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From the startling facts set forth in this highly important and interesting document, which constituted the only means by which the property of the

mayor &c. for 15s. Irish; Bebouge. |ths of a ploughland, in possession of Nicholas Arthure, held from ditto, at ditto rent; Ballysoddo, }ths of a part and held of John Fox from same at same rent; Dubgish, Ballymoldown, and Rathmichael, one ploughland, held by Nicholas Arthure from same at twenty shillings rent; Rathbane ]ths of a ploughland in possession of White and Manning, heirs of Pierce Creagh, for which they pay only twelve shillings and four pence, Irish; Kathuyn, held by Nicholas Stritch of Limerick, merchant, containing the 3rd part of two ploughlands, for which he pays rent, Irish; Crewilally, alias Len jth of a ploughland held by Christopher Arthure for the rent of 5s.; Cheapman's land, alias Ardnevedoge, half a ploughland, held by Simon Banning; the Mayor, &c, were said to be seized of the following ploughlands, also being part of the 40: viz. Castlebank, 1 ploughland, held by Nicholas Arthure for 20s. Kilrush J a ploughland held by Nicholas Comyn or David Comyn, alderman, at lOs.yearly rent—Farrengowen, otherwise Smith's land, 1 ploughland, held by David White,* alderman, at

* The Whites, the Creaghs, and the stitches have played a remarkable part in the History of Limerick, Clonmel, and Waterford. Sir David White of Russellstown was married to Sarah Bourk, daughter of John Bourk, who was called Lord of Coshure; by his wife Catherine Fitzgerald, daughter to John Fitzgerald Earl of Desmond: they had issue—1st, Solomon White, son and heir to the said David and Sarah—was married to Margaret Walsh, daughter to David Walsh of Ballintober—had issue as follows:—1st, David White, son and heir to the said Solomon, was married to Margaret Brien, daughter to Anion Brien of Commeragh, and had seven children —2nd, Pierce White, counted a very strong man, but never married,—3rd, Thomas White,—4th, Robert White,—5th, John White, died in France,—6th, Patrick White,—7th, James White, and lastly Stephen White, who was Colonel to King Charles I. and II. and never married. James White, above mentioned, was married to Elizabeth Butler, daughter to John Butler of Clare, grandson to the Lord Dunboyne, by his wife Julian Quirk, daughter to O'Quirk of Muskerry; the said James White had several children, but all died and dispersed by reason of Cromwell's war, except Stephen White who was taken up by his uncle Pierce White, and having no child, was made by the said Stephen sole heir of his estate and all he was possessed of. The said Stephen was married to Catherine Stritch,* daughter to Thomas Stritch who was put to death by Cromwell in Limerick along with several prime gentlemen; by his wife Christian Creagh. daughter to James Creagh of Carrighfaddagh, he had several children, whereof none live but Mary, who is married to James Stritch, son to William Stritch, and Julian Bourk, daughter to Thomas Bourk of Ballinloughane and Westown; said James and Mary have eight children, whereof Thomas is the eldest. The family of Catherine Stritch are these: first, Patrick Stritch of Limerick, son to William, was married to Catherine Bourk, daughter to Walter Bourk, by whom he had two sons named Thomas and Patrick, which Thomas was married to Christian Creagh aforesaid, and had several children, whereof only four lived—Patrick Stritch, married, had no issue, died— 2nd, James was a clergyman (Catholic) and Vicar-General of the diocese of Limerick—3rd, Francis Stritch, who died unmarried, and was crazy—4th, Catherine Stritch, who was married to Stephen White before mentioned. The said Doctor James Stritch made Mary his niece sole

heiress of his substance and estate. The family of Christian Creagh are, viz Andrew Creagh

of Limerick, commonly called Andrew Maighgagh, was married to Ellen Fitzgerald, daughter of Fitzgerald of Gurtnatuber,—had issue by her as follows:—first, James Creagh of Carrighfadda, was married to Catherine, daughter to Robert White, Mayor of Limerick, by his wife Eleanor Arthur, sister to Sir Nicholas Arthur of Limerick; he had fifteen brothers, one whereof was Pierce Creagh the youngest, who was married to Mary Brien, daughter to O'Brien Arra, and first married Bridget Rice; he had issue Pierce Creagh, Bishop of Cork, and Alderman John Creagh of Limerick, who was the eldest. Andrew Creagh the youngest was married to Catherine Fitzgerald, daughter to Edward Fitzgerald of Pallice. James Creagh's niece, was married to Pierce

* John Stritch, a gentleman of fair character and inheritance, was forced to depart the town of Genes in Italy by reason of the great spoyle and pillage done to the said town by the Saracens and Infidels, A.D. 933; and Henry I. being the Emperor of Rome, the said John, with his wife and four sons, came from Paris in France and there died. In process of time his children and offspring came to Rouen in Normandy, from thence into England, and part of them came to Ireland; and by reason of the removing of them into sundry places and shires, some of them are called Stretch, Stritchee, Stretchy, Stridch, Strich, Strit, Strett, Strethem, and such now inhabiting in England, Ireland, and in other countries in Europe as the aforesaid names, and such now inhabiting in Florence and Italy, and other places of the same country. Collected by Richard Stritch, gentleman, of Limerick in Ireland.

This account of the Stritches was taken from an old piece of vellum which was three hundred years stamped and in the possession of Michael Stritch. The Italian name is Strocbio.

In the Arthur MSS. the name is usually written Strech, and sometimes Stretch, There are very few of this old name now in Limerick.

The Creaghs continue numerous and respectable in Clare and Limerick.

Corporation could be identified, it would appear that jobbing among corporators, was not in these times unusual, and that the lands, which should

20s. yearly. Closinmackine, | a plonghland, held by D. White, at 10s. yearly. Ardnegallagh, otherwise Knockardegallagh, Caherdavy, Shanevolley, and Farrencoamary, 1 ploughland, held by James White, Thomas Comyn and Rory Omighan, at 20s. Irish yearly; Ballygadynan, 1 ploughland, anciently held from the Mayor and by John Blunt, now held by John Arthur at 20s. yearly rent; Clonecannan, ex plowland held by David Comyn and Edmond Comyn, at 20s. yearly rent; Cownagh and Clonedrinagh 1 plowland, held by David Comyn, Richard White and Tiege M'Shane at 20s. yearly rent; Ballymaughtenmore, Moylish, and Ballyinaughtenbeg, 1 plowland, held by Wm. Striteh, alderman, John Arthure and William White, merchants, at 20s. a year rent; Prior's land lying north of Thomond Bridge, containing 15 acres, and Farrengkelly seven acres, both J a ploughland and parcel of the 40 ploughlands, which Prior's land is parcel of the former six ploughlands, of St. Mary's House, granted by the king's majesty to E. Sexton, and was held by the said E. Sexton, yielding no rent to the mayor; Farrengkelly, the glebe land of the vicarage of or rectory of Kilaly, now in possession of Vicar of Kilaly, paying no rent to the Mayor, &c. The yearly rent of the burgage within the said city is and always was only 20 marks—the king's mills, under one roof, in the west part of the city walls, betwixt the said Weir and the rock called Corrogower on the Shannon near the King's castle were sometimes held by the mayor, and the said mill is the mill for which XL'U Irish parcel of the sum of lxxviii six shillings and eight pence Irish, was accounted for in the Exchequer —that the said mills came into the hands of Queen Elizabeth who leased same to Richard Stretch, which mill is now held by William Stretch, alderman, by virtue of said lease f' they find also that the following 8 ploughlands, parcel of the said 40 ploughlands, which eight ploughlands Richard de Clare did hold of the Kings of England as feoffee of the said mayor and commonality or otherwise, viz. Knocknishin containing 1 ploughland, held by the Earl of Thomond; 1 ploughland in Ballycannan; 1 ploughland in Cappagtiemore, which 2 ploughlands are also held by the Earl of Thomond; Glanegrosse, 1 ploughland, held by Donogh Teighe O'Brien of Glanegrosse aforesaid; 1 ploughland in Frybagh, held by Thomas MacNamara, Owen M'Mahone and others; £ a ploughland in Craltelaghmoell held by Donell M'Namara ffoyne; k a plowland inCrallelaghneill held by Cowra MacLydda and James Rochfort, £ a plowland in Castledonnell, alias Gallelaghmore; J a ploughland in Quireenboy, which 2 last mentioned are held by the heir of Edward White, and that the aforesaid 8 ploughlands, parcel of the said 40 ploughlands, and held by the said Richard de Clare, do lie so near unto the said city, and answer no rent to the said mayor and commonality, are by tradition and hearsay, from ancient men affirmed to be within the old and ancient liberties and bounds first limited to the said city in the N.W. side of the said city. The inquisition bears the signatures of Fr, Aungier, and Jo. Davys.

Morony of Limerick, her name was Margaret Creagh; she was Creagh by father and mother. The said James Creagh had another daughter by Catherine who went to France, and was married to Richard Creagh of Rochelle; he had issue as follows :—1st, James Creagh, who was captain in Sheldon's Regiment and was killed at Aughrim,—2nd, Sir Richard Creagh of Rochelle, and B daughter who died without issue.—Per Eleanor Striteh.

The above particulars of the ancient families of Whites, Bourkes, Stritches, and Creaghs, are copied from an old MS. in the possession of Miles Vernon Bourke, Esq. M.l). of Limerick, a descendant maternally of the Stritches.

In Sir Bernard Burke's Landed Gentry of Ireland, the Creaghs of Dangan, County Clare, are represented as descended from Pierce Creagh, Esq. of Adare, Mayor of Limerick in 1651, son and heir of Pierce Creagh, Esq. of Adare, M.P. for the city of Limerick in 1G39, and deprived of his estate of Adare for having corresponded with the Duke of Ormond. On the restoration, he returned from France, and obtained by patent, the castle, town, and lands of Dangan, County Clare.

Helena, White, Esq. J.P. of Limerick, possesses a pedigree on illuminated vellum, which shows that Richard White, the first of his family, came from England to Limerick, in A D. 1418, and acquired great honor and reputation. He settled at Ballyneety, so called from his name (Whitestown) in the County of Limerick, says the pedigree, and afterwards acquired the estate of Ballynanty in said county. From this Richard White of Ballyneaty descended several families of the name. Richard built the Castle and Church of Ballyneaty, and began the building of the Church of Ballynanty, which after his death was finished by his son and heir, who acquired the estate of Tullybrackey, where he also built a Church. The descendants of Richard erected stately burying places in the said Churches of Ballyneety or Whitestown, Ballynanty, and Tullybrackey, and in the Cathedral Church of Limerick. Ulster King at Arms, A.D. 171(1,

* Curragower mill was held by several persons from time to time, but early in 1858 it was burned to the ground and not rebuilt. It was then held by Alderman Quinlivan, who worked it for some years, as tenant to the Limerick Harbour Commissioners, who purchased it, A.D. 1839, from the Old Corporation, to whom they gave a sum of £300, and to whose tenant. Mr. Cornelius Nash, they gave j£2300, for the interest of his lease.

have been let at a fair and equitable value, were parcelled out among the corporators and their friends, at a figure so very low, that when we examine the rental of this noble property, we ask ourselves where were the consciences of men, who could thus deal with public property? Whilst we admire the principle and fidelity which prevented the Stritches, the Whites, the Comyns, the Arthurs, &c, from renouncing faith and taking the oath of supremacy, from retaining the wand of office, rather than violate duty, we must deplore the laxity in Corporate affairs which prevailed in an otherwise heroic age, but which we shall have to denounce a century later, when the property of the citizens was nearly alienated altogether, and the city bereft of the patrimony which the charters of successive monarchs conferred upon it, and which was found and recognised by the inquisition of James I. to which we have been just referring.

James's reign as we have seen, was rendered remarkable in Ireland, not only by the wholesale plunder of Catholics, but by their savage persecution. The question of the king's supremacy created great disturbances among the corporators, and it was not until the accession of Charles the 1st in 1625, that the execution of these unjust and cruel laws were so far relaxed, that the mayor and sheriffs, viz. James Bourke, James Stackpole, and George Burke of Limerick, went publicly to mass : so far back as 1605, Fox the mayor was deposed for refusing to take the oath, and Andrew Creagh was appointed the first Protestant mayor. In 1617, a proclamation was issued for the expulsion of the Catholic clergy, and the city of Waterford, whose corporation had, like that of Limerick, resolutely refused to take the oath of supremacy, was in consequence deprived of its charter.

In the year 1616, the mayor ordered the gate call Mongret, which had been long closed, to be reopened.1 Hitherto the Catholics had strenuously resisted the appointment of any but Catholics to the magistracy, but at last the Viceroy and Council promulgated a decree prohibiting any one from discharging any public office, unless he had first taken the oath of supremacy, and solemnly attended the Anglican service, and this under the penalty called praemunire. Hence it happened that they elected those whom they expected to be obedient to the king's wishes, whom they now call "conformists," as they call the Catholics "recusants." In 1616, Dominick Roche, mayor, John Stritch and Richard Lawless, sheriffs, both conformists. 1617. John Stritch mayor, George James Creagh and Pierce or Peter Harold,8 sheriffs. The two later had conformed.

certifies the pedigree above referred to, and an endorsement contains the names of Daniel O'Kearney, Bishop of Limerick, 1st of September, A.D. 1776, attesting that this family of the Whites had always remained in the Catholic faith ; of Laurence Nichell, Secretary to the Bishop, and by his command; and of Michael Peter MacMahon, Bishop of Killaloe, testifying to the same effect. These Whites suffered severely by confiscation. The name of White appears in the city annals at a much earlier period than the fifteenth century. The family had enjoyed very high positions in the city as Magistrates, Mayors, &c. and in the Catholic Church, of which several of them were distinguished dignitaries, including Doctor Jasper White, P.P. who lived in the year 1668, and compiled important ecclesiastical records, which are extant, and to which I refer m the proper place; and the Rev. James White, P.P. St. Mary's, compiler of the MSS. Annals of Limerick. > Arthur MSS.

* Harold.—This is one of the most ancient families in the city of Limerick, and is now represented by Daniel and Edward Harold, Esqrs. (who inherit the paternal property which in penal times was held in trust by Lord Milton). They are sons of the late Richard Harold, Esq., of Pemywell House and Park, and grand-nephew of General Baron Harold, of the regiment of Keaingsfeld in the Bavarian service, who distinguished himself highly abroad, and'received the different orders of the Holy Roman Empire. Several others of the family rose to the highest rank in the service of Saxony and Bavaria. The Danish forces having had a bloody conflict with the Irish at Singland, in which twelve hundred men were slain, an angel appeared in the camp of Auliff, the Danish Prince. Since then the Harolds of Limerick bear the angel habited issuing from a ducal coronet. The Harolds of Dublin have a Lion Rampant gules as their crest—the arms of both families are the same—the motto is formitas in cash. In St. Mary's Cathedral the seat of one of the ancient oak stalls is carved with the Harold Arms and the above motto. Of this family was Harold, Bishop of Limerick, A. D. 1151. The name appears frequently on the principal roll of the city from A.D. 1418 to 1089. Twelve of the name were mayors of Limerick. Eighteen of the name were bailiffs and sheriffs. Sir Balthazaar Nihill, one of the Knights of Malta, was married to Miss Harold of Limerick. General de la Hitte, the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the French Republic, was married to the daughter of the celebrated beauty, Miss Jane Harold ; she was wife of Rogerson Cotter, Esq., of Mallow (uncle of Sir J. Cotter, Bart., of Rakfcrant), and aunt of Daniel and Edward Harold' s. above mentioned. This family is related to the Ryans, of Inch House, Co. Tipperary; the Macarthys, of Spring House, Co. Tipperary; the Shiels, of Limerick, &C. ; the Grehans of the County Dublin ; the Galways of Limerick and Cork; the Roches of Limerick; the Woulfs of Clare, &c. &c The portrait of Miss Jenny Galway, the wife of Richard Harold of Pemywell, and daughter of Sir Geoffry Galway, who was executed on the surrender of Limerick, in 1G51, to Ircton, is in the possession of Messrs. Daniel and Edward Harold. The late eminent Chief Baron Woulfe'a grandmother was Miss Harold, of Pemywell. A curious circumstance connected with this ancient family occurred during the mayoralty of the late Alderman Joseph Gabbett. The ninth son of the General Baron Harold, above mentioned, feeling the absolute necessity of possessing himself of the family genealogy, which was essential to his recognition abroad, wrote to the Mayor expressing his anxiety to this effect. The letter was written in French—he was not aware that any of the name survived in Limerick. The moment Alderman Gabbett received the letter, he communicated with Richard Harold Esq., who immediately forwarded the required documents, duly attested and signed by the authorities, including the Catholic and Protestant Bishops of Limerick. The document went to its destination at Dusseldorf, where the young soldier was forthwith enrolled among the nobility, and his progress in the army, in which he had already distinguished himself, was rapid in the extreme.

1618. Dominick Roche was Mayor and resigned in Dublin, when Pierce White was chosen. The sheriffs were Edward Sexton and David Roche, both conformists.

Sir Oliver St. John, whom we have seen appointed with special instructions to enforce the law against recusants, also banished by proclamation, all monks and friars educated in foreign seminaries; but his intolerable severity had created so many enemies, that he was unable to make head against them, and was superseded in 1622, by Henry Lord Falkland, to the great joy of the Catholics, who as at the accession of king James, began to erect and repair abbeys, and to re-appropriate the churches. Usher, Bishop of Meath, afterwards so well known as Archbishop of Armagh, distinguished himself at this period by his gross intolerance, though his own ecclesiastical court, according to Bishop Bedel, might from its disgracefully corrupt state, have more fitly employed the energies of his great mind, than the most efficient mode of riveting the penal chains upon Catholics.

In 1626, Falkland advised the Irish Catholics to send agents to King Charles I., who actually accepted from them the offer of £120,000 in return for some relaxations of the penal laws, then known by the name of "graces," and the advantages resulting from what were extended to other religionists besides Catholics. The money was to be paid in three yearly instalments, and the first instalment was actually paid, when the agents on returning home, found that not only were the royal promises evaded, but that a proclamation had been issued against the "popish regular clergy"—and Lord Falkland being recalled, the penalties enacted in the reign of Elizabeth were mercilessly enforced.

CHAPTER XXIII.

AFFAIRS IN THE CITY. DR. THOMAS ARTHUR. PROJECTED CATHOLIC

UNIVERSITIES. WENTWORTH. ARCHBISHOP USHER, ETC.

To return to the affairs of the city—1624. In this year the Lord Deputy Falkland arrived in Limerick, and was entertained by Mr. Sexten, the mayor. On September the 4th of this year, died Donough O'Brien, Earl of Thomond, at Clonmel; he was buried in St. Mary's, Limerick, where there is a remarkable monument erected to his memory, which I notice among the monuments in that Cathedral. He was Lord President of Munster.1 During the reign of James I., the following persons had filled this high office :—Donough, Earl of Thomond, Sir Henry Beecher, Sir Henry Danvers, Sir Oliver St. John, Henry Earl of Thomond, Sir Edward Villiers, and Sir William St. Leger.

It was in this year that Dr. Thomas Arthur, by his great skill in the profession, saved the life of the man whose name we have already referred to, who figured more conspicuously than any other in his time, as a historian, an antiquary, an opponent of Catholics, and a prelate of the Church Establishment—we mean Dr. James Usher, who is called "pseudo-primas Ardmachanus," by Dr. Arthur, and who had lately returned from England, where he had been a long time, afflicted with a most dangerous disease which had baffled the skill of the physicians of that country. Not having been done justice to by the doctors in England, Dr. Arthur accordingly proceeded to

• The authority of the President, in his district, was equal to that of the Viceroy in Ireland. He had the power of life and death, could create knights, was royally attended with guards, and had power by patent to command all the forces raised in the province. He had authority to hear and determine all complaints and to hold Commission of Oyer and Terminer, and gaol delivery throughout the province, and to hold his courts when and where he thought proper, with power to execute martial law upon all persons, who had not five pounds of freehold, or goods of ten pounds' value, and to prosecute any rebel with fire and sword; for this purpose he might array any of the Queen's loyal subjects. He could hear and determine complaints against all magistrates and officers, civil and military, throughout the Province of Munster, and the Crosses and Liberties of Tipperary and Kerry, and might punish the offenders at discretion. He had authority to put persons accused of high treason to the torture, and reprieve condemned persons: and to issue out proclamations, tending to the better ordering and regulation of the Queen's subjects. He had a retinue of thirty horse and twenty foot; the under captain's allowance was 2s. per diem, and the guidon and trumpeter's 2s. each. He had also a serjeant-atarms to carry a mace before him; and it was his duty to apprehend all disobedient persons.

Fynes Morison has given the following statement of the expense of the presidency of Munster for the year 1598.

The Lord President's Salary,
His diet, with the Council allowed)
at his Table, )

His retinue of 20 foot and 30 horse,
The Chief Justice,
The Second Justice,
The Queen's Attorney,
The Clerk of the Council,
The Clerk of the Crown,
The Serjeant at Arms,
The Provost Marshal,

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