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LESSONS IN ETYMOLOGY.

I.

[The words are taken from the Lesson—" The Coronation of the

Conqueror.”] corona-tion, the act of crowning (Lat. corāna, a wreath, corona-re,

to crown); crown; coron-et, a small crown, a noble's; córon-al, a crown ["of towers ”]; coról-la, the small crown of a flower, the petals; corollary [a gratuity of flowers), an inference easily drawn from what is proved; colonel, the crown-chief officer-of a regi

ment; córoner, a crown-officer. conqueror (Lat. con, quaero, I seek after), one who gains by earnest

seeking; conquest; so request; inquest; query, an inquiry;

quest, a search; question. Christmas, mass or feast for Christ's birth; Michaelmas, mass or

feast of St. Michael (29th Sept.); Candlemas, Mary's feast, so called from the many candles used (2d Feb.); Martinmas, the

mass or feast of St. Martin (11th Nov.). cross (Lat. crux, crucis, a cross); cruc-i-fy, to fix on a cross (Lat.

figo); crus-ade, expedition made by those with cross on breast;

ex-cruci-ate, to torture as on a cross; cruise, to cross the sea. minster=monasterium, a monastery, place of religious retirement

(Greek monos, alone, sole); monk (monachus, single or alone); monachism, the monastic life; mon-arch, the sole ruler; monopoly, sole power of selling; mono-gram, a single letter.

II. [The words are taken from the Lesson—England.”] in-spire, to breathe into [the mind or soul] (Lat. in and spiro, I

breathe); ex-pire=ec-spire, to breathe out; a-spirerad-spire, to breathe towards, to covet; so con-spire; per-spire; re-spire; tran

spire=trans-spire; spir-it, breath ; spir-acle, a breathing hole. eag.er, keen, ardent (Lat. acer, sharp or sour); vin-egar, sour wine;

acerbity; acrid; ague; compare meagre, lean (Lat. macer, lean);

and acre, a field, a' measure of land (Lat. ager). sceptre, originally a thing to lean on, then a mark of age, then of

royalty (Gr. sceptron, from skepto, I lean); so throne, orig. a seat, then a seat of honour (Gr. thronos, a seat).

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in-satiate, that cannot be satisfied (Lat. in, not, satiare, to satisfy,

satis, enough); sati-ety, fulness; satia-te, to satisfy; sate; as

sets (ad satis), sufficient to pay with, debtor's effects. cor-morant, the sea-crow, a ravenous bird (Lat. corvus marinus). prey (Lat. praeda, plunder); praeda-tory, given to plundering; de

predate, to plunder; depredator; depredation.

III.

[The words are taken from the Lesson—" The Mocking Bird."] home-ly = home-like, like home, plain, familiar; home = Anglo

Saxon ham; ham-let, a small village; compare names of towns

ending in ham; home-stead, the place of a mansion-house. gaud-y, showy, from gaud, an ornament (Lat. gaudium, joy); joy;

en-joy; re-joice; jew-el is also probably from gaudium. brilliant, sparkling like a beryl stone (Lat. beryllus, a beryl). en-title, to give a title to (Lat. titulus, an inscription on an altar,

&c.); title; titul-ar, in title only, nominal; titul-ary, one hav

ing the title only. no-tice (Lat. notitia, knowledge, stem no or gno, know); note, that

by which a thing is known, a mark; not-able, worthy of being known; not-i-fy, to make known to; no-ble (well known], of high rank, generous; i-gnoble=in-gnoble, not noble, mean.

IV.

[The words are taken from the Lesson—The Bloom on Character.”] beauty (French mas. beau, pretty; fem. belle; Lat. bellus, dimin.

of bonus); beau, a fine man, fond of dress; belle, a handsome

woman; bel-dam [a fair woman), a hag; em-bellish, to beautify. flower (Lat. flos, floris, a flower); Flor-a, goddess of flowers; flor-et,

a small flower; floral, relating to flowers; florid, abounding in flowers ; flor-in, a coin of Florence marked with a flower (lily); four, the flower of wheat; flour-ish, to flower or blossom; fleur

de-lis, the French national emblem. bead, orig. a prayer, a ball for counting prayers, any small ball

(Ang. Sax. bid, to pray); beads-man, one employed to pray for

others; bead-roll, list of dead to be prayed for. heaven (Ang. Sax. hebban, to heave)=that which is lifted up, or

the lofty place; compare Scot. lift, the sky or air; heav-y, hard

to lift; upheave, to heave up (stones, ashes, &c.]. pic-ture (Lat. pictura, the art of painting-pingo, stem pig, I

paint); paint; pig-ment, colour; de-pict, to paint fully.

V.

[The words are taken from the Lesson—William the Conqueror.”] duke (Lat. dux, ducis, a leader, duco, I lead); duc-al, belonging

to a duke; duchy, duke-dom, the territory of a duke; duc-at (důk-at), a coin struck by a duke; doge, the duke or chief magistrate of Venice; duct, a leading or conducting-pipe, so con-duit (kún-dit)=conductus; ad-duce, to lead or bring to or forward; so de-duce, e-duce, in-duce, intro-duce, produce; se duce, to lead aside or astray; tra-duce [to lead across], to defame; note also the verbs con-dúct, in-dáct, de-dúct, and the nouns cón

duct, pró-duct, re-doubt' =re-ductus, a retreat, a retired work. en-dow, to give a dowry to (Lat. dos, dotis, a dowry); dow-ry,

what a woman brings to her husband at marriage; dow-er, the portion of the deceased husband's property enjoyed by his widow; dow-ager, a widow with a dower (applied to the widows of

kings, nobles, &c.]. scale (Lat. scāla, a ladder=scad-la, from scando, I climb); 1. a

ladder; 2. a succession of steps, hence a graduated measure; 3. in music, the series of tones; e-scal-ade, to mount by ladders; compare climax, [in writing or speaking) a rising in strength (Gr.

climax, a ladder). act, a thing done (Lat. agere, actum, to do or drive); ac-tor, one

who does; so ag-ent; ag-ile, easily moved about, nimble; react, ex-act, trans-act, ag-it-ate, to drive or move often, to keep moving; cogit-ate=co-agitate, to think.

VI.

[The words are taken from the Lesson—"Japan."] probable, likely, that may be proved (Lat. probabilis, from probare,

to prove ; note also probus, good); prove, to prove, try; proof, what proves or makes certain; probe, to try or examine [a wound]; proba-tion, the act-or time-of proving or trying; prob-i-ty, goodness; ap-prove, to regard as good; ap-proba-tion; re-prove,

to regard or speak of as bad; re-proba-tion. history, properly inquiry, then the knowledge obtained by inquiry

(Gr. historia, inquiry); histori ographer, a writer of history; story, history; note this curtailment of a word, of which the following are also examples: dropsy for hydropsy, surgeon for chirurgeon, cob (as in cobweb) for attercop, a spider, peal (of bells) for appeal; so spec for speculation; cab for cabriolet;

tick (debt) for ticket; bus for omnibus. short, prop. cut off (Ang. Sax. sceran, to cut); shear, to cut; shears,

an instrument for cutting; share, a part cut off; share (plough), the part which cuts the ground; sherd, in potsherd, a broken pot; shore, where sea and land are cut off from one another; shirt = short; skirt.

VII.

[The words are taken from the Lesson—"Vegetable cells."] microscope, instrument for looking at small objects (Gr. micros,

small, scopeo, I look); micro-cosm, a small world; micro-meter, a measure of very small distances; micro-phone, an instrument

for making audible minute sounds—ex. gr. footfall of insects. reveal, to unveil (re, velo, I cover); revelation, the act of unveil.

ing, that which is unveiled; veil, a covering. secret, adj. set apart, noun, what is hidden (Lat. se, apart, cerno,

cretum, I separate); se-crete, to set apart, to hide; se-cretion, the act of separating from a fluid, what is separated; secretary, one intrusted with secrets; crime (Lat. crimen, criminis, a sifting, a charge); incrimin-ate, discrimin-ate, to separate; dis

cern, to separate, to distinguish, to see. whole-hole or hale, sound, complete (Ang. Sax. hal, healthy);

hale, healthy; health, the state of being hale or whole; heal, to make healthy; holy, entire or perfect [to God); hallow, to make or treat as holy; wassail (wes, be, hal, whole or well), a wishing health, a revel.

VIII.

[The words are taken from the Lesson—"The Benefits of Pain.”] benefit, good done (Lat. bene, well, fit, from facio, factum, I do);

bene-factor, one who does good to; bene-fice (a good done), the grant of an estate; bene-ficence, a doing good, kindness; other words with bene are: bene-volence, good-will; bene-diction [a speaking well of], a blessing í beni-gn (Lat. benignus = beni

genus), of good nature or disposition. pain (Lat. poena, punishment, pain; punio, I punish); penal, incur

ring punishment; penal-ty, punishment; im-punity, without

punishment; pine, to suffer pain, to waste away under pain. carbon, charcoal (Lat. carbo, carbonis, burning wood); carbuncle,

a small coal, a precious stone, a tumour; char, to burn to coal; char-coal, coal made by burning or charring wood: other words

are carbonate, carbonic, carburetted. cannon, a gun (Lai. canna, a reed); cane, a strong reed ; canister,

a reed basket; can-on [a reed used as a rule), a rule, the genuine

books of the Bible, a dignitary of the English Church. cell, a small room (Lat. cella, a room); cellar, an underground

room; cell-ular, consisting of cells; also cell-ulose.

IX.

[The words are taken from the Lesson—The Execution of Lady

Jane Grey."]

lady=Ang. Sax. hlafdig: hlaf means loaf, and the latter part means

either giver or kneader. lord is either loaf giver or loaf keeper. husband is either house-band, i.e. the bond which unites the house,

or the dweller in the house. wife, probably=woman; or is connected with weave. im-pute, to reckon to (Lat. im, to, and puto, I think or account);

com-pute, to reckon together; count=compt, to reckon; ac-count =ac-compt; dis-count, to reckon off; re-count, to tell over; (Lat. puto, originally meant I cleanse or clear) am-putate, to

cleanse [trees] round; comp. purus, clean. doom, judgment (Ang. Sax. dom, from don or do, to fix); deem, to

judge; dooms-day, the judgment-day; doomster or dempster,

formerly in Scotland the public executioner. zeal, warmth, earnestness (Gr. zēlos, from zeo, I boil); zeal-ot, one

full of zeal; zeal-ous =jealous; comp. ferv-ent, from ferv-eo, I boil; ferv-or, warmth; ferv-id, earnest. Yeast may be of same root as zeo, I boil.

X.

[The words are taken from the Lesson—"Palmyra in its Glory.]

caravan, a company of travellers (Persian kârwân); caravansary,

an inn for caravans; van, a covered waggon, a curtailed word for caravan, see Lesson VI. [van, the front, is from French avant,

before.] elevation, the act of raising up (Lat. e, up, and levo, I raise, I make

light); lev-er, that which raises up; leav-en (Lat. levamen, that which raises), that which makes dough rise; Lev-ant, the place where the sun rises, the eastern part of Mediterranean; lev-y, to

raise [taxes or troops]; lev-i-ty, lightness. immense, not measurable, very great (Lat. im, not, and metior, mensus, I measure); mens-ura-tion, the art of measuring; measure; commensurate, measured in comparison with, in propor

tion with; di-mension, measuring off, size. character, peculiar quality (Gr. character, an instrument for grav

ing or marking, then the mark made, then the peculiar mark of a person or thing); character-ise, to describe by its peculiar qualities.

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