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[The words are taken from the Lesson—"America.”]

angel (Gr. angelos, a messenger); ev-angel, the good message or

news, the gospel; ev-angelist, the bringer of the good message or

news, the writer of a gospel. virtue (Lat. virtus [from vir, a man), originally manhood, then

bravery, then high intellectual and moral qualities); virtu, orig. virtue, then love for the fine arts; virtuoso (virtuous), devoted to

the fine arts; vir-ile, manly; vir-ago, a man-like, bold woman. vision, sight (Lat. video, visum, I see); vis-ible, able to be seen;

in-visible; vis-ual, belonging to sight; view, to see, look at; re-view, to look at again; pro-vide, to look beforehand; pru-dent= pro-vident, looking before; pur-vey, to provide [food); in-vid-ious, looking against, envying; envy=Lat. invidia, looking unfavour

ably at; advice (ad-visum), according to what has seemed, opinion. peerage, the rank of peer or nobleman (Lat. par, equal); par-ity,

equality; dis-parity, inequality; pair, two equal or similar things; com-peer, an equal, an associate; peer-less, without equal.


[The words are taken from the Lesson—" Roots.”]

filament, a small thread (Lat. filamentum, from filum, a thread);

file (n.), a thread, or line; file (v.), to move in file; also defile; fillet, a small thread or band; pró-file, the front line of the face;

en-filade, a line or straight passage, to rake a line with shot. tissue, something woven (Fr. tisser, to weave, Lat. texere); text;

context, what is woven with, the connected part of a book; pretext, what is woven to conceal, a pretence; text-ure, a web, manner of weaving or arranging of parts; subtile, finely woven, delicately constructed (Lat. subtīlis = subtexilis, finely woven); subtle,

artful, crafty. tender, delicate (Lat. tener, tender); note that d in this word is no

part of the root but is due to the removal of the tongue from the palate after sounding n; so also gender from Lat. genus, generis, a kind; expound, from ex, out, and ponere, to place; impound, from in and pono; sound, from sonus; after the lips, which have been closed in sounding m, are opened to utter another sound, b naturally drops out, thus humble Lat. humilis; remember is from re and memorare, to call to mind; resemble, dissemble are from similis, like; chamber=Lat. camera; tremulus = tremble.


[The words in the following Lesson are taken from various parts of

Reader VI.] avenue, an approach (Fr. avenue =

e=Lat. adventus, approach); advent, arrival; ad-venture [lit. about to come), to try what is to

come, to risk; venture=adventure; per-adventure, by chance. colossus, a gigantic statue of Apollo which bestrode the entrance to

the harbour of Rhodes, a large statue; Coliseum or Colosseum, the famous amphitheatre at Rome, the largest in the world;

coloss-al, like a colossus. chimerical, fanciful (Gr. chimaera, a she-goat, then a fabulous crea

ture having a lion's head and serpent's tail attached to a goat's

body); chimera, any creature of the imagination. bishop, a curtailed word for episcopos, an overseer (Gr. epi, over,

skopeo, I look or watch); bishop-ric (Ang. Sax. ric, rule, dominion), the jurisdiction of a bishop; episcopal, belonging to bishops; telescope, the instrument for viewing objects at a distance; scope, that at which an archer or quoit-player looks, a mark.


Mayor, the chief magistrate of a city (Lat. major or maior, greater,

from magnus); major, a person of full age, an officer next above

a captain; mayor-alty (on analogy of royalty, admiralty). embrace, to take into the arms, to receive (Fr. em, in, and bras=

Lat. brachium, the arm); brace, what holds tightly; brace-let, a piece of armour or ornament for the arm; branch (?), the arm

of a tree. secure, free from care (Lat. securus, from se, apart, and cura, care);

sure=secure; sine-cure (lit. without the cure of souls), office with salary but without work; en-sure, to make sure; sicker, sure

(Scot. I mak siccar, I make sure). magnet, the loadstone or lodestone (Gr. magnes, magnetis [the

stone) of Magnesia, in Thessaly); magnetic; magnetism. electricity (Gr. ēlectron, amber). telephone (Gr. tēlē, far, and phone, a sound), the instrument for

sounding at a distance; tele-graph, for writing at a distance ; tele-scope, for looking at a distance.


peasant, a countryman (Lat. pagus, a village); pagan [a country

man), a heathen, because villagers longer rejected Christianity than those in cities; paynim or painim is also used for an unbeliever.

purchase [to seek after], obtain, buy (Fr. pour, for, and chasser or

chacer, to chase): compare “the swallow hath purchased a nest;"

chasser = Lat. captare, to catch; hence catch; cater; chase. chimney, a fireplace (Lat. camīnus): note many words which in

Latin begin with c through the influence of the Norman-French begin in English with ch: ex. gr. chamber, Lat. camera; chaste, pure (Lat. castus); chest, a box (Lat. cista); charm, a spell (Lat. carmen, a song); charnel, containing flesh (Lat. caro, carnis,

flesh); chalk (Lat. calx, calcis, lime); chalice = calyx. treason, betraying the government (Lat. traditio, the act of giving

up); traitor= traditor, one who gives up; note these curtailments in the middle of a word—other examples are hotel for hospital (Lat. hospes, hospitis, a stranger); balm=balsam; cousin= consanguineus, one related by blood.


[Words directly from Latin contrasted with those which have come

through the Norman-French.] anoint, to pour oil on (Lat. in, on, and unguere, unctum, to smear

or anoint), ointment; unc-tion, the act of anointing; unguent, ointment; note that those forms in ung and unc come directly

from the Latin, the others through the Norman-French. empire, rule (Lat. imperium, command); emperor; empress: note

these words have passed into English through the Norman-French: imperial; imperious, &c., come directly from the Latin: 80 engine

from ingenium, whence ingenious, ingenuity. royal, belonging to a king (Lat. rex, regis, a king); royalist; roy.

alty; royalism; note these all have come into English through the Norman-French: reg-al, reg-ale, reg-alia, reg-ality, reg-i-cide

have come directly from the Latin. loy-al, faithful to law (Lat. lex, legis, law) and loyal-ist have come into English through the Norman-French: legal, legalise, legis

late, legitimate have come directly from the Latin. lieutenant, officer next below a captain, orig. one holding the place

of (Fr. lieu, place, tenant, holding, lieu = Lat. locus, a place); in lieu, in place; local, locate, dislocate, locomotion, collocate have come directly from the Latin; couch=collocare, to place: similarly, feu, fire (feu-de-joie, a firing in token of joy)=Lat. focus,

a hearth or fire, hence focus, the point where rays meet, focal. journey, a day's travelling (Lat. diurnus, lasting for a day); journal,

a daily register; ad-journ, to put off to another day; so-journ= sub-journ, to stay; note these words have come into English through the Norman-French: dial, iary, diurnal have come directly from the Lat. dies and diurnus.


NOTE.Those meanings are given which are required for the passages in the

Sixth Reader in which the words occur.

Absorb, to drink or suck up.
Abstraction, absence of mind.
Abyss, a bottomless gulf.
Accent, stress on a word or syllable.
Accession, increase, addition
Accommodate, to make suitable.
Acerbity, bitterness.
Adamantine, that cannot be broken.
Addict, (addicted) given up to.
Adequate, sufficient.
Adhere, to stick to.
Adjourn, to put off to another day.
Adoration, divine worship.
Advent, arrival.
Aeronaut, one who sails in the air.
Affability, readiness to converse.
Agency, that which does work.
Aggrandisement, making great.
Aggravated, exaggerated.
Aggregate, gathered or added together.
Aide-de-camp, one who carries a general's

Alien, strange, foreign.
Allay, to make quiet.
Allegiance, faithfulness to king, &c.
Allegory, a veiled description.
Alleviate, to lessen, make light.
Amber, a bright brownish yellow.
Ambition, desire for power.
Ambrosial, fragrant.
Amendment, an addition or alteration pro-

posed to a bill. Annihilate, to destroy utterly. Annuity, a yearly allowance. Antagonist, an opponent. Antic, a fantastic or strange figure. Antipodes, those living on the opposite side

of the globe.
Antiquity, times long past.
Apostle, one sent on a mission.
Appal, to terrify.
Appendage, something added.
Apricot, a fruit like a plum.
Aquatic, belonging to water.
Arborous, formed by a tree.
Ardent, burning, eager.
Ardour, warmth, eagerness.
Arena, (sand) place of contest.
Aromatic, a fragrant plant.
Arrest, to bring to rest, to stop.
Artery, a chief blood-vessel, a principal

Articulate, divided into words, distinct.
Artistic, according to art.
Aspire, (to breathe after) strive to reach.
Assent, expression of agreement.
Assizes, (sittings) a county court.
Assuasive, softening.
Asthmatic, suffering from short breath.
Athlete, one engaged in conflict.
Attire, dress.

Augury, art of foretelling the future.
August, worthy of honour.
Auspicate, to begin.
Auspicious, having indications of success,

Austere, harsh, severe.
Authentic, having authority, true.
Auxiliaries, troops in service of those at war.
Avenue, an approach to a house with trees

on either side. Azure, of a sky-blue colour. Barbarian (prop. one speaking a foreign

language), a savage. Bard, a poet. Baronet, a lesser baron, a title next to that

of a baron. Bashfulness, want of confidence. Bas-relief, also bass-relief, name given to

figures which stand out but not much. Battalion, a body of men arrayed for battle. Bauble, a plaything. Beacon, what warns of danger. Behest, command, charge. Benediction, blessing. Beneficent, disposed to kind acts. Besprint, or besprent, sprinkled over. Bestial, brutish, vile. Betimes, in good time, early. Birthright, privilege due to birth. Blend, to mingle. Blithe, joyous, merry. Bohēa, a kind of tea. Botanist, a student of plants. Bounteous, liberal in giving. Bourn, a boundary. Brierie-berries, berries from the brier. Brigade, a division of troops. Brocade, a silk fabric. Bronze, a figure made of bronze. Brook, to endure, submit to. Buffoon, one who amuses by low tricks or

jokes. Buoyant, light, cheerful. Burrow, a hole dug for shelter. Calorific, heat-producing. Calyx, a flower-cup. Candid, (lit. white) fair, open. Candidate, (lit. one clad in white) a person

seeking office. Capacious, able to hold much. Caparisoned, covered with cloth, adorned. Capricious, freakful, changeable. Career, to move rapidly. Carnage, bloodshed. Casual, accidental. Catastrophe, (lit. downfall) final event. Celerity, swiftness. Celestial, heavenly. Cement, to join firmly.

Ceremony, outward rites or forms.

Cumbent, lying or reclining. Champion, a hero.

Cybele, or Cybéle, a Greek goddess, repreChaplain, clergyman to an army.

sented as wearing a crown of towers. Charcoal, burned wood.

Cylindrical, roller-shaped. Charnel-house, where bones are thrown in a grave-yard.

Dank, damp. Chaunt, sony, melody.

Dappled, spotted. Chequered, formed into small squares. Debar, to shut off from. Chimerical, fanciful.

Debauch, a drunken fit. Chivalry, heroic adventure.

Deceased, departed, dead. Choral, belonging to, sung in a choir. Decipher, to make out. Chronicle, a history.

Decompose, to separate the parts of. Circulation, moving in a circle, sale.

Decoy, to lead into a suare. Circumnavigate, to sail round.

Dedicate, to set apart. Clarion, a trumpet with clear note.

Dedicate dedicated, set apart. Classic (lit. of the highest class), applied to Defiant, daring, challenging to fight. land=famous in history.

Dejection, lowness of spirits. Claymore, a large sword.

Delineate, to describe accurately. Clemency, mildness.

Deride, to laugh at. Clergy, the ministers of religion,

Descant, to discourse at length. Club, an association of persons.

Despite, disregard for. Cockpit, the room for the wounded on board Despondency, sinking of spirits. ship.

Despotic, unlimited, uncontrolled. Coffer, a chest for money.

Diadem, a head-band or fillet worn as a Cogitating, thinking.

badge of royalty. Cohort, the tenth of a legion: 400 to 600 men. Dialect, a peculiar form of a language. Coincidence, occurrence of events together. Dight, dressed. Collation, comparison of books or writings. Dignity, high office. Colonnade, a range of pillars.

Diminution, lessening. Colossal, gigantic.

Dirge, a funeral song. Commercial, relating to trade.

Disaster, misfortune, calamity. Commission, authority.

Discrimination, the power of distinguishing Compacted, firmly joined.

or observing differences. Compensate, to make up for.

Disinterment, taking out of the grave. Competitor, a rival or opponent.

Dislocate, to put out of joint. Component, forming one of the elements. Dismantle, to strip of its fortifications. Compositor, one who sets up types.

Dispense, to deal out in portions. Compromise, a friendly agreement.

Dispredden, spread out. Concave, a hollow, a vault.

Dissipation, excess, drunkenness. Conceit, (verb) to think of.

Dissolution, breaking up of the body, death. Concert, to arrange beforehand.

Ditty, a song: Concord, agreement.

Domain, territory. Condensation, bringing into smaller space. Domestic, belonging to the house. Condole, to feel pain with, sympathise. Domesticated, made tame. Confederated, leagued or bound together. Donjon, a fortress, a central towerin a castle. Corfiagration, burning, flame.

Dramatic, belonging to a drama or play. Congruity, agreement.

Dubitatingly, with hesitation. Consecration, setting apart to what is Dullard, one of weak mind.

sacred. Conservatory, a greenhouse in which deli- Ecclesiastical, belonging to the church. cate plants are kept.

Economy, arrangement. Consternation, terror, astonishment.

Ecstasy, excessive joy.
Constitution, arrangement.

Edifice, a building.
Constellation, an assemblage of stars. Efficacy, power to produce results.
Construe, to understand.

Effigy, a likeness.
Consummate, perfect.

Eglantine, sweetbrier or honeysuckle. Convex, hollow outwards.

Elate, lifted up, joyful. Convivial, feasting together, jovial.

Elongate, to lengthen out Coop, a cage for fowls.

Emanation, that which issues forth. Copiousness, plenty, abundance.

Emblem, picture, symbol. Cormorant, a voracious bird.

Embroilment, confusion, disturbance. Coronal, a crown or garland.

Emerge, to rise out (of the sea or clouds). Coronet, a small crown worn by nobles. Eminence, a height. Corporation, body of men, allowed to act as Eminent, rising high. an individual.

Emotion, a movement of the mind, for exCourtesy, an act of respect.

ample, hope, love, joy. Craftsman, a tradesman.

Emphasis, speaking on a word) force of Cranks, turns of wit.

voice. Credulity, readiness to believe.

Emporium, a place of trade. Creed, religious belief.

Emulous, desirous to equal or excel. Crescent, figure on Turkish standard, like Enchanter, a magician. crescent moon.

Engineer, one who plans military works. Cricket, an insect whose wing-cases make a Ensue, to follow. chirping noise.

Enterprise, a bold undertaking. Crisis, the decisive point.

Enterprising, ready to undertake. Crisp, (verb) to make wavy.

Enthusiastic, warm, highly excited. Critical, on which much turns.

Environ, to encircle, to hem in. Crypt, underground room or cell.

Epaulette, a shoulder-piece.

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