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Drogheda, to visit him professionally, dwelling in the Archiepiscopal palace, and remaining there for some time from the 22nd of March, 1625.l
The proclamation which was in this year issued against the regular clergy, was every where evaded and turned into ridicule. It was read in Drogheda by a drunken soldier in such a ridiculous manner, that it created great amusement amongst the inhabitants, and was so despised by the Catholic clergy, that they nevertheless exercised full jurisdiction, and not only proceeded to build abbeys and monasteries, but "had the confidence"3 as Cox expresses it, "to erect a university in Dublin, in the face of the government, which it seems thought itself limited in this matter by instructions from England." Concessions and ordinances, which were made in the Roman Chapter of the Dominicans were issued, appointing, among other important matters, that five Universities should be erected in Ireland, viz. at Dublin, at Limerick, at Cashel, Alhenry, and Colerain.3
It is by no means indicative of the progress of toleration, to find the same government refusing even a charter to a similar institution at this very day in Dublin, nor, says the same writer, was the beauty of the Protestant church at this time sullied by its avowed enemies only. Things sacred were exposed to sale in a most scandalous manner; parsonages and episcopal sees were alienated, and the churches were generally out of repair.
1626. There was a proposal from the Court this year for the toleration of the Catholic religion in Ireland; but the Protestant Bishops protested against it.4
1629. Complaints were now made against the Lord Deputy for partial administration. He was soon after removed, and Adam Loftus, Viscount Ely, Lord Chancellor, and Richard, Earl of Cork, Lord High Treasurer, were sworn Lords Justices.
These Lords Justices caused St. Patrick's Purgatory to be dug up,5 and by directions from the Council in England seized on fifteen of the new religious houses of the Irish Catholics.6
1 "On the 30th of August I proceeded to Limerick, where I remained until the tenth day of the following March with my wife, and obtained in the meantime from some patients £21 8s. 6d. At that time it was, that Mr. James Usher, Doctor and 'pseudo-primate' of Armagh, who had lately returned from England, where he had long laboured under a severe disease, to remove which, he had tried in vain the assistance of the Royal Physicians at a vast expense, sent for me. I waited upon him, while staying at his own palace in Drogheda, March 22nd, 1625. Then having heard his statement and weighed the opinions of the most eminent physicians, and seriously studied the symptoms which arose throughout the whole history of the disease j from these I thought I had explained the cause of this doubtful disease, which every day grew worse and worse, and which had hitherto escaped the observation of several very eminent men, which when I was sensible I had perfectly ascertained after making a slight experiment to try my conjecture, I confidently undertook his cure; nor did my hopes once deceive me. The curing of so eminent and on account of his erudition, so celebrated a man, of this grievous and stubborn disease, which baffled the skill of the royal physicians and most eminent doctors of England, made me celebrated and a favourite amongst the English, whom I had greatly disliked [exosus] for the sake of the Catholic religion." While this cure was progressing, the Doctor accompanied the Primate to Lambay Island, where remote from Intrusion they devoted their attention to the cure. The Primate gave him £51 for his professional services.
a Hib. Angl.
* Hib. Dom.pp. 115-6, which gives the year 1629; and shows, p. 117, that these ordinances were confirmed in 1641 to the Dominican province of Ireland.
* White's MSS. s Ibid.
* The state of affairs regarding land at this time, is shown by the following curious entry, which I find in Dr Thomas Arthur's MSS.:—
"The Lord Henrye O'Bryen, Earl of Thowmond, 19' Martii, 1635, did lease unto me for four score and nineteen years, three plow-lands and a half in Creatlaghmore and Portregue, at the rent of a red rose in mid-summer, or a grain of pepper if it he demanded. Uppon condition that if his honor, his heyres, executors or assignes die within six months after warning be given them by me, my heyres, executors or assignes, pay us in whole sum and entire payment the sum of one thousand and fifty tie pounds, sterling, with all the arrears of the interest thereof, then the said lease to be expired. William Brickdale, Esq, and George Conessis. Esq., are bound with his honor in bonds of the statute staple for the warranties and performance of covenants. His honor by a special note under his hand is bound to save me from all subsidies and other country charges to be imposed upon that land during that mortgage Edmond, Lord Baron of Castle Connell, who, in right of his wife, the Lady Margaret Thornton, the relict of Dunnough O'Bryen of Carrigogunnil, was tenant to the said Earl in the premises, did attnrne tennant unto me, and payd me during his life a hundred pounds rent thereout, per annum. And since his death, the said Lady Dowager Margaret, of Castle Connell, payed me duly every year one hundred pounds sterling rent thereout until Easter, 1642, inclusively. But ever since then payed me no rent thereout, and yet detained the land until she deserted it in ano. 165- (perhaps 1650) In a marginal note the land is said to contain: in Kilelypsh, 250 profitable, 183 unprofitable acres, 22 acres one-tenth profitable, Portreigue in Kilfentenan Parish, 243 acres profitable, 58 acres, one-tenth unprofitable, in ano. 1637, in Stratford's tyme. These plow-lands in the survey made in the Earl of Stratford's tyme contained 720 acres. The Civil Survey Jurors, March, 2nd, 1635, were these: Robert Starkey, Torlough MacMahonne, Paul MacNemara, Neptune Blood, Thomas Hickman, Captain Thomas Cullen, Thomas Clancy, George Clanchy, Thomas Fanning, George M'Nemara."
Land changed hands to a great extent in these troubled and disastrous years; and bargains were struck, which are hardly paralleled in the cheap dealings of the more modern Incumbered Estates' Court. Dr. Thomas Arthur states, that Daniel FitzTerlagh O'Brien of Annagh, in Ormond, sq., on the 1st of September, 1631, sold him the absolute fee simple of two plow-lands and a quarter, less one-eight and fortieth part of a plow-land, in the Barony or Cantred of Arra, Co. Tipperary, in the Parish of Templean-Calha, near Ballina, with the fishing weirs thereunto belonging, in the river Shannon, for £200! He states moreover, that Daniel's foster brother, Kennedy M'Donough O'Bryen, sold him on the same day, the half quarter of a plow-land, called Mehaunach, and the half quarter of a plowland, called Droumnakearten, for £31!! In order to warrant and defend all these lands against all persons unto him (Dr. Arthur), his heirs and assigns, Moriartagh O'Bryen, son and heir of Daniel Kennedy M'Donough, procured John O'Kennedy of Douneally, William O'Kennedy of Lissenaragid, and Conor O'Cleary of Bruodyr, "all gentlemen of Ormond," to become bound with them in one thousand pounds bond of the statute staple, acknowledge to him at Limerick, 6th January, 1636. It is a startling fact that in a few years afterwards, these gentlemen of Ormond, the O'Kennedys of Lissenaragid, and of Dounally, figure in the Book of Distributions as forfeiters.
Wentworth's progress in Connaught was made in 1635, to try by inquisition the King's title to the counties of Boscommon, Sligo, Mayo, and Galway, and the county of the town of Galway; in this he was successful, Galway alone opposing—but the sheriff and jurors, composed of the principal inhabitants of the county, confessed the King's right, after they had been sent to the Star Chamber, and gave in their oaths to that effect in the Court of Exchequer.1 The case of tenures upon the Defective Titles was decided in a solemn judgment by all the Irish judges. Five of the judges concurred in the opinion that the holders of the Letters Patent from the King or any of his Majesty's predecessors, were altogether void in the above counties. Two of them gave judgment that the Letters Patent were void only as to tenure. On the 13th of July, 1635, judgment was given by the court in favor of the annulling of the Letters Patent.1
1 Writing from the abbey of Boyle, 13th of June, 1635, Wentworth says to Lord Cottington, "It's true I am in a thing they call progress, but yet in no great pleasure for all that, all the comfort I have is a little Boney Clabber; upon my faith I am of opinion it would like you at one measure, would you had your belly full of it, I warrant you, you should not repent it; it is the bravest freshest drink you ever tasted—your Spanish Don would in the heats of Madrid hang his nose and shake his beard an hour over every sup he took of it, and take it to be the drink of the gods all the while. The best is, we have found his majesty's title to Boscommon, and shall do the like I am confident for all the other three counties, for the title is so good there, there can be nothing said against it."—Strafford's Letters and Despatches, vol i. p. 441. [liuney Clabber is the Irish bame claba for "thick (sour) milk.]"
The fashions and customs of the citizens in these times were rather singular.2
In the course of his journeys in 1636 to and from Connaught, Wentworth, on the 19th of August, paid a visit to Limerick—he remained nine days, and was entertained by Dominick White, the mayor. A guard of fifty young men of the city attended him. John Meagh was captain of this guard—John Sexton and Pierce Creagh were subalterns. Wentworth left the city by St. John's Gate, and in doing so knighted the mayor. He bestowed on the corporation a silver cup, gilt, valued at £60.* The impression made by his visit, notwithstanding the flattering evidences of municipal favor which he received, was anything but agreeable. To this our own day his name is used by nurses in Leinster to frighten wayward children. His black and ferocious appearance was commented on by Dr. Arthur.4 His friend and councillor, George Eadcliff, too, made the same hostile impression, as the nervous satire of Dr. Arthur was also used to indicate the estimate which was formed of his character by the people.'' One of the articles of impeachment, however, against Wentworth afterwards was his having enlisted a large number of Catholics in the Royal army. There is no doubt he did enlist Catholics, and that many of the Catholic as well as Protestant gentry got commissions from him.1
I Writing from Portumna shortly afterwards he says, " No Protestant Freeholder to be found to serve His Majesty on any occasion in this county (Galway), being in a manner mostly compounded of Papists, with whom the Priests and Jesuits (who abound in far greater numbers than in other parts) have so much power, as they do nothing of this nature without consulting them."—Ibid.
1 1636. A wedding present in this year will no doubt be a curiosity in the eyes of my lady readers. It was given by Bartholomew Stackpole Fitzjames, Esq. to Miss Mary Arthur, daughter of Dr. Thomas Arthur before their marriage:—
"A small goulde cross; a goulde ring weighing 22 carats; 2 small gould rings 5 carats each; £6 in silver; a small case of instruments; a payer of imbroadered glowes , 4 yeardes of satten rybbine; 2 yeards of broad satten rybbine; i yeard and j, of bone lace, worth 8s. per yeard; i blak hoode of duble currle; one payer of whyte glowes; i payer of Spannish leader shooes; x yeardes of blak pynked satten; 9 years of skey colored tabbey; i whyte fann with a silver handle; i crowne lowe hood; 6 payers of whyte glowes; 4 yeards of 8d. broad satten rybbine; 4 yeardes of French sarge with 3 vnces of silver lace; i large taffeta hood; i crowne lowe hood; 6 payers of whyte glowes; 2 ivorye combes; i payer of pfumed cordouan glowes; a small silver • Arthur Miss., p. 133.
» White's MSS.
* A physiognomic anagram on the name of Thomas Wentworth, a truculent and nefarious character; a few letters of the name being changed:—
* I publish the following twenty anagrams, with the change of a few letters, on the name of George Radclyffe, in which are clearly explained his origin, habit of body, mental character, the offices and duties lie fulfilled, and his probable future exit:—
Sic Fera gregi doing.
Fera gregi coins.
0 fera gregi dulcL
F'era disclusio gregi.
Suggessi Clodifero. Alluding to his evil counsels to the Lord Deputy not to receive appeals or complaints from the people to the King.—Arthur MSS.
I give the above as specimens of the twenty.
Dominick Oge Roche Mayor of Limerick, in 1639 was created Baron Tarbert and Viscount Cahirivhalla by King James II. titles which were never acknowledged by the House of Hanover. He was grandfather of the celebrated Sir Boyle Roche who died without issue in 1801.
The same troubled state of men's minds, the same apprehensions, imaginations, <fec, which occupied the attention of the people in earlier times, continued to disturb them now in 1640. We have a singular evidence of this in a letter preserved in the R. I. A., among the Smith MSS., which relates a curious story of the " enchanted" Earl of Desmond, and his appearance under the form of a Black Horse in the Castle of Castle Connel.*
1 Sir John Browne, Knight of the Hospital in the County of Lymrick, was indebted in a comparatively small sum to Dr. Thomas Arthur by bond dated 13th July, 1639. Sir John became a member of Parliament, and immediately after became a captain ill the army of Lord Strafford. Soon after the wars began, he went into England, where being of the King's party, upon some quarrel between him and Mr. Christopher Barnwall, he was killed in a duel.— Arthur USS., p. 119—120.
* Limerick, the 13th of August, 1640. This was sent to the Archbishop of Armach now in Oxford: —
ffor newes wee have the strangest that ever was heard of, there inchantmenta in the Lord off Castleconnell's Castle 4 miles from Lymerick, several sorts of noyse, sometymes of drums and trumpets, sometimes of other curious musique with heavenly voyces, then fearful screeches, and such outcries that the neighbours neerc cannot sleepe. Priests have adventured to be there, but have been cruelly beaten for their paynes, and carryed awaye they knew not howe, some 2 miles, and some 4 miles. Moreover were seen in the like manner, after they appeare to the viewe of the neighbours, infinite number of armed men on foote as well as on horseback. What to make of this neither my Lord, nor the best divines wee have can tell, they have had many consultations about it. This hath bin since St. James's tyde; much more could I write of it, and more than this had I cyme to wryte; bat one thing more by Mrs. Mary Burke with 12 servants lyes in the honse, and never one hurt, onley they must dance with them every night; they say Mrs. Mary come away, telling her she must be wyfe to the inchanted Earl of Desmond; moreover a countrey Bellow going off Knockiney ffaire,* to sell his horse, a gentleman standing in the waye, demanding whether he would sell his horse, he answered yea, for £5 : the gentleman would give him but £4 : 10 : 0, sayinge he would not get so much at the ffaire, the fellow went to the ffaire, could not get so much money, and found the gentleman on his return in the same place who proffered the fellow the same money; the fellow accepted of it, the other bid him come in and receive his money. He carried him into a fine spacions castle, payed him his money every penny and shewed him the fairiest black horse the fellow had ever seene, and told that that horse was the Earl of Desmond, and that he had three shoes alreadye, when he had the fourthe shoe, which should be very shortlie, then should the Earl be as he was before, thus guarded with many armed men conveying him out of the gates. The fellow came home, bat never was any castle in that place either before or since.
Cppon a Mannour of my Lord Bishoppe of Lymerick, Loughill hath been seen upon the hill by most of the inhabitants aboundance of armed men marching, and these seene many tymes— and when they come up to them they do not appeare. These things are very strange, if the clcargie and gentrie say true. God willing tomorrow or next day 1 purpose to go to the Castle, better to satisfye myself, this was but amongst other business to the Tonne to averr the truth of the same.
And I procured the loan, whereoff this is a true coppie. 1 understand this Holme is a gentleman to the Lord Bishopp of Lymerick.—Smith MSS. in the Royrtl Irish Academy.
* The Fair of Knockany appears to be one of the oldest fairs of which there is record, It is first mentioned under date 777 years before Christ, in the Annals of the Four Masters, and is noticed several times at more recent dates. It is not so anciently recorded as the Fair of Pilltown in Meath, but this latter has been disused since the English Conquest, so that Knockany appears to have the high distinction of being the oldest Fair on record in these countries, or indeed in any country. Fairs were about the earliest institutions mentioned, and they played a most important part in the history and civilization of the human race. It is not a little singnlar, then, that wa should in Ireland have such early records of them, established, as they were, in all countries and throughout the remotest ages; and still more remarkable is the fact, that in the Irish Fairs ceremonies and customs were performed almost identical with those described by Herodotus, as practised in the ancient Fairs of Persia and other Asiatic countries. Indeed there are many most interesting facts connected with this subject, which have met with attention from antiquarian writers. I need not add that Knockany Fair exists to this day in fully its ancient importance.
THE CIVIL WAR. THE CONFEDERATION. REFUSAL OF THE CORPORATION TO
RECEIVE THE PAPAL ENVOY. CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THE MAYOR
AND THE ENVOY. OCCUPATION OF THE KING'S CASTLE BY THE CONFEDERATES. MURROUGH OF THE BURNINGS.
The causes which led to the desolating civil war of this century have been already explained. The intentional non-enrolment in chancery of the new letters patent, the evasion of the ministers of Charles to carry the graces into effect, and the repeated plantations, discoveries and other means of depriving the native proprietors, at last produced their natural effects, and we shall have shortly to describe another dreadful civil war, which was to be followed by another, both being attended by a repetition of the favorite scheme of confiscation. The acts of Lord Strafford in Ireland, where he is still known amongst the people by the name of "Black Tom," have been pronounced by the Historian Hume to be "innocent and laudable," but independently of the fact that he was the chief means of destroying the woollen manufactures of Ireland, he is known to have advised his royal master to violate his promises to the Catholics, though he publicly rebuked those who doubted his majesty's " gracious regards." The means by which he enforced his schemes of plunder, by fining, pilloring and branding those jurors who refused to find for the king, are in themselves enough to refute these shamefully untruthful statements of the English Historian Hume. These means were indeed much more vexatious in their character than those persecutions which drove the Scotch Covenanters into a rebellion, which brought about those results that began with Strafford's execution, and which ended in the establishment of the CromweUian usurpation. Wandesford1 the successor of Strafford was himself succeeded by the Puritanical Sir William Parsons, and Sir John Borlase, both bitter haters of everything belonging to Catholics except their property, and it was the opinion of no less a person than king Charles himself, that but for these men's disobedience to his commands, the terrible Irish rebellion of 1641 would not at all have happened, or would have been quickly suppressed.2 These commands of the king were to pass
1 In reference to Christopher Wandesfoord (sic), I find a curious entry in Dr. Thomas Arthur's diary, which I translate :—
"Christopher Wandesfoord (whom I bad previously attended) now Justiciary of Ireland, has been seized with a malignant fever this 14th day of November, which I predicted would ejd in his death, and he died on the 6th day :—
Idem, 15th November,
Idem, Kith November,
Idem, 17th November, ... ...
Idem, 18th November,
Idem, 19th November,
Idem, 20thNovember, on which day he succumbed to the sickness Sir James Ware mii-takcs when he states that he died suddenly. 1 Curry (and his authorities), Civil Wars, 147.