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Touching the Treasure. *The want of money is in all states very perilous, and most of all, in those which are of least strength, and do confine upon nations with whom they have commonly war, or unassured peace; but most peril- , ous of all to those governments which are remote from the prince or place where they are to be reJieved.

The means to levy treasure are four. First, the customs and impositions upon all sorts of merchandise and traffic, is to be looked unto, and advanced. Secondly, the excessive eating of usury must be suppressed. Thirdly, all superfiuous charges and expences are to be taken away. Lastly, the doings and accounts of ministers are severally to be examined.

Touching the matter of custom and import, thereof, assuredly, a great profit is in every state to be raised, chiefly where peace hath long continued, and where the country affordeth much plenty of commodities to be carried out, and where ports are to receive shipping.

The moderating of interest is ever necessary, and chiefly in this age, by reason that money aboundeth in Europe, since the traffic into the Indies: for such men as have money in their hands great plentys would in no wise employ the same in merchandise,

states did use.

if lawful it were to receive the utmost usury, being a course of most profit and greatest security.

The taking away of superfluous expences is no other thing than a certain wise and laudable parsimony, which the Romans and other well-governed

These expences consist in fees, allowances, and wages granted to ministers of little or no necessity: Also, in pensions, rewards, entertainments, and donaries, with small difficulty to be moderated, or easily to be suppressed.

By abridging or taking away of these needless expences, a marvellous profit will be saved for the prince * ; but if he continue them, and by imposing upon the people, do think to increase his treasure or revenue, besides the loss of their love, he may also hazard their obedience, with many other incon


Touching War. Whatsoever prince or commonweal is neighbour to any people which can, will, or were wont to offend, it is necessary to have not only all things prepared for defence of his person and country, but also to forecast and use every 'caution and other diligence : for the inconveniencies which happen to government are


* So Henry IV. of France, by putting his courtiers to board

vas said to make money with his teeth.


sudden and unlooked for; yea, the providence and provision required in this case ought to be such, as the expences all other ways employed must stay to supply the necessity of war.

Chap. 12.

Extrinsic Observation, shewing how to deal with Neigh

bour Princes and Provinces respectively, how to prevent their Designs, and decypher their Intendments.

The first point of matter extrinsic, is of such quality, as being well handled, procureth great good, but otherwise becometh dangerous : for the proceeding must be diverse, according to the diversity of the ends which the prince or governor intendeth. For, if he desire to continue peace with his neighbours, one way is to be taken; but otherwise, he is to work that seeketh occasion to break, and to become an enemy to one or more of his neighbours. If he do desire to live peaceably with all, then he is to observe these rules : viz.

First, to hold, to continue firmly all contracts and capitulations.

Secondly, to shew himself resolved neither to offer, nor take the least touch of wrong or injury.

Thirdly, with all care and favour, to further

commerce and reciproke traffic, for the profit of the subject, and increase of the prince's revenue.

Fourthly, Covertly to win so great confidence with neighbours, as in all actions of unkindness among them, he may be made umpire.

Fifthly, To become so well believed with them, as he may remove such diffidences as grow to his own disadvantage.

Sixthly, Not to deny protection or aid to them that are the weakest, and chiefly such as do and will endure his fortune.

Lastly, In favouring, aiding, and protecting (unless necessity shall otherwise so require) to do it moderately, so as those who are to be aided, become not jealous, and consequently seek adherency elsewhere, which oftentimes hath opened way to other neighbours that desire a like occasion.

How to prevent their Designs.

This point is, in time of war, with great diligence to be looked unto; also, in time of peace, to prevent all occasions that may kindle war is behoveful : for to foresee what may happen to the prejudice of a prince's profit or reputation, is a part of great wisdom. The means to attain the intelligence of these things are two.

The first is by friends; the next is by espials:


the one for the most part faithful; the other not so assured.

These matters are well to be considered : for albeit, the nature of inan desireth nothing more than curiously to know the doings of others, yet are those things to be handled with so great secrecy and dissimulation, as the prince's intent be not in any wise suspected, nor the ministers made odious: for these sometimes to win themselves reputation, do devise causes of difference where no need is, divining of things future, which prove to the prejudice of their own prince.

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This is chiefly attained unto by being loved and honoured : for, these things do work so many good effects, as daily experience sufficeth, without any express example, to prove them of great force.

The ways to win love and trust, is in all actions to proceed justly, and sometimes to wink at wrongs, or set aside unnecessary revenges ; and if any thing be done not justifiable, or unfit to be allowed, (as oftentimes it happeneth) there to lay the blame upon the minister; which must be performed with so great shew of revenge and dissimulation, by reproving and punishing the minister, as the princes offended may

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