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volumes, which had given offence to Elizabeth and her ministry, were omitted; these have been since reprinted apart, under the title of “ Castrations."

The first volume commences with “ An Historical Description of the island of Britain, in three books, by William Harrison;" which is followed by “ The History of England, from the time that it was first inhabited, until the time that it was last conquered,", by R. Holinshed. The second volume contains “ The Description, Conquest, Inhabitation, and troublesome Estate of Ireland, particularly the Description of that Kingdom,” by Richard Stanihurst:-"The Conquest of Ireland, translated from the Latin of Giraldus Cambrensis,”. by John Hooker, alias Vowel, of Exeter, gent.

-“The Chronicles of Ireland, beginning where Giraldus did end, continued until the year 1509, from Philip Flatsbury, Henry of Marlborough, Edward Campian,” &c. by R. Holinshed; and thence to the year 1586, by R. Stanihurst and J. Hooker.“ The Description of Scotland, translated from the Latin of Hector Boethius," by R. H. or W. R.--"The History of Scotland, containing the beginning, increase, proceedings, continuance, acts, and

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government of the Scottish nation, from the original thereof unto the year 1571,” gathered by Raphael Holinshed, and continued from 1571 to 1586, by Francis Boteville, alias Thin, and others. The third volume begins with “Duke William, the Norman, commonly called the Conqueror; and descends by degrees of years to all the kings and queens of England;" first compiled by R. Holinshed, and by him extended to 1577; augmented and continued to 1586, by John Stow, Fr. Thin, Abraham Flemming, and others.

The following account of the diet, &c. of our predecessors, is taken from “ Harrison's Description of Britain," and is curious as indicating the state of society, and particularly of Manners :

Of the Food and Diet of the English:

Book 2.-Chap. 6. Our tables are oftentimes more plentifully gara nished than those of other nations, and this trade hath continued with us even since the

very beginning. For before the Romans found out and knew the

way unto our country, our predecessors fed largely upon flesh and milk, whereof there was great abundance in this isle, because they applied their

VOL. 11.


chief studies unto pasturage and feeding. After this manner also did our Welsh Britons order themselves in their diet so long as they lived of themselves, but after they became to be united and made equal with the English, they framed their appetites to live after our manner, so that at this day there is very little difference between us in our diets.

In Scotland likewise, they have given themselves (of late years to speak of,) unto very ample and large į diet, wherein as for some respect nature doth make

them equal with us: so otherwise they far exceed us in over much and distemperate gormandize, and so ingross their bodies, that divers of them do oft become unapt to any


purpose than to spend their times in large tabling and belly cheer. Against this pampering of their carcasses doth Hector Boetius, in his description of the country, very sharply inveigh in the first chapter of that treatise. Henry Wardlaw also, bishop of St. Andrews, noting their vehement alteration from competent frugality into excessive gluttony, to be brought out of England with James T. (who had been long time prisoner there under the fourth and fifth Henries, and at his return carried divers English gentlemen into his country with him, whom he very honourably preferred there,) doth vehemently exclaim against the same in open parliament, holden at Perth, 1433, before the three estates, and so bringeth his purpose to pass in the


end, by force of his learned persuasions, that a law was presently made there for the restraint of superfluous diet. Amongstother things baked meats,(dishes never before this man's days seen in Scotland,) were generally so provided for by virtue of this act, that it was not lawful for any to eat of the same under the degree of a gentleman, and those only but on high and festival days; but alas ! it was soon forgotten.

In old times these North Britons did give themselves universa!ly to great abstinence, and in time of wars their soldiers would often feed but once, or twice at the most, in two or three days, (especially if they held themselves in secret, or could have no issue out of their bogs and morasses, through the presence of the enemy,) and in this distress they used to eat a certain kind of confection, whereof so much as a bean would qualify their hunger above common expectation. In woods, moreover, they lived with herbs and roots, or if these shifts served not, thorough want of such provision at hand, then used they to creep into the water, or said moorish plots, up unto the chins, and there remain a long time, only to qualify the heats of their stomachs by violence, which otherwise would have wrought and been ready to oppress them for hunger and want of sustenance. In those days likewise it was taken for a great offence over all, to eat either goose, hare, or hen, because of a certain superstitious opinion which

righteous; then the blessed virgin is to be taken not for justified by Christ, but just from her beginning by preservation,

6. If a saviour be taken for him which sąveth men fallen into perdition and condemnation, so is not Christ the saviour of Mary, but is her saviour only in this respect, for sustaining her from not falling into condemnation, &c,

7. Neither did the Virgin Mary give thanks to God, nor ought so to do, for expiation of her sins, but for her conservation from case of sinning,

8. Neither did she pray to God at any time for remission of her sins; but only for remission of other men's sins she prayed many times, and counted their sins for her's.

9. If the blessed virgin had deceased before the passion, of her son, God would have reposed her soul, not in the place among the patriarchs, or amongst the just; but in the same most pleasant place of paradise, where Adam and Eve were before they transgressed.

These were the doting dreams and phantacies of the Franciscans, and of other papists, commonly then holden in the sehools, written in their books, preached in their sermons, taught in churches, and set forth in pictures; so that the people was taught nothing else almost in the pulpits, all this while, but how the Virgin Mary was conceived immaculate

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