Page images
PDF
EPUB

(4.) The Malay (Australian), with smooth or and roved as wandering tribes from place to place, slightly curly black hair, and dark brown, more or with their tents and herds. These are called less dusky skin, as a species of transition from the nomads (wanderers), and their principal occupation Caucasian to the Ethiopian or Negro race. To this is the herding of cattle. Those who settled upon variety belong the inhabitants of New Holland and favorably situated parts of the sea-coast soon disthe islands of the Pacific Ocean.

covered, with increasing population and develop(5.) The American race, with copper colored ment, the advantages of their position. They pracskin, and lank, coarse hair, which comprises the ticed navigation and commerce, and sought after still remaining aborigines of America, the Mexicans, wealth and comfort, and, in furtherance of these Peruvians, etc., and forms the transition from the

objects, were incited to lay out towns and erect eleCaucasian to the Mongolian race.

gant dwelling houses; whilst the inhabitants of inThe different languages of the world have been hospitable shores supported a joyless existence by estimated at 2,000. To the Caucasian race belong means of fisheries. Those who lived on plains, dethe three following groups of languages. (a) The voted themselves to agriculture and the arts of Indo-Germanic (Indo-European and Aryan), includ- peace; whilst the rude and hardy mountaineer gave ing the Indian, Persian, and European tongues, himself up to the chase, and, urged on by a violent with the exception of the Hungarian, Baskish, Fin- impulse for freedom, sought his delight in wars and landish, and Esthonian. (6) The Semitic group of battles. languages spoken by Semitic nations, Abyssinians, By the taming of wild cattle, man at an early Phænicians, and Carthaginians. (c) North Afri- period procured for himself domesticated animals. can group, comprising the ancient Egyptian, Kop- A powerful factor in the civilization of the human tic, and most of the languages of the ancient inhab- race was commerce, and the intercourse among difitants of North Africa.

ferent nations that sprang out of it. Those who The principal group of languages spread through lived on fruitful plains, or on the borders of suitNorth-eastern Asia and Europe, and belonging to able rivers, carried on an inland trade; the dwellers the Caucasian, as well as the Mongolian tribes, is on the shores, a coasting trade. At first, man exthe Finnish Tartar and Turanian group, spoken by changed one article for another (barter), and it was the countless tribes of Finlanders (with whom may not till a later period that it occurred to them to fix be reckoned the Magyar in Hungary, as well as a certain value upon the precious metals, and to the inhabitants of Esthonia and Livonia), Tartars employ coined money as an artificial and more con(including the Osmanli Turks, Kirghiz, Baschkirs), venient means of exchange. and many Mongolian nations (the Tungusi, Kamtschadales, and others).

FORMS OF GOVERNMENT, ETC. In the south-east of Asia, the Chinese Further- With the process of time nations were divided Indian group, with monosyllabic words without into the civilized and uncivilized, according as inflection, peculiar to the Mongolian nations, pre- the development of their intellectual powers were vails in China, Further Thibet, and other places; furthered by talents and commerce, or cramped and in Japan and the east Asiatic Archipelago, we by dulness and isolation. Uncivilized nations have the Japanese Kurile group of tongues.

are either wild hordes, under the command of The languages spoken on the islands of the Pa- a chief who possesses uncontrolled power orer cific are reckoned to belong to the Malay-Polynesian life and death, or wandering nomadic tribes, group. The languages and dialects of the copper- guided by a leader, who, as father of the famcolored race, estimated at about five hundred, can ily, exercises the functions of prince, judge, and be classed under the name of the American.

high priest. These nomadic races, with their Men chose different occupations and manners of patriarchal government, now the wild hordes that living, according to the diversities of their places dwell in the unknown deserts of Africa, in the of residence. The inhabitants of steppes and steppes and lofty mountain ranges of Asia, or in deserts, interspersed only here and there with fruit- the primeval forests of America, do not find any ful pasture grounds, chose the life of shepherds, | place in history.

Seventh period: From Columbus to the peace of Westphalia and the establishment of the new European system of States. From 1492 to 1648 (156 years).

Eighth period: From the peace of Westphalia to the French Revolution. From 1648 to 1789 (141 years).

Ninth period: From the commencement of the French Revolution to the present time.

pine branches are often found, and among them weapons of stone which already exhibit a certain refinement and ingenuity of design. In the next stratum immense oak forests lie buried, containing swords and shields of bronze, hidden away among the massive branches; while the upper stratum preserves specimens of iron weapons found among the remains of beach-woods, which have existed in Denmark from Cæsar's time, over 1,900 years ago, to the present day, though all traces of the pine and oak forests have entirely disappeared.

As we constantly meet with analogies in nature, we may consequently assume that in proportion as she advanced in her process of improvement in different parts of the earth, and at different periods, human beings were to be found who differed from each other much the same as plants of one and the same species in different parts of the earth, while preserving their similarity of structure, and other characteristicsvary infinitely in color, size, etc. Assuming the number of races to be three, they

are

The ages of the world, as well as their periods, diminish as they approach us, and in later times the history of the world becomes chiefly a European history.

Previous to the 5th century B.c. there are but few dates that can be fixed with tolerable certainty; that is to say, no uninterrupted series of dates can be accurately and positively assigned to events which are known to have occurred. In the remotest, ages all dates are uncertain and all authorities, more or less, out of reckoning. There are, however, reasonably grounded theories that relate to the origin and age of the human race, and the condition of man in pre-historic times. Much important service is rendered in such inquiries by that branch of geology which deals exclusively with investigations into the nature of the crust of the earth, thus affording us access to the secrets that for countless ages have lain concealed within its bosom. The different strata of the earth's crust are, so to speak, leaves in the genealogical history of nature inscribed by the Creator Himself, and are, therefore, among the most intelligible and reliable revelations that we possess. The formation of the earth's crust gives us, however, no information as to the period when men first began to understand each other in articulate speech, though it has preserved with its different strata the earliest products of human industry, together with the remains of gigantic species of animals that have long disappeared from the surface of the earth. The fashioning hand of man can scarcely be recognized in these weapons and tools of stone, mingled with all kinds of utensils made of bone or horn; but in later times the specimens begin to exhibit an improved style of form and workmanship.

In different parts of Denmark, exist peat moors, varying in depth from three to ten yards. In the lowest stratum of these turf-beds, the remains of

(1.) The Caucasian race, destined for freedom and mastery, to which belong the nations speaking Indo - Germanic languages; viz., the Europeans (with the exception of the Lapps and Finns), the inhabitants of Western Asia, Indians, and North Africans, and the people who have emigrated from Europe to America; this on account of its capacity for civilization forms the most important subject of history. It is distinguished by symmetry of limb, and beauty of bodily form and face, and embraces the most manifold transitions, from the white skin of the blonde North European, to the dusky, blackhaired Southerner and Hindoo.

(2.) The African Negro race, transplanted by the slave trade to America and the West ndies, with more or less black, curly, woolly hair, and prominent occiput.

(3.) The Mongolian race, in Eastern Asia, and in the northern polar regions of the Old and the New Worlds (Mongolians, Huns, Upper Indians, Chinese, Japanese, Calmucks, Finns, Lapps, Esquimaux, and others), with smooth black hair, flat nose, narrow, widely separated eyes, flat occiput, and a skin varying from yellow to light brown.

Besides these three races, principally appertaining to the ancient history of the earth, two subordinate races are taken into account, namely:

(4.) The Malay (Australian), with smooth or and roved as wandering tribes from place to place, slightly curly black hair, and dark brown, more or with their tents and herds. These are called less dusky skin, as a species of transition from the nomads (wanderers), and their principal occupation Caucasian to the Ethiopian or Negro race. To this is the herding of cattle. Those who settled upon variety belong the inhabitants of New Holland and favorably situated parts of the sea-coast soon disthe islands of the Pacific Ocean.

covered, with increasing population and develop(5.) The American race, with copper colored ment, the advantages of their position. They pracskin, and lank, coarse hair, which comprises the ticed navigation and commerce, and sought after still remaining aborigines of America, the Mexicans, wealth and comfort, and, in furtherance of these Peruvians, etc., and forms the transition from the

objects, were incited to lay out towns and erect eleCaucasian to the Mongolian race.

gant dwelling houses; whilst the inhabitants of inThe different languages of the world have been hospitable shores supported a joyless existence by estimated at 2,000. To the Caucasian race belong means of fisheries. Those who lived on plains, dethe three following groups of languages. (a) The voted themselves to agriculture and the arts of Indo-Germanic (Indo-European and Aryan), includ peace; whilst the rude and hardy mountaineer gave ing the Indian, Persian, and European tongues, himself up to the chase, and, urged on by a violent with the exception of the Hungarian, Baskish, Fin impulse for freedom, sought his delight in wars and landish, and Esthonian. (6) The Semitic group of

battles. languages spoken by Semitic nations, Abyssinians, By the taming of wild cattle, man at an early Phoenicians, and Carthaginians. (c) North Afri period procured for himself domesticated animals. can group, comprising the ancient Egyptian, Kop A powerful factor in the civilization of the human tic, and most of the languages of the ancient inhab race was commerce, and the intercourse among difitants of North Africa.

ferent nations that sprang out of it. Those who The principal group of languages spread through lived on fruitful plains, or on the borders of suitNorth-eastern Asia and Europe, and belonging to able rivers, carried on an inland trade; the dwellers the Caucasian, as well as the Mongolian tribes, is on the shores, a coasting trade. At first, man exthe Finnish Tartar and Turanian group, spoken by changed one article for another (barter), and it was the countless tribes of Finlanders (with whom may not till a later period that it occurred to them to fix be reckoned the Magyar in Hungary, as well as a certain value upon the precious metals, and to the inhabitants of Esthonia and Livonia), Tartars | employ coined money as an artificial and more con(including the Osmanli Turks, Kirghiz, Baschkirs), venient means of exchange. and many Mongolian nations (the Tungusi, Kamtschadales, and others).

FORMS OF GOVERNMENT, ETC. In the south-east of Asia, the Chinese Further With the process of time nations were divided Indian group, with monosyllabic words without into the civilized and uncivilized, according as inflection, peculiar to the Mongolian nations, pre the development of their intellectual powers were vails in China, Further Thibet, and other places; furthered by talents and commerce, or cramped and in Japan and the east Asiatic Archipelago, we by dulness and isolation. Uncivilized nations have the Japanese Kurile group of tongues.

are either wild hordes, under the command of The languages spoken on the islands of the Pa a chief who possesses uncontrolled power orer cific are reckoned to belong to the Malay-Polynesian life and death, or wandering nomadic tribes, group. The languages and dialects of the copper guided by a leader, who, as father of the famcolored race, estimated at about five hundred, can ily, exercises the functions of prince, judge, and be classed under the name of the American.

high priest. These nomadic races, with their Men chose different occupations and manners of patriarchal government, now the wild hordes that living, according to the diversities of their places dwell in the unknown deserts of Africa, in the of residence. The inhabitants of steppes and steppes and lofty mountain ranges of Asia, or in deserts, interspersed only here and there with fruit the primeval forests of America, do not find any ful pasture grounds, chose the life of shepherds, place in history.

States became divided into Republics and Monar- à deity in rude shapes, and made their fetishes chies, according to their different methods of rule. of inanimate objects, or representations of aniA State is called a Monarchy when a single person mals. The people of Western Asia, where the stands at the head and manages its affairs. This sun, moon, and stars shone forth with their greatpersonage is styled Emperor, or King, or Duke, or est splendor, established the worship of the stars Prince, according to the extent of his territory. (Sabaism), and endeavored either to grasp philoThe term Free State, or Republic, is given to that sophically the idea of the Divine Being, whose form of government in which the supreme power is presence they recognized in all visible things, and placed in the hands of an elective body composed of whom they represented as being the life in nature, numerous members. The most ancient states were that which truly and really existed in all natural simple and uniform in their form of government, things (Pantheism), or endeavored to mold their but were trammelled with those restrictions to belief in an artistic form by deifying all nature, freedom known as castes. By this arrangement representing the gods as a higher kind of man, hard and fast distinctions were drawn between men more richly endowed and more perfect than human according to their calling-distinctions which were beings (Polytheism). The faith in a single divinity strictly and sacredly preserved from generation to was preserved among the Jewish people alone, in generation, no mingling of the distinct classes, or the worship of their hereditary God, Jehovah. The transition from one to another, being permitted. Greeks and Romans instituted joyous festivals to The priests constituted the first caste; the soldiers their gods, in which the fruits that were presented, the second. These two castes divided the govern

and the animals that were slain, were socially conment between them. The third caste comprehended sumed; whilst savage tribes slaughtered human the cultivators of the soil; the fourth, the artisans. beings upon their altars, for the purpose of appeas“ Caste" was preserved for the longest time, and ing by blood the wrath of hostile powers; for such greatest distinctness, in India and Egypt. Shep- they considered their divinities to be. The tribes herds stood as the lowest or most despised caste.

of Phoenicia and Syria placed their own children in

the arms of a red-hot idol, Moloch. RELIGION OF THE HEATHEN WORLD. The uncultivated tribes of Africa and Central Asia clothed their primitive conceptions of

[graphic]
[ocr errors]

into such took posking, the ; he burnt wives and wenty-five 005, NinJedes and d amongst the Chalon passed der Nebu

came the in a woncture was

and lofty iles. The Cuphrates, god of the and ornag gardens, The Chalbricks, and eauty and uch astroeights and and mediazzar that oh nothing hounds of

ed by the the daz'ul valley, Vile," since

« PreviousContinue »