SPONGE IRON PRODUCTION BY DIRECT REDUCTION OF IRON OXIDE
This book provides a fascinating study of the very important emerging field of direct reduction in which iron ore is ‘directly reduced’ in the solid-state, using either natural gas or non-coking coal, to produce a highly metallised material, referred to as sponge iron (or direct reduced iron). This intermediate product is subsequently melted in electric arc furnaces or induction furnaces (sometimes even in basic oxygen furnaces) to produce liquid steel. Such a process combination enables steel to be produced without using coking coal, which is an expensive input in the normal blast furnace—basic oxygen furnace route of steelmaking adopted in integrated steel plants. The book offers comprehensive coverage and critical assessment of various coal-based and gas-based direct reduction processes. Besides dealing with the application of the theoretical principles involved in the thermodynamics and kinetics of direct reduction, the book also contains some worked-out examples on sponge iron production. The concluding part of this seminal book summarises the present and future scenario of direct reduction, including the use of gas generated from coal in direct reduction processes. The book is primarily intended for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of metallurgical engineering. It is also a must-read for researchers, technologists and process metallurgists engaged in the rapidly developing field of direct reduction of iron oxides, which is of critical importance for India and other developing nations that are beginning to play a major role in global steelmaking.
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Type Availability andDemand1836 2 1 Introduction18 2 2 Categories of Scrap18 2 3 Availability of Scrap20
Gasbased Direct Reduction177242 6 1 What is Natural Gas?177
Coalbased DR Processes Using Rotary Kilns82134
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andthe arc furnace blast furnace Boudouard reaction briquettes canbe capacity carbon content carbon monoxide carburisation charge Circored coal coalbased coke combustion commercial composition cooling countercurrent diameter direct reduced iron direct reduction discharge DR processes DRI production electric electric arc furnaces energy consumption Fastmet process Figure Finmet flow sheet fluidised bed gangue gasbased DR gases gasifier heat hot metal hydrogen increase India injection Inmetco inthe iron oxide ironmaking kg/thm layer lump magnetite material melting metallic iron metallisation Midrex process Mtpa natural gas naturalgas noncoking offgas ofthe operation oxygen particles pellets preheating pressure reaction recycled reducing gas reduction process reduction reactor rotary hearth rotary kiln Schematic scrap shaft furnace slag solid sponge iron steam steam reforming steel plant steelmaking sulphur syngas Table temperature thereducing thermal tonne top gas tothe typical unit utilisation waste zone