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PAGE

PAGE Smith o. Marsack 98 Swope v. Ross

271 0. Miller. 77, 79, 172, 178 Sylvester v. Downer

47, 48 7. Munsetter v. Poillon

151 v. Shippey

31

т v. Smith.

250 0. Weston 227, 238, 271 Tappan v. Ely

91 Sohier v. Loring 262, 263 | Tardy v. Boyd

164, 166 Solarte v. Palmer

136, 137
Tarleton v. Shingler

214 Southwark Bank v. Gross 209 Tarver v. Nance

72 Spaulding v. Andrews 53 Tassel v. Lewis.

133 Spear v. Pratt 55 Taylor v. Beck

102 Spence v. Crockett . 131 v. Blakelock

245 Spencer v. Bank of Salina 164 v. Curry.

34 Sperry v. Horr 20, 30, 31 v. Davis.

46 Spies v. Gilmore 174, 193 v. Dobbin

40 Sprague v. Tyson 164 v. Harmison

242 Sprekels v. Bender

198, 199 r. Jacoby Stafford o. Rice .

102 v. Snyder

112, 164, 174 Stalker v. McDonald 244 Temple v. Seaver

88 Stall v. Catskill Bank 238 Tenney v. Prince

48, 191 Staniback v. Bank of Virginia . 130

Thayer v. Buffum

87 Staples v. Franklin Bank

18, 43
v. Crossman

102 State v. Cobb 240 v. King

172 0. Hurd.

110 Third Nat. Bank v. Ashworth 169, 170 State Bank v. Fearing 98, 101 v. Marine Lumber Co.

237 v: Slaughter 145 Thomas v. Exchange Bank .

50 v. Smith .. 186 Thompson v. Briggs

250 v. Thompson

230
v. Cumming

80 Steele v. McKinley 47 v. McCullough

182 Steiner v. Jeffries

52
v. Sloan.

28 Stevens o. Beals 86 Thornton v. Maynard .

276 0. Blanchard 245 Thorp v. Craig.

282 Stewart v. Lansing 252 Tiernan v. Woodruff

266 Stoddard v. Penniman 209 Tile Co. v. Bank

52 Stoneman v. Pyle 30 Timberlake v. Thayer

177 Story v. Lamb 94 Timmins v. Gibbins

183 Stotts v. Byers 250 Tindal v. Brown

143 Stough v. Ponca Mill Co. 237 Tobey v. Barber

249 Strong r. Wilson 102 Todd v. Bank of Kentucky

210 Stuart r. Lancaster

248

Topeka Company v. Merriam 231 Stults v. Silva

30, 37
Towne v. Rice

230 Stump v. Napier

102
Townsend v. Bush .

102 Sturgis v. Metropolitan Bank 235 v. Lorain Bank

141, 168, 169 Sturterant v. Forde

253

Townsends v. Bank of Racine 182 Sussex Bank v. Baldwin . 110 Townsley v. Sumrall

53 Sutcliffe v. Humphreys 18 Trabue v. Short

283 Sutton v. Grey 59 Treon v. Brown

102 Swan o. Crafts 247 Triggs v. Newnham

122 v. North British Co. 15, 218, 220 Trimby v. Vignier

280 Swartz r. Redfield .

Troy Bank v. Lauman

109, 210 Swetland v. Creigh 28 True v. Bullard .

104 Swift v. Tyson . 245 v. Thomas

76

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PAGE Trust Co. o. Smythe .

196 Tucker Manuf. Co. v. Fairbanks 44,

45, 46 Tuckerman v. Harwell

221 Tunstall v. Walker

162 Turner v. Killian

245 Tuttle v. Bartholomew

93, 194 v. Standish

172 Tyler v. Young

115 Tyson v. Oliver

164

.

.

U.

.

107,

Union Bank v. Hyde 80, 125, 132, 168,

177 v. Roberts

209 v. Stoker

160 v. Willis

47, 127, 128 United States v. American Bank 298 v. Hodge

265 United States Bank v. Geer 6, 104, 240 Upham v. Prince

194 Utica Brewing Co., In re

272

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V.

PAGE Waring v. Betts.

106, 173 Washington Bank v. Krum 250 Washington Ins. Co. v. Miller 38 Waterbury v. Sinclair

193 Watkins v. Crouch

170 Watts v. Gans

79 v. Pub. Admr.

41 Way v. Butterworth

48 v. Dunham.

263 v. Lamb.

256 v. Smith

30, 37 Wayne Bank v. Low

283 Weaver v. Barden

249 Webster v. Howe

52 Welch v. Taylor Manuf. Co. 172, 178 Weldon v. Buck

30 West v. Brown.

111 Westfall v. Braley

182 Westgate v. Healy

24 Wetherall v. Clagett

132 Wheeler v. Field

112, 164, 173 v. Guild

273, 274 Wheelock v. Freeman

214 Whistler v. Forster

85 White v. Cushing

32 v. North

22 1. Richmond

27, 28 v. Smith

38 v. Snell

38 Whitehead v. Walker

256 Whitesides v. Northern Bank 209, 210 Whitmer v. Fry

214 Whitmore v. Nickerson

256 Wieland v. Kobick

226 Wiesinger v. First National Bank 18 Wilkins v. Jadis

122 Wilkinson v. Johnson

210, 211 Willard v. Nelson

205 Willet v. Parker

233 Willets v. Phænix Bank

25 Williams v. Bank of United States 163 1. Brashear

74 v. Holt

198 v. Smith

258 v. Wade

283 v. Walbridge

102 Willis v. French

98 v. Green

127, 145 Willoughby v. Willoughby

24 Wilson v. Campbell 19, 31, 196 v.Eifler.

248 v. Lazier

252 v. Williman

18

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PAGB Wilson v. Wilson

16 Windham Bank v. Norton 119, 166 Wing v. Ford

252 Winslow v. Everett Bank

223 Wireback v. First National Bank 227,

272 Witherow v. Slayback 102, 171 Witherspoon v. Musselman.

30 Witte v. Williams

271 Wolf v. Burgess

162 Wolfe v. Jewett.

174 Wood v. Draper

217 v. Price

72 v. Steele

209, 217 Woodhall v. Streeter

261 Woodhull v. Holmes

102 Woodland v. Fear .

109 Woodruff v. Hill

258, 279, 280 v. Plant.

79 Woods v. North

30 Woods Co. v. Schaeffer

16, 40 Woodsun v. Wood

88 Woodward v. Foster

104 Woodworth v. Bank of America 207 v. Huntoon.

257

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BILLS, NOTES, AND

CHEQUES.

CHAPTER I.

LAW MERCHANT.

§ 1. LAW MERCHANT AND THE COMMON LAW: GENERAL

THEORY.

Law merchant, lex mercatoria, is a term in use wherever the English language prevails, to designate certain branches of law imported at different times into England, Law merchant and matriculated there, from the Continent of an importa

tion: use of the Europe, where they formed part of the modern term in this

book. Roman or Civil law. We are concerned in this book with a branch which deals with the law of bills, notes, and cheques. This branch of the law merchant has retained throughout its life, to the present day, its essential characteristics, clearly marking it off from the common law, while other branches have differed so little from the common law or have become so far assimilated to it that the fact is all but forgotten that they are not of the common law stock. The result is that the term law merchant at the present time usually suggests the law of bills, notes, and cheques. That will be sufficient justification for the use of the term in this book.

The common law, on the other hand, was a native of Eng. land, already venerable when the law merchant

Common law, crossed the English Channel. Before that time the a native of common law had defined and settled the conception

England. of contract for England.

The law merchant was no part of the law of England for generations after it had followed trade, in a private capacity, to

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