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The town of Galway fell soon after the surrender of Limerick. Before these latter events Ludlow proceeded on an expedition to Clare, with 2000 foot and 1500 horse/arriving at Inchegronan, within fifteen miles of Limerick. Clare castle and Carrigaholt fell. He returned to Limerick by Burren," of which it is said" (says Ludlow1), "that it is a country where there is not water enough to drown a man, wood enough to hang one, or earth enough to bury him, which last is so scarce that the inhabitants steal it from one another, and yet their cattle is very fat, for the grass growing on the "turfts" of earth two or three feet square, that lie between the rocks, which are on limestone, is very sweet and nourishing."
On this occasion Ludlow visited Lemenagh castle,2 and had an interview with Lady Honora O'Brien, daughter to the late Earl of Thomond—who, being accused of protecting the cattle of the neighbouring people, was upbraided by Ireton, who said, "as much a cynic as I am, the tears of this woman moved me.'"
CONFISCATION.—OPPRESSIVE TAXATION ON THE CITIZENS.— FEARFUL 'BURDENS.—FLEETWOOD.
We pass for a while from the city and its concerns, to a view of events elsewhere. The Parliament of England now began to concert measures for "the final settlement and administration of Ireland." Lambert was appointed successor to Ireton. Ultimately, however, Lambert resigned, and Fleetwood, who had married Ireton's widow, was appointed in his place. Two acts relative to Ireland were debated in Parliament—one for the confiscation of all the lands of 'the rebels;' another for adjusting the claims of adventurers, i.e. those Englishmen and others who had ventured money advances in the war. Among those specially excepted from life and estate, the Marquis of Ormond, who was unable to play the double game with the Parliamentarians, Lord Inchiquin, Bramhal, the Protestant Bishop of Derry, a man peculiarly obnoxious to the republicans, were distinctly named.
Early in the Spring of 1652, an edict was issued that the Catholic clergy should quit the kingdom under capital penalties. By this nefarious enactment it was decreed, "that every Romish Priest was deemed guilty of rebellion, and sentenced to be hanged until he was half dead; then to have his head cut off and his body divided in quarters; his bowels to be drawn out and burnt, and his head fixed upon a pole in some public place. The punishment of those who entertained a Priest was by the same enactment, confiscation of their goods and chattels, and the ignominious death of the gallows." The same fine was set upon the head of a priest as upon the head of a wolf, (five pounds.) Morrison here quoted, declares that "neither the Israelites were more cruelly persecuted by Pharaoh, nor the innocent infants by Herod, nor the Christians by Nero, or any of the other Pagan tyrants, than were the Roman Catholics at this fatal juncture." In Limerick this edict was promulgated by the local governors, who acted on behalf of the Commonwealth. So fierce an ukase had a direful effect as might be expected, on those Catholics who had remained in the city, and who hoped they could follow the profession of their faith without hindrance, as long as they did not interfere with the progress of the Puritans, who now filled every office. Bearing badly the tyrannical mandate, they requested Dr. Arthur, whose influence was extensive with those in power, that he would place their deplorable case before the authorities in Dublin. They felt sore at heart to think that they should be without the ministrations of their Pastors. Dr. Arthur states,1 that he undertook the duty with zeal and earnestness—he does not acquaint us with the result, no doubt he was unsuccessful; he adds however, that he arrived in Dublin on the 6th of February, that he remained till the 15th of August, and that he received a sum of £82 15s. for professional services rendered while there.
Lieutenant Mason ... ... ... ... ... 00 10 0
Major Whittle ... ... ... ... ... 00 10 0
Lieutenant Barethrowne (quere Barrington) ... ... 00 8 6
Lieutenant Dingle ... ... ... ... ... 00 10 0
Several similar entries are made in the Diary of Dr. Arthur, respecting his attendance on the Parliamentary officers, 4c., all of whom appear to have paid him very liberally and punctually, and many of whom suffered not only from scurvy, but from cholera morbus, wounds, pestilence, *c.
> To this day New castle shows that it had been in the days when it was occupied by the O'Briens—a truly noble baronial residence.
The money levies on the citizens, for the exigencies of the Puritan army and the requirements of the new government after the surrender, were literally enormous. They would be incredible if they were not vouched for by indisputable data.' Under the new regime the citizens of Limerick had no reason indeed to congratulate themselves.
i Arthur MSS.
1 Dr. Arthur's account of what he was called upon to pay, and for what purpose, is in his own
hand-writing (Arthur MSS.), from which I extract the following particulars:—
Decembris, 1651, of the first cess levied after the surrender I paved
Januarii, 1652, of the second levy I payed Thos. Fitzwm. Fanning
Hartii, 1652, for fyer to the gardens delivered to Ptk. Fitzjames Whyte ...
For 1652, for fyer and candle light to the said gardens delivered to Thos.
22nd alarm, 1652, for lodging moneys to the gnarrizon delivered to Thos. Fanning
0 Aprilis, 1652, for the Poore and losses of the hill to Thos. Fanning
Aprilis, 1652, for a leviye then made ... ... ...
Hay, 1652, ...
• Junii, 1652, for a leviye then made
7 Junii, 1652, for some arrears due of the said former leivye
9* Jnlii, 1652, for a levy then made delivered to Thomas Woulfe
3° Julii, 1652, for a levy then made and for fyer and candlelight
8* Augustii, 1652, for fyer and candlelight
0 Augustii, 1652, for a levy then made and delivered to Thomas Woulfe
Septembris, 1652, for a levy then made, delivered to Thomas Woulfe ...
Septembris, 1652, for fyer and candlelight
Septembris, 1652, for skynnes recovered against the Corporation
Octobris, 1652, for a levy then made, delivered to Thomas Woulfe
Novembris, 1652, for stocks and skavengers
Decembris, 1652, for the new gate of St. John's ... ...
for fyer and candlelight to Clement Stackpol
Januarii, 1653, for a levy then made and delivered to Wm. Meroney
Januarii, 1653, for fyer and candlelight to the citadells for 3 months ...
„ 1653, for that moneth's contribution to Wm. C. Meroney
„ 1653, for that month's contribution, payed to Wm. Heroney ...
„ 1653, for that month's C. payed to Wm. Meroney
To increase the extreme rigor and misery of these terrible times of suffering, corn and provisions of every description were scarce and high priced. The great market for corn in particular, was 'Nenagh in Ormond,' to which such of the citizens of Limerick as possessed the means, were accustomed to go or to send their messengers, to purchase supplies for their household and their workmen. At this time corn was about £2 a bushel in Ormond. It may be observed that in these times and before them, it was usual not only to pay the artisan and the labourer in cash, not quite so much, indeed as they are now paid, but to bake bread, to brew malt, to lay in store barrels of herrings and quantities of butter for their consumption, a long account of which we find set forth in the MSS. of Dr. Arthur during the comparatively lengthened period he was building a great "stone howse in Mongret-street, in the south suburb of the city of Limerick," which stone house he began in 1620, but which he had scarcely finished when Ireton was thundering at the gates.1 Previous to the surrender, the impositions, though not so heavy, were severe. The levies were monthly. In addition, horse and foot were quartered on such of the citizens as could or could not bear the burden.2 There were levies and applotments also for the ditches, outworks and fortifications, previous to the siege and surrender; and for the money "lent to James Marquis of Ormond, Lieutenant General and General Governor of Ireland/'1 The pressure was intolerable.
Warding the gate whyles the new gate was s making at se-
1653, payed for the scavengers, town maior, &for tyre & candlelight 0 16 0
1653, payed for that moneth's contribution to Wm. Meroney ... 2 03 9 payed for fyre and candlelight to the citadels for the 3 months
past ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 15 0
payed for that moneth's contribution, p. L. B. Pickett ... 1 17 6 payed for the next moneth's contribution to come payed to
T. Arthur ... ... ... ... " ... 1 12 1J
To Thomas Gerrott Arthur, for Cets ... ... ... 1 12 0
paid him for the citadell moneys ... ... ... 1 12 0
paid him for the moneth's cess ... ... ... 1 12 0
paid him for the moneth's cess ... ... ... 1 12 0
lighting to the guards ... ... ... ... 0 03 2
On the opposite page Dr. Arthur enters :—
Cess Moneyes. Octobris, 1653, I payed to Thomas Arthur a head bill for cess ... ... £35 5 0
18" Novembris, I payed to Michael Stritch head bill for cess moneys ... 30 2 5
loo Decembris. I payed him for cess moneys ... ... ... ... 30 0 0
1 To shew the quantity and capacity of mere brewing materials in private houses in Limerick in these times I take the following from the Arthur MSS—
"A note of what goods and household stuff Doctor Thomas Arthur Fitzwilliam left in the custodie of his wife in his mansion-house at Lymerick :—
1. Bras kitle, weighing four hundred weight, able to contain a whole hoped of liquor, with his parents' names thereuppon, and cost him twenty pounds sterling, being bought from them.
2. Another bras kitle a little smaller than the former, both for brewing.
3. i. Brass destelling pots, whereof one is bigger than the other, with their hurdles, pipes, and necessarie accommodations.
5. A deep large brass pan to boil meate in as a quarter of beeffe." [The list enumerates several other vessels of somewhat smaller dimensions.] "8 big brass candlesticks, weighing 27J lbs. of Holland fashion, and cost me Ms. and 6d. stcr. A coper cauderon capable of a barrel I Various 'Brass Mortars with iron pestills.'
I ould baltrey (quere paltry?) kitfe in panne of Phillis Creagh's rent." The latter item, perhaps, might be omitted, but in hard times, it is no wonder that rent was due.
* Dr. Arthur enters as follows:—
"From the 2nd day of June to the 2nd of November, 1651, I payed to such horse and foot as
the head bill, Win. Morony, quartered uppon me, and for several others. More I payed to the said Wm. Moroney towards the English guarizon." 1 For this purpose to H. Casy, Dr. Arthur paid ... ... ... ... £37 6 0
The surrender of Limerick and Galway, the latter under terms better by far than Limerick,2 put an end to what has been conventionally termed the great rebellion. The only Castle in Munster that held out was Boss, in the lake of Killarney, which was thought impregnable, but Ludlow caused a small ship to be made, and carried over the mountains—this he floated in the Lough; and the Irish were so astonished that they yielded up the fort on the 27th of June, 1652.
About the same time Lord "Westmeath, Lord Muskerry, O'Connor Roe, Sir William Dungan, Sir Francis Talbot and others submitted upon conditions "that they should abide a trial for the murders committed in the beginning of the rebellion, and that those who assisted only in the war were to forfeit two-thirds of their estates and be banished.3 Following out the fortunes of Inchiquin, who embarked for France from Galway with Lord Ormond, we find that being exempted from pardon by Cromwell, in 1652, he became a Lieutenant-General of the French army, and was appointed Viceroy of Catalonia by the king; serving afterwards in the Netherlands, and commanding the forces sent to assist the Portuguese, when they revolted from Spain, he was captured by a Sallee Rover or Algerine Corsair, with his family, and was obliged to pay a heavy ransom. He was created Earl of Inchiquin, and had a grant of £8000 from Charles II. as compensation for his losses. He lived a Catholic for fourteen years before his death, and died in Limerick; his body was interred in 1674 in the Cathedral of St. Mary's, the cannon firing during his interment.4 Execrations cling to his memory.
THE HIGH COURT OF BUTCHERY—SAVAGE EXECUTIONS.—COURT OF
The first High Court of Justice to try those who were accused by the Cromwellians of "the barbarous murders committed in this rebellion, was held before Justice Donelan, President, Commissary General Reynolds and Justice Cooke, assistants, in Kilkenny on the 4th of October, and it sat in the house occupied by the Supreme Council of the confederates in 1642. Some, as we have already mentioned, were excluded from pardon altogether. The same Court at which Sir Phelim O'Neil was tried, condemned, and ordered to be hung, was held in Dublin, before Chief Justice Lowther. Sir Phelim confessed he had no commission from the late king Charles for the rebellion of 1641, that he took the seal from a patent he had found at Charlemont, and fixed it to a commission he caused to be written in the king's name, that Michael Hanisson, then present in court, and confessing the fact, was the person who stitched the cord or label of the seal with silk of the same colour. Lord Mayo was tried, and executed by being shot to death, for falling on the English, and killing among others the Protestant Bishop of Killala, and about eighty others, after the surrender of the Castle of Castlebar. Lord Maguire, notwithstanding his vehement protest, was tried and sentenced in England, and was not permitted the ministration of a catholic priest in his dying moments! Courts were held in Cork, Waterford, and other places, and about two hundred persons were sentenced to death at the hands of the common hangman.
"Besides this share of moneies lent to Prince Rupert" ... ... ... 3 11 0
"And the double applotment of the weekly moneies for 6 weeks" ... ... 36 8 0
All these sums and several others were paid by Dr. Arthur, and he was but one among the many severely taxed. » Cox Hib. Anglicans, Vol. II. p. 69. » Ibid, p. 70.
« Whites MSS.
I will not dwell on the wholesale robberies which were perpetrated at this crisis under the name of law. The forfeited lands in Ulster, Leinster and Munster, were parcelled out in separate proportions, a part of which was divided among the soldiers and the English adventurers. The Church lands too were not spared. What remained of the forfeitures was left to the disposal of the Parliament. A large tract of barren land in Connaught, which by plague and war, had been well nigh depopulated and rendered a desert, was set apart for the Irish, for whom the alternative was 'Connaught or hell.' To such a state had the country been reduced that a proclamation was issued by Cromwell offering a reward to those who killed wolves by which the country was now overrun; and by a lease which was made to Captain Edward Piers, on the 11th of March, 1652-'3, of all the forfeited lands and tithes, in the Barony of Dunboyne in the County of Meath, only five miles north of Dublin, he was obliged to keep three wolfdogs, two English mastiffs, a pack of hounds of sixteen couple, three of them to hunt the wolf only, a knowing huntsman, two men and a boy, and an orderly hunt to take place thrice a month at least.1 If Leinster, within a short distance of Dublin, was so fearfully reduced, what must we think of Connaught, to which the Catholics were driven wholesale; and where many of them who had enjoyed large possessions in the most favored parts of Ireland before the war, had now no place whatever to receive them, though they were transferred to that province with an assurance that they would have sufficient. To show the
general desolation of the country, even two years after these times, General leetwood writes to his friend Secretary Thurloe, on the 27th of June in that year from Dublin, "there hath scarce been a house left undemolished, fit for an Englishman to dwell in, out of walled towns in Ireland, nor any timber left, except in very few places, undestroyed."—(Thurloe's State Papers, ii. 404.)
The Mayoralty of Limerick continued vacant for four years from the date of the surrender, the government of the city being vested in a governor appointed by Ireton.'
Some important occurrences took place in this year:—writing under date May 7th, 1653, from Chester, he states that they shipped away in the Cardiff frigate £40,000 to Dublin, that Sir Hardress Waller is gone in the same ship; that they proceeded to sea, with a fair wind, the day before, and that it was hoped it would bring them to their desired port speedily' A letter from Tralee on the 19th of April, states that there came from Limerick two vessels with near six weeks' provisions of bread 'for the forces within
1 See Proceedings of Kilkenny Arch. Society, Vol. III. New Series, p. 77. • State Papers, No. 2999.