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MONASTERIES POUNDED BY DONOUGH CARBRAC, KING OF LIMERICK.

Kilsane.

1198. Kilsane, for Cistertian monks, in the county of Limerick. It in sometime became a cell belonging to the abbey of Curcumro, county Clare.

St. Saviour's of Limerick of Dominicans.

1227. Donogh Corbrac O'Brien, king of Limerick, this year built and endowed, in the city of Limerick, a convent for the Friars of the Order of St. Dominick, under the invocation and title of St. Saviour. This convent had large possessions in lands in and about the city; the fishing of the salmonweir belonged to it, and St. Thomas's island where was a chapel of ease. The land going to Parteen, called Mona-na-Brahir, likewise belonged to it. In this year, 1241, this King Donagh was buried in this convent and a magnificent statue was erected over his tomb.

In 1644 this convent was in Borne erected into a university.

[See the chapter relating to this convent and the Order of Dominicans in Limerick.]

Ennis of Franciscans. 1240. This year, Donogh Carbrac O'Brien, king of Limerick, built for the Franciscans a most sumptuous convent in the town of Ennis, or Ennis Cluanruada, county Clare. The Church is yet standing, and a portion of it has been used for many years by the Protestants for their service.

Galbally of Franciscans. 1240, or thereabouts, this same Donogh Carbrac O'Brien, king of Limerick, founded for the Franciscans a convent in Galbally, being on the borders of the county Limerick and the county Tipperary.1

1 Of Monasteries and Convents, (including some few afterwards founded, and which shall be more fully noticed in the proper place), the following, alone, were in the City and County of Limerick, viz.:—

Canons Regular of St. Aagxatm.
Kilmalloek
Inniscatha
Rathkeale
Kynnythin
Limerick
Mungaret
Cluanclaidech

Dominicans.

Limerick

Kilmalloek

Ballingali—Carmelites, according to Ware, built by the Roches in the 14th century. Pat 39th Elizab. called B Carmelite monastery, and granted to the Provost,&C.T.C.D.

Franciscans.
Limerick
Askeaton
Adare
Adare—Obserrantine Franciscans, founded by
Thos. Fitzmaurice and Joan his wife,
AD. 1264 (Ware, vol. II. p. 28.)
Adare—A ugustinians
Near Ballingarry—Franciscans

Total Monasteries and

Canon Regular Nune of St. Augustin.
Limerick

Cluain-Credhil, now Clarina
Hydh Ita
Monastirne
Calliagh, near Loughgur

CUtertiant or Bernardmu.
Nenay
Feal
Kilsane
Wooney

Newcastle—Knights' Templars
Anug—Knights' Templars.
Adare—Knights' Hospitallers
Adare—Trinitarians
Limerick—Knights' Templars.

Limerick—Auguatinians

Any—Augustinians

Ballintubber—Carmelites, some say Templars, granted to Robert Browne of Baltinglass

Convents—30.

To gratify the curious, we here insert certain catalogues with regard to the kingdom of Ireland in general, in order to show in what a flourishing state it was from the first preaching of Christianity until the coming of the English, both in learning, religion, sanctity, hospitality, and force of arms. Extracted out of Colgan's Lives of Irish Saints, and Gratianus Lucius, or John Lynch, Archdeacon of Tuam's Cambrensis Eversus.

Kings of Ireland who were
darned Saints:

St. Cormacus, Rex Momonia
St. Cormacus, Rex Lageniaj
St Aidus, Rex Lageniac
St. Felimeus, Rex Momonias
St. Kellachua, Rex Cormacsa
St. Moelchobius, Rex totiiu

Hibffi
St. Brien Boru, Rex totius

Hibas
St. Theodor!cus,RexMomonis
St Flathatus
St Sabina, Regina
St. Temaria, Regina
St. Brecanus, Hibernua Rex

Walliae

Twelve in ail.

IrishPrinces who were Saints:

St Dermitiua

St Gninerus, Myr.

St Hispadius, Myr.

St. Fintanus

St. Colmanu9

St Cormachos

St Fichinus

St. Fierga

St Sugadiua

St Maidocus

St Furseus

St Carthacus

St Foilanus

St Foilomaniua

St. Sernocua

St. Papanus

St Fingar

St Abbanua

Sa. Piala, Myr.

Sa. Dympna, Myr.

Sa. Cumania

Sa. Ernata

Sa. Ethna, pa.

Sa. Fidelmia

Sa. Ethna, N.

Sa. Sobellia

Sa. Kentibernia

Sa. Conchenna

Sa. Brigida

Sa. Maura

Sa. Lafara

Has. 12 Filias Auguati Regi

8*. 31 Sorores S. Eudari

S. Eudaeua

Sa. Fanchea

Sa. Derfraicba

Sa. Carechia

Sa. Lochuina

Sa. Dominica, Myr.

Sa. 12 Filii Si. Brecani Regia

S. Nenidius

St. 12 Filii Sti. Brecani Regis

S. Natalia

S. Florentinus

S. Ultanus

S. Romualdus

197 in all.

Irish Saints writers of rules:

S. Patricius
S. Columkil
S. Albeus
S. Declanua
S. Congallua
S. Carthagua
S. Moloa
S. Mocteua
S. Finianua
S. Columbanus
S. Kiaranus
S. Brendanua
S. Brigida

Thirteen in all.

The number of monks in some
Monasteries in Ireland:

300 under St. Fechinua
150 under St Natalia
150 under St Maidocus
150 under St Munchin
800 under St. Tehinus
430 under St Mochteus
879 under St Carthagus
1000 under St. Gobbanus
1500 under St. Lasscrianus
1500 in Mungret Abbey
3000 under St. Brendanua
3000 under St Finnianua
8000 under St. Congellua
3000 under St Geraldua
150 under St. Monnenabirg,

in France
300 under St Columbanus
3000 under St. Caidocua

Ancient Irish Doctors and
Writers :—
St Sedulius, Dr
M. Olius Sedulius, Dr

S. Thadaeus, Dr

S. Marcellus, Dr

S. Macbethus, Dr

S. Dongallus, Dr

S. Colea, Dr

S. Dubslanius, Dr

S. Comeanus

8. Forchernua

S. Fuinanua

S. Kieranus, 1°

S. Columba, 1"

S. Kicranis, 2°

S. Columba, 2"

S. Finbarrus

S. Ibarus

S. Fiednus

S. Nemidua

S. Mocteua

S. Brendanua

S. Comgellus

S. Odua

S. Patricius, Apost.

S. Fachnanus, the founder of

the Academy of Ross
St Ainchellus
Manalanius
Johannes Soctua Eregina,

founder, with King Alfred,

of the University of Oxon Petrus ab Hibernia, Master

to St. Thomas
Richard Armachanua
Marian us Scot us
B. Marianus Gorman
S. Gallus
8. Lomanua
S. Patrick, juu.
S. Benignua
S. Evinua
8. Comineua
S. Adamnanus
S. Murus
8. Carnecus
S. Ultanua
S. minus
8. Dalanua
S. Ilerlatius
S. Cathaldus
S. Mocteus, 2"
S. Fintanus
S, Cuthbertus
S. Moelesa
SS. 5 Gilds:
S. Herlatius, 2»
S. Colga Sapiens
S. Cumeanua
8. Sylvanua
S. Tridolinus
S. Daganua
S. Cuthbertus, 2"

St. Momon, Myr. at Leone
St. Florentius

St.Arpogastus aboutNarbonne
St. Caidocus in Picardy
St Autbodus, Laudunum

IN BRITTANY.

St. Leiginus

St Joara

St Tenanus

St. Geldasius of S. Briene

St Briochus, and others

St. Maclorlus of St. Malo

AT RHEIMS.

St. Gilriandus \ ■;.

St. Hernanus f t

St Germanus C g

St Veranus ) <*5

St. Abraius St. Petranus

St Merolilanus St Frandia

St I'oinpa > £

S. Passima ) <5

IN BURGUNDY.

St.Columbanus StMaimbodus
St. Colombanus, jun.

IN THE NETHERLANDS.
IN BRABANT—30.

St Romoldus St. Pympria
St. Fedegandus StGerebcrnus
St. Himelinus St. Dymphna
S. Livinus, sen., S. Elias, &c.

IN FLANDERS.

Sta. Oda

St. Levinus StWasualplus

St GuthagoniusSt.Columbanus

IN ARTOIS.

St Luiglius St. Vulganius St. Suiglanus St. Fursasus St. Kilianus St Obodius

IN HATNAtTLT.

St Ettonua StWanamphus

St.Adalgisius

St. Alliens St Mnlumbus

IN NAMUR.

St. Foronnatus St. Eloquius S. Tincentius S. Meno

IN LIEOE.

St. Dltanus St. Bertuinus
St. Foillanus St. Tullanus

IN GUILDERS, HOLLAND AND
FRIESLAND.

StWironus St. Heronus

St Pelchemus

St. Uthgerus St Acca

IN GERMANY—115.

St. Alto & S. Virgilius
St. Abuinus at Thuring
St. Desibodus at Treves
St. Ethradus at Alsace and
Bavaria St. Magnus

B. CIaudiu9 Clemens, founder of the Academy of Paris

S. Rupert us

S. Aileranus

S. Moelranus

S. Oengusius

S. Gildas Coemanus

S. Gildas Madusius

S. Delanus, 2s.

S. Dainanos

S. Dageus

For more Irish Writers consalt Sir James Ware on this

subject.

The number of Monasteries founded by the Irish Saints ;

7 by St Manchinus

8 by St. Fodolinus
24 by St. Albanus
28 by St. Fidianus
100 by St. Columba
100 by St Luanus
100 by St. Moluanus
700 by St. Patrick

At onasteries founded by and for
the Irish in foreign coun-
tries :—

2 at Ratisbon

1 at Fossium in Flanders

1 at Vienna

1 at Nuremberg

1 at Eystadia

1 at Wirstburg

130 in Ireland & 90 Martyrs

Irish Saints who preached the
Gospel in other countries:—l
IN ITALY—13.
St Cathaldus at Tarentuin
St Emilianus at Faenza
St Silanus & St. Frigidianus

at Lucca
St Andrew & St. Donatus at

Lupentum, Fieboli
John Albums, founder of the

Academy at Papia or Tici

nura
St Comiaius at Bobium
St. Gunifortius, Myr. at Milan
St Livinuri, sen.
S. Peregrinus of Alps

In France—45.
St. Mansuetus, Ap. of Toul
St. FJipius, Myr. at Tone
St Finlagenus at Metz
St. Piaecordius at Corbeis
St Forcentius at Amboise
St. Fridolinus at Poictiers
St. Helia at Angouleme
St Anatolius at Perigord
St. Fiacruis about Lyons
St Fuiseus at Peronne
S. Sidonius S. Macallinus
S. Adeodatus S. Mombulus
fci. Laurentios at Anghe

St. Marinus, Myr.
St. Fridolinus in Switzerland
St. Gallus in Switzerland
St. Tontanus & St. Colonatus
St. John at Michaelsburg
St. Kiliarius at Wurtzburg
St. Rupertus the Boii, Apostle

of Bavaria
St. Albertus at Ratisbon
St. Diocola ) . „
St. Fintanusl at Cona""»<=»
St. Eusebius Curensum
Theodosius, patron of Con-
stance
Frudbart, Kunlald,*Vendclin
S. Maccarius Archus
St. Hildulphus Treverensis

St'FlorfncT } ^rgwtliiMli

St. Eliphius at Cologne

S. Armichadus of Fuld

S. Kortilla

S. Gidilarius of Saltzburg,

Marianus

S. Albinus, Ap. of Thurlngla

S. Vatalis Patto

St. Kilian, Ap. of FranconU

S. Harrucus

IN THE ISLE OF MAN.

St. Germanus, first Bishop
St. Connidruis
St Romulus
St. Machaldus

IN ICELAND.

St. Buo Apost. of whom 8

Martyrs
St. Emulphus, and 24 others

IN GREAT BRITAIN—44.

St. Columba

St. Adianus, Northumberland

St. Fuinanus St. Colmanus

St. Sellachus St Brendanus

St. Madomnochus

St. Baneus & Tuda

St. Maidocus St. Sennanus

St. Molugga St Scotinus

St Ultanus Sa. Burienna,

Sa. Tia & Iva

St. Piranus

Sa. Bega & Modwenna

Sa. Ceadda Faelbiius

St. Abbanus St. Eochdius

St. Cuthbertus of Lindisfarm

777 Martyrs

St. Asaph, B. of St. Asaph

St. Keranus

S. Abban of Abingdon

S. Adamannus

S. Botulphus of Botulfstowo

or Boston
S. Cerlac, B. of the Mercians
S. Dicullus of Boseharn
SS.Gebanus, Indractus, Drusa
St Maldulphus of Malmesbury

& St. John

• We supplement many of the names from the Apologia of Stephen White, S.J. of Clonmel.

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We know of 2229 Irish Saints, even not counting their companions, of whom 300 preached the gospel in foreign countries, not counting their companions. Of these 529 were holy abbots; 330 were bishops and martyrs, and numberless holy bishops; 31 archbishops of Armagh were saints; 21 of whom immediately succeeded each other; 990 Irish monks were martyred by the Danes in the monastery of Benchear; 1200 Irish monks were martyred by the Danes together with their abbot Abel; 777 Irishmen martyrs in England; and only one, St. Odronus, Proto martyr, was martyred in Ireland by the Irish. 23 English saints received their studies and education in Ireland; 3000 others have studied in Ireland; 100 Cambri or from Brittany have studied in Ireland. Innumerable were the Italians, French, in short from all nations who had recourse to Ireland in order to perfect themselves in their studies, and the knowledge of the scriptures; so that it may well be doubted whether Ireland acquired more glory from the great number of saints whom it sent abroad in order to teach and preach the gospel to foreign nations, or from the great number of foreigners who resorted to Ireland in order to be perfected in all manner of literature and knowledge.1

1 There were four principal Universities in Ireland, viz. Ardmagh, Cashel, Lismore, and don da-leathglass. In Armagh, under St. Dubthach, Bishop, anno 513, were 7000 scholars. In Cashel, under Cormac Mac Cullenan, King and Archbishop in the year 901, were 5000 students, and six hundred Conventual monks; the like number were in Lismore and Dun-da-leathglass. man were the other great schools dispersed throughout the kingdom; whereas even after the coming of the English at Cluanraid near Ennis, there were 600 Scholars, and 350 Monks, supported by O'Brien, King of Limerick, The Irish in these days made a beginning of the University of Oxford in England, founded the University of Paris and that of Pavia. Fifty-two Catholic kings reigned in Ireland until the coming of the English, consequently, 197 kings in all reigned in Ireland until that event. Whoever reads the antiquities must be convinced that it abounded in gold and silver, as every person of distinction wore a golden ring and a golden chain; in the reign of Candaridtheach, their helmets were made of silver, all their chalices and Church utensils were made of gold and silver ; and the ounce of gold paid to the Danes yearly, as a tribute for every nose in the kingdom, is a proof of their riches.—Hugh JU'Curtin.

CHAPTER VI.

THE NORMAN INVASION.

It was thus that Ireland was situated with regard to religion and education, at the period of the invasion, which must have heen regarded by the Norman conquerors of England as an inevitable and necessary supplement to the conquest of the Anglo-Saxons, though it was not attempted for a full century after the battle of Hastings. But from the time that Henry II. had obtained from the Englishman, Nicholas Breakspere, who then filled the chair of St. Peter under the name of Adrian IV., the Bull of donation which had been procured under the hypocritical representation that the Irish Church was in a state of deplorable corruption, the attempt at invasion was only a question of time. Unfortunately our countrymen were divided at the time, which made the work of the invaders comparatively easy. The Irish were admittedly more divided then, than they were at any previous period of their history; and if they suspected the lengths to which the ambition of the first invaders would extend, which it does not appear they did, for the Annals of the Four Masters say the Irish thought nothing of these "fleets of the Flemings," as they called the invaders, they were still quite unprepared for the work of treachery which has conferred lasting infamy on the name of Dermod MacMorrogh. We regret to have to record that the house of O'Brien, forgot in this crisis of the national fortunes the noble principle of its founder, Brian, who never on any occasion could be induced to avail himself of the assistance of foreigners against the general interest of the nation. Unfortunately, the king of Thomond had not yet forgiven Bodcrick for the assumption of the chief Sovereignty, nor forgotten the long continued supremacy of the dymasty to which he himself belonged. The important events of the invasion commencing in the descent of three or four hundred men, and terminating in the recognition by O'Connor of Henry as Suzerain, together with the formation of the armed colony called the English Pale, belonging to the general history of Ireland, cannot with propriety be given in detail in a local history. Stamhurst and a contemporary, Newbrigensis, give a very unfavorable notion of the characters, circumstances, and motives of the leaders of this expedition, which is generally supposed to have occurred in the month of May 1169, at a place near Fethard in Wexford, called Baganbon, where traces of the slight fortification mentioned by Maurice Began in his Fragment of Irish History still exist.'

On the arrival of Strongbow, which had been preceded by that of Raymond le Gros, the invaders made rapid progress. They took Loughgarnan (Wes, ford), and entered Portlairge (Waterford) by storm, Gillemaire (or Reginald), a Dane who commanded the tower, and Ua Faelain (OThelan), lord of the Decies, were put to the sword, with seven hundred men. The invaders next enforced the submission of the Danish occupants of Dublin. O'Ruarc and O'Carroll were obliged to retire after besieging Dublin for three days; and Asgall, or Asculphus, the Danish ruler, was deposed to make room for King

1 In the local traditions, these entrenchments, which are situated near Fethard, are called "Strongbow'a Camp;" but the place of Strongbow'a debarkation was at Waterford, as that of Raymond le Gros was at Dnndonnel. The name of Baganbon is said to be derived from Fitz 's two ships, the Betguc and Bonne, which the Anglo-Norman adventurers burned after their landing.

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