grand duchy, and set over it his sister Eliza, the wife of a Colonel Bacciocchi, who was also made Duchess of Lucca and Princess of Piombino. Her government was on the whole popular, and lasted until 1814.

The period of the French rule in Italy was marked, as a rnle, by a strict observance of law, and by order in the administration. It was during this time that an intellectual movement began, which reached its full development about thirty years later, but which probably would have never arisen under the dull despotism of the Bourbons. It was now also that the idea seemed first to arise that Italy might become one. Sicily and Sardinia were alone safe from Bonaparte, for the English fleet was master in the Mediterranean.

The power of Bonaparte was at last overthrown by an alliance of the powers of Europe. In the war of 1814, Joachim, king of Naples, deserted his patron, and the French lost Verona and Ancona. The Allies were joined by a detachment of Piedmontese under the flag of King Victor Emmanuel; they carried the war into France, and, on May 31st, entered Paris in triumph. Bonaparte was compelled to give up all claims on Italy, and on the rest of his conquests, and was banished to the little isle of Elba.

In 1815, the Allies met in congress in Vienna, to settle the fate of the countries that Bonaparte had lost. The negotiations of Vienna were interrupted by the news of the escape of Bonaparte; but the danger was averted by the Battle of Waterloo (for detailed account of this famous battle see England, pp. 539-554). The people of Italy hailed with delight the success of the Allies, and joined in driving the French out of their land. Italy fared badly at the Congress of Vienna. Victor Emmanuel received back the territory, which his father had lost, bounded on the east by the Ticino. The restoration of the king of Sardinia was held to be the best safeguard against another French invasion, but it was useless so long as a French army could be landed at Genoa. The Genoese had been encouraged by an envoy from England to drive out the French, and restore their own republic. They were basely deceived, and the city was handed over to the king of Sardinia, and became part of his king

dom. Genoa has gained greatly by this change, entered Rome, he restored the order of the but this does not make the crime of betraying her Jesuits. independence any the less. The only excuse which This was agreeable to the wishes of the same govcan be put forward is that the change has turned ernments which had been foremost in causing the out to have been necessary for the welfare of Italy. suppression of the order, for the Jesuits had shown No such excuse can be pleaded for giving Venice themselves good allies to the Bourbons in their disover to Austria, to make up for the large share of tress. The kings of the south of Europe, who had Poland which Russia took. Milan also was given suffered from the French Revolution, now with one back to the Austrian emperor, Francis II., and thus accord made alliance with the pope and the Jesuits, the Austrian kingdom of Lombardo-Venetia was set who seemed the representatives and upholders of up. Parma and Piacenza were given to Maria the old state of tyranny. The kingdom of Naples Louisa, the wife of Bonaparte, the daughter of the was restored to King Ferdinand IV. of Sicily, and Austrian emperor.

Lucca was given to the Bour- he took the title of King of the Two Sicilies. Thus bons of Parma, but, on the death of Maria Louisa, the Austrian Francis II. gained the chief power in they were to regain their former possessions, and Italy, as the Austrians Charles V. and Charles VI. were to give up Lucca Lucca was then to pass to had done. One thing which the wars of Bonathe family of the Austrian Ferdinand III., who was parte had destroyed was not set up again at Vienna. made grand duke of Tuscany again. Francis IV., This was the Holy Roman Empire, of which for so the son of Beatrice, heiress of the ancient House of long a time the kingdom of Italy had formed a Este and of the Austrian archduke Ferdinand, was part, first in reality, and then in name alone. The made Duke of Modena, and when Lucca was joined empire, which was in theory elective, had become to Tuscany, he was to receive Lunigiana from the practically hereditary in the reigning family of Ausgrand duke. Pope Pius VII. regained all the papal tria. It was founded by Augustus, it was renewed states, including Bologna, Ferrara, Forli, and Ra- by Charles the Great, it was restored by Otto, and venna, which had been taken away from the see in it came to an end by the abdication of Francis II. 1796. These were called the Northern Legations. The peace of Italy was for a moment disturbed. Austria claimed the right to place garrisons in Fer

Joachim Murat could not allow his kingdom to pass rara and Commacchio. The pope protested against from him without a blow. He landed with about this, but a small body of troops was placed in each thirty followers on the coast of Lower Calabria, and of these towns. As soon as Pope Pius had re- was immediately taken and shot.

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*SPAIN AND PORTUGAL

T

French power.

HE different powers of Europe ac- he had organized. William died in March, 1702,

knowledged Philip V. king of and his successor, Queen Anne, was one of the Spain; even those that had been weakest sovereigns that ever sat upon a throne. most anxiously opposed to the ac- But the spirit of the country was now roused, and cession of a Bourbon prince. The the queen was compelled to follow up her pre

Dutch were, indeed, alive to the decessor's plans. Fortunately for the success of dangers threatening them from an increase of those plans, and for the independence of Europe,

But Louis sent his troops into her private attachment to the Duchess of Marlthe Netherlands by an understanding with the borough induced her to place the administration elector of Bavaria, whom he had persuaded Charles of public affairs and the command of the army II. to appoint governor, and surprised a consid- in the hands of two truly great men, Marlborough erable body of Dutch troops, garrisoning some of and Godolphin, who raised England once more the fortified towns under an arrangement with to the proud eminence she had occupied in the Spain; whereupon the states of the United Prov- days of her Henries and her Edwards. inces purchased the liberation of their troops by Whilst the Grand Alliance was preparing its the recognition of Philip. The emperor alone re- means for severing France and Spain, Philip was in fused to acknowledge a Bourbon sovereign of Spain, quiet possession of his new dominions, and, notand called upon Europe for assistance to enforce withstanding the constant irritation excited by his son's claims, and repress the inordinate am- French interference, had, in the eyes of his subbition of Louis XIV. Leopold began the war in jects, become, as Maceira had predicted, a national Italy, whither he despatched an army under the king. In Naples only symptoms of dissatisfaction celebrated Prince Eugene.

appeared; and thither, by Louis's directions, he deEugene's success had the more important effect termined to go. The only point of difficulty was of encouraging the anti-Gallican party throughout Philip's reluctance to part from his young and beEurope. The Grand Alliance between England, loved wife. He pleaded hard for leave to take her Holland, and Austria, for securing to the emperor with him; but Louis, who appears to have been his just rights and preventing the union of Spain jealous of Maria Louisa's influence over her consort, with France, was concluded in August, 1701, and insisted upon his leaving her behind; and perhaps immediately afterwards Louis, by treating the Pre- no stronger instance can be adduced of the despotic tender as king of England upon the death of James authority exercised by the French king over the II., so exasperated the English nation, that the grandson whom he affected to treat as an indepenwar which ensued, known by the name of the dent sovereign, than the obedience paid by Philip Succession War, became as popular as William to this mandate. He sailed alone; and to pacify himself could desire.

the young queen, who was not yet fifteen years of That able and persevering antagonist of Louis age, the government of Spain was committed to her, XIV. did not live to conduct the confederation with the assistance however of a council of regency. In the year 1704 the contest for the crown of the ground, and, after a hard-fought battle, gained Spain really and vigorously began. The archduke the glorious and decisive victory of Blenheim. The Charles, accompanied by 8,000 English, and 6,000 French lost 40,000 men, including prisoners; the Dutch troops, was conveyed to the Peninsula in an remainder fled towards the Rhine, and the emperor English fleet. On the other hand Louis XIV. sent was completely relieved from the ruin so lately imto his grandson's assistance a body of French troops pending over him. under the command of Marshal Berwick, a natural With the further campaigns of Marlborough the son of James II. by a sister of Marlborough's. It reader of this History is already tolerably familiar, was in this campaign that Gibraltar was taken by and the events of this period may be briefly sumthe English, with whom it has ever since remained. marized. Barcelona was besieged by Philip, but But the most memorable military transactions of at its last extremity was relieved by an English the year passed in Germany; and, indeed, although fleet. Philip and his queen quitted Madrid, which the Succession War was essentially a Spanish war, was forth with occupied by the British and Portuthe great battles to which it owes its principal ce- guese. Berwick, however, was enabled to reinstate lebrity, and by which the issue was, or ought to Philip in Madrid. The battle of Ramillies was have been, decided, were fought in Germany and fought. Prince Eugene was successful in Italy. the Netherlands. At the very breaking out of The Imperialists occupied Naples. Berwick gained hostilities in 1702 the Duke of Marlborough was the battle of Almanza. Catalonia alone remained sent to the Low Countries, where, at the head of faithful to Charles. The battle of Oudenarde was 60,000 men of British and allied troops, he checked fought. The English occupied Sardinia. The the enterprising genius of the French commanders, Netherlands became wholly occupied by the Allies. and wrested from them several towns.

The cam

Marlborough and Eugene invaded France. Charles paign of 1703 was equally favorable, but not very defeated Philip twice, and entered Madrid in triimportant.

umph. The French in vaded Catalonia, and Charles In the year 1704 the operations in the Nether- was again confined to this province. The Peace of lands were again indecisive; the main design of the Utrecht was signed upon the 11th of April, 1713. French being, in conjunction with the elector of By this treaty Philip was formally recognized as Bavaria, to surprise and overpower the emperor in king of Spain and the Indies, and the Duke of his hereditary dominions. One French army had Savoy as his heir in default of his own issue, the joined the elector; another was on its march; and future succession to the crown being regulated by a Leopold, who was at the same time harassed by re- sort of compromise between the Spanish and Salic bellion in Hungary, seemed upon the brink of inev- laws, allowing females to inherit, but, as in Austria, itable destruction. But the Duke of Marlborough excluding them so long as the most remote collateral hastened with 36,000 men, drawn from the Neth- male should exist. The Spanish monarchy thus erlands and the banks of the Rhine, to the relief of confirmed to Philip, was, however, deprived of its Austria. He deceived the enemy by his masterly European dependencies, according to the very plan, manæuvres, and effected his junction upon the the suggestion of which had excited such indigbanks of the Danube with the margrave of Baden, nation against the Allies. Naples, Sardinia, the who commanded the troops of those states of the Milanese, and the Netherlands, were assigned to empire that adhered to their emperor. Prince

the emperor; some few towns being detached from Eugene, who, with 15,000 men, was observing the the latter country to strengthen the frontiers of the movements of a French army of 30,000, succeeded United Provinces, as also the duchy of Limburg, in joining Marlborough and the margrave, at the to form an independent sovereignty for Princess very time that the troops he had been watching Orsini. Sicily was given to the Duke of Savoy, joined the elector.

with the title of King. England retained her conMarlborough and Eugene now determined to en- quests, Gibraltar, Minorca, and the French cologage; and on the 13th of August they attacked the nies, St. Christopher's, Newfoundland, Hudson's Gallo-Bavarian army, which was strongly posted near Bay, and Acadie, now called Nova Scotia France Blenheim. They overcame all the difficulties of likewise agreed to destroy the harbor and raze the

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