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by royalist writers to King Charles I. himself,1 wrote in the last year of his life The Life of Mr. Richard Hooker, which was prefixed to his edition of The Ecclesiastical Polity, and dedicated to King Charles II. This Life was written very hurriedly, and it contained many serious inaccuracies. 2 It will therefore be unnecessary to allude to it further, since it passed out of notice on the appearance of Isaac Walton's Life of Mr. Richard Hooker. Before leaving Bishop Gauden, it is not without interest to observe that in the year 1681 was published The Whole Duty of a Communicant, being Rules and Directions for a Worthy Receiving the Most Holy Sacrament of The Lord's Supper, to which his name was attached. This little book appeared with the imprimatur of Henry Maurice, domestic chaplain to Archbishop Sancroft, dated May 31, 1686,3 and reached a seventh edition in the
In the course of the instructions given therein, belief in the Sacramental
1 Gauden's claim was apparently admitted at the Restoration of K. Charles II. See Dictionary of National Biography, sub “Gauden”; also J. R. Green, A Short History of the English People, Lond. 1903, Vol. III. p. 1207 . “ the Eikon Basilike, a work really due to the ingenuity of Dr. Gauden.”
2 Dr. Paget speaks of "Gauden's pretentious and slovenly volume.”— Introduction to the Fifth Book of Hooker's Treatise
ac Imprimatur, Hen. Maurice, Reverendissimo in Chr. Pat. et Dom. Domino Gulielmo Archiep. Cant. e Sacris Domesticis. May the 31st, 1686."
Presence of our Lord in the Eucharist is asserted :-“We deny not a true and real presence and perception of Christ's Body and Blood in the Sacrament, which in reality even they of the other gross opinion do not imagine is to sense, but to faith ; which perceives its objects as really according to faith's perception, as the senses do theirs after their manner. I believe therefore, that in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, there are both objects presented to and received by a worthy receiver. First, the Bread and Wine in their own nature and substances distinct, do remain as well as their accidents, which are the true objects of our sense. . . . Also there are spiritual, invisible, and credible, yet most true and really present, objects of faith—the Body and Blood of Christ, that is Christ Jesus himself.
On the priest drawing nigh to administer the Sacrament, the communicant is directed to say :“I adore thee, O most righteous Redeemer, that thou art pleased to convey unto my soul thy precious Body and Blood, with all the benefits of thy Death and Passion; I am not worthy, O Lord, to receive thee, but let thy Holy and Blessed Spirit, with all his purities, prepare for thee a lodging in my soul, where thou mayest unite me to thyself for ever, Amen.” 1
1 7th ed., 1698, pp. 20, 136.
It is of interest to observe that Gauden was a successor of Hooker as Master of the Temple in the year 1659. He was one of the Westminster Assembly of Divines in 1643, but for his advocacy of episcopacy was shuffled out,' when that august assembly substituted a policy of extirpating both episcopacy and monarchy for that of merely reforming both.
Isaac Walton (1593–1683), “Honest Izaak' as he has been called, chiefly famous as the author of The Compleat Angler,2 at various times became the biographer of a group of eminent Churchmen,-Dr. John Donne, Sir Henry Wotton, George Herbert, and Bishop
1 So addressed by Dr. King, Bishop of Chichester, 1641-1669. He was the friend of Isaac Walton, Jonson, and Donne.
3 “While Isaac Walton continued in London, his favourite recreation was angling, in which he was the greatest proficient of his time; and, indeed, so great were his skill and experience in that art, that there is scarcely any writer on the subject since his time who has not made the rules and practice of Walton his very foundation. It is, therefore, with the greatest propriety, that Langbaine calls him, the common father of all anglers.'
The precepts of angling, that is, the rules and directions for taking fish with a hook and line, till Walton's time, having hardly ever been reduced to writing, were propagated from age to age chiefly by tradition ; but Walton, whose benevolent and communicative temper appears in almost every line of his writings, unwilling to conceal from the world those assistances which his long practice and experience enabled him, perhaps the best of any man of his time, to give, in 1653 published in a very elegant manner his Complete Angler, or Contemplative Man's Recreation, in small 12mo. adorned with exquisite cuts of most of the fish mentioned in it.”—Chalmers' General Biographical Dict., Lond. 1817. Vol. XXXI. pp. 85, 86.
Sanderson. In 1665, Isaac Walton was enjoined by Archbishop Sheldon to “examine some circumstances, and then to rectify the bishop's (Gauden's) mistakes, by giving the world a fuller and a truer account of Mr. Hooker and his books, than that bishop had done : ”and he adds, “and I know I have done SO.
And let me tell the reader, till his Grace had laid this injunction upon me, I could not admit a thought of any fitness in me to undertake it: but, when he had twice enjoined me to it, I then declined my own, and trusted his judgment, and submitted to his commands.” 2 Walton's Life of Mr. Richard Hooker has come to be regarded as almost a classic, and has attained by custom to a right to appear in all collections of Hooker's Works—a right which no one would wish to contest. First published in the year 1665, so great was its popularity and the interest created in its subject, that in ten years it reached a fourth edition. It is not without significance that these years followed immediately on the restoration of the Church after the Great Rebellion.
1 A splendid edition of these biographies, including that of Richard Hooker, was published in folio, A.D. 1904, by The Chiswick Press, with fine portraits of the eminent ecclesiastics of whom Isaac Walton wrote.
2 Epistle to the Reader, prefixed to Isaac Walton's Lives of Donne, Wotton, Hooker, and Herbert, A.D. 1675. Dr. Sanday has recently referred to these Lives as expressive of what is really characteristic of the Church of England, and the special Church of England type.”- Minutes of Evidence taken before the Royal Commission on Ecclesiastical Discipline, 1906. Vol. III. fol. 23, $ 16378.
Isaac Walton was a most engaging biographer, possessing not only a rare, quaint, delicate skill, but also that indescribable fascination which leads writers, unconsciously, no doubt, to impart or communicate more or less of their own tone to the characters and lives they attempt to portray. So to speak, he judged his subjects to possess his own characteristics. As Walton was but seven years of age when Hooker died, he could not have been personally acquainted with him. And this, in Mr. Keble's judgment, led him to underrate the moral greatness and transparent goodness of Richard Hooker. Had he enjoyed the privilege of personal knowledge, “ he might,” to quote Mr. Keble,“ perhaps have seen reason to add to his commendation of him for meekness and patience, that those qualities were by no means constitutional in him. Like Moses, to whom Walton compares him, he was by nature extremely sensitive, quick in feeling any sort of unfairness, and thoroughly aware of his own power to chastise it: so that his forbearance (which those only can judge of, who have