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Communion, they mean) from reading Translations made by Protestants ; with this Difference, that the Papists have translated from the Vulgar Latin, as being not only better than all other Latin Translations, but than the Greek of the New Teftament itself, in those Places where they disagree, as they would make their Adversaries themselves confels; whereas the Protestants would have had recourse to the Hebrew and Greek, which they look upon as true Originals. When they could not altogether suppress the Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, whereby their Errors are discovered, they thought it the next Way for their Purpose, by their partial Translation, as much as they could, to obscure them, and by their Heretical Annotations to pervert them, that the one should make them unprofitable, the other also hurtful. Thus Anno 1582, came forth the Rhemi), Translation of the New Testament, neither good Greek, Latin, nor English, being every where bespeckled with hard Words, (pretended not to be rendered into English without Abatement of some Expressiveness) which transcended common Capacities; besides it is taxed of abominable Errors therein. They tell us, in the Preface, They do not publish this Translation upon an erroneous Opinion of Necessity that the Holy Scriptures should always be in our Mother Tongue, or that they ought, or were ordained by God, to be read indifferently of all; or could be easily undersiood of every one, that reudeth or heareth thein in a known Language ; or that they were not often, through Mens Malice or Infirmity, pernicious and much hurtful to many; or that they generally and absolutely deemed it more convenient in iiself, and more agreeable to God's W ord and Honour, or Edification of the Fai:hful, to have them turned into vulgar Tongues, than to be kept and studied only in the Ecclefiaftical learned Languages; or that every one who underfood the learned Languages wherein the Scriptures were written, or other Languages into which they were translated, might, without Reprehenfion, read them ; not for these or any such like Causes did they translate this facred Book; but having Compassion to see their beloved Countrymen, with extreme Danger of their Souls (as they would have them believe) to use such profane Translations, and erroneous Mens mere Fancies, for the pure and blessed Word of Truth, they set forth the New Testament to begin withal, trufling that it may give Occasion to them, after diligent perusing thereof, to lay away at least such impure Versions (as they termed them) as hitherto they have made use of. They added large Annotations, to fhew (they said the studious Reader, in most Places pertaining to the Controverfies of those Times, both the Heretical Corruptions, and falfe Deductions, and also the Apostolick Tradition, the Expositions of the Holy Fathers, the Decrees of the Catholick Church, and most ancient Councils. It was printed in large Paper, with a fair Letter and Margin; which some interpreted to be purposely done, to enhance the Price, to put it past the Power of common People to purchase it. But if the Lay Romanists fhould secretly purchase one of these Rhemih Teftament he durft not own the reading thereof, without the Permission of his Superiours licensing him thereunto.
Secretary Walhngham, by his Letters, solicited Mr. Thomas Cartwright to undertake the confuting this Rhemish Translation, and the better to enable him to undertake the Work, fent him an Hundred Pounds out of his own Purse. Walingham's Letters to Cartwright, are seconded
by another from the Doctors and Heads of Houses (and Dr. Full amongst the raft) at Cambridge, besides the Importunity of the Ministers of London and 'Suffolk, soliciting him to the same Purpose. Hereupon Cartwright set to the Business, and was very forward in the Pursuance thereof; of which Archbishop Whitgift had no sooner Notice, but prefently he prohibited his farther Proceeding therein. Many commended his Care, not to intrust the Defence of the Doctrine of the Church of England, to a Pen so disaffected to the Discipline thereof. Others blamed his Jealousy, to deprive the Church of fo learned Pains of him whose Judgement would so folidly, and Affections fo zealously confute the publick Adversary. Disheartened hereat, Cartwright desisted; but fome Years hereafter, encouraged by a Person of Quality, he re-assumed the Work, but, prevented by Death, perfected no farther than the 15th Chapter of the Revelations. Many Years lay this Work neglected, and the Copy thereof Mouse-eaten in part, whence the Printer excused some Defects therein in his Edition, which though late, yet at last came forth
Anno 1618. Mean time whilst Cartwright's Refutation of the Rhemiß Translations was thus retarded, Dr. William Fulk, Master of Pembroke Hall in Cambridge, entered the List against it, judiciously and learnedly performing his Undertaking therein.
The Rhemists profess in their Preface to the New Testament, That the Old Testament also lieth by them, for lack of good means to publish the Whole in such fort, as a Work of so great Charge and Importance requireth. Out of Fear it ariseth, that they which hitherto could not endure the Holy Scriptures to be read of the People in their Mother Tongue, now Jeft they should utterly fall from the Hope of their Gain, through a vehement Suspicion of fugling and playing under-board with the People, are constrained to profefs a Readiness to print that, which they fometimes burned, and pretend an Allowance of that, which in Times paft they condemned. They were wont to boast of the Zeal of Popes, Cardinals, and other great Prelates of the Romnish Sect, for the Conversion of our Nation, and reducing it unto their Obedience: Were they all so ftrait-laced, that none of them could find wherewith to bear the Charges of printing a Work so necessary, or at least-wise profitable, as they pretend the Translations of the Scriptures to be for the Maintehance of the Catholick Religion? But about some Twenty Years after, that long-looked for Work crept forth into the World, little Notice being taken thereof by the Protestants, partly becaufe there was no great Eminency therein to intitle it to their Perusal; and partly because that Part of the Bible is of leaft Concernment in the Controversy betwixt us and the Church of Rome.
In the latter end of Queen Elizabeth's Reign, Ambrose Usher, Brother to Dr. James Usher, Primate of Ardmagh, having attained to great Skill and Perfection in the Oriental Tongues, rendered much of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew into English, but it was never made publick.
King James the First being come to the Crown Anno 1603, the Presbyterian Party made their Application speedily to him, in Hopes to have their Government set up. And the King having received a Pctition from certain Perfors of over zealous Spirits, against the Establisn
ed Government and Liturgy in the Church, appointed a Conference to be held at Hampton Court, the 14th of January 1604 for the settling the Peace of the Church, and the quieting the Complaints of its Add versaries. Here Dr. Reynolds, one of the Opposers of Conformity, moved that the Bible might be new translated, alledging that such Translations as were then extant, answered not the Original, and he instanced in three Particulars; Galat. iv. 25. in the Original Cuctoxil, ill-translated, bordereth. Pf. cv. 28. in the Original, They were not disobe: dient, ill-tranflated, They were not obedient. Pf. cv. 30. in the Original, Phineas executed Judgment, ill-translated, Phineas prayed. To which the King replied, That he could never get see a Bible qvell transated in English, but thought that of all, that of Geneva was the worst; adding, I wish some special Pains was taken for an uniform Translation, which should be done by the best karned in both Universities, then reviewed by the Bishops, presented to the Privy-Council, and laftly ratified by Royal Authority, to be tead in the whole Church, and no other. Here Bancroft Bishop of London interposed, saying, It was fit 110 Marginal Notes fbould be added thereuntoa To which the King replied, That Caveat is well put in, for in the Geneva Transation fome Notes are partial, untrue, feditious, and favouring of traitesous Conceits. As when from Exod. i. 19. Disobedience to Kings is allowed in Marginal Note, and ad Chron. xv. 16. King Aja is taxed in the Note for only deposing his Mother for Idolatry, and not killing her. To these Exceptions may be added two more; the first is their Comment upon the 12th Verse of the 2d of St. Matthew; here they tell us, That Promise ought not to be kept where God's Honour and preaching of his Truth is injured; or else it ought not to be broken. What loose Casuistry is this? What a desperate Expedient is this to justify the Breach of Promises and Oaths; of Contracts between Man and Man? What Insurrections and Confusions have been raised upon this Pretence? The other extraordinary Comment is on Revel. ix. 3. where the Locusts that come out of the Smoke are said to be falfs Teachers, Hereticks, and worldly subtle Prelates, with Monks, Fryars, Cardinals, Patriarchs, Archbishops, Bishops, Doctors, Catchelors, and Masters; a strong Composition of Ignorance and Ill-will. What broad Inuendos are here upon the English Clergy, and all those distinguished with Degrees in the Univerlities? Thefe, it seems, according to the Skill and Charity of the Genevean Annotators, are Part of the Locuits that caine smoaking out of the bottoinlefs Pit.
This produced a Resolution in his Majesty for a new Translation, who appointed certain learned Men to the Number of Fifty-four for that Purpose ; and to encourage this work, the King made some preparatory Advances, as appears by his Letter to the Archbiihop of Canterbury of July 22d 1604, wherein he tells him, He had already appointed certain learned Men for the Work, divers of which having either no Ecclesiastical Preferment at all, or elle. Jo very sinall, that the same was far unmeet for Men of their Deserts, he gives Directions for the Remedy of it, by taking Care for their Preferment. He also requireth all Bishop3, tó inform themselves of all such learned Men within their several Dioceses, as having especial Skill in the Hebrew and Greek Tongues, have taken Pains in their private Studies of the Scriptures, for the clearing of any
Obfcurities either in the Hebrew or in the Greek, or touching any Difficulties or Mistakes in the former English Translation, and to charge them to send fuch their Observations in, to be imparted to the feveral Companies imployed, that so the intended Translation might have the Help and Furtherance of all the principal learned Men in the Kingdom.
Before this work was begun, Seven of the Perfons nominated for it, were either dead, or declined the Task; for the List of the Translators, as given us by Fuller, amounts to but Forty-Seven. This Number was ranged under Six Divifions, and several Parcels of the Biblé assigned them, according to the several Places, where they were to meet, confer, and consult together. Erery one of the Company was to translate the whole Parcel; then they were to compare these together; and when any Company had finished their Part, they were to communicate it to the other Companies, so that nothing should pafs without a general Consent. The Names of the Persons and Places where they met, together with the Portions of Scripture afligned each Company, were as follow.
1/1, Dr. Lancelot Andrews, first Fellow, then Master of Pembroke Hall in Cambridge, at this Time Dean of Westminster, afterwards Bishop of Ely, then of Winchester. 2dly, Dr. Johvi Overall, Fellow of Trinity College, Master of Catherine Hall in Cambridge, at this Time Dean of St. Paul's, afterwards Bithop, first of Coventry and Litchfield, then of Norwich. 3dly, Dr. Adrian Saravia, a Native of Artois, bred at the University of Leyden, but a strong Allertor of Episcopacy. This Doctrine being discouraged in his own Country, where the Parity of Ministers was an Article of their publick Confeilion, he cast himself upon the Protection of the Church of England, in which he was preferred to be a Prebendary of Canterbury and Wejiminfier, and considered in other Respects to his Satisfaction. 4thly, Dr. Layfield, Fellow of Trinity College in Cambridge, Parfon of St. Clement-Danes; being skilled in Architecture, his Judgment was much relied upon for the Fabrick of the Tabernacle and Temple. sthly, Dr. Clerk, Fellow of Chrift College in Cambridge, Preacher in Canterbury ; not in the List of those that met. 6thly, Dr. Leigh, Archdeacon of Middlesex, Parfon of Allhallows Barking: 7thly
, Dr. Burylen. 8thiy, Mr. King. gihly, Mr. Thompjon. 1othly, Mr. Bedwell, sometime of St. John's College in Cambridge, and Vicar of Tottenham, near London,
These Ten met at Ilisiminister, and to them were assigned the Pens tateuch, the History from Juhua to the First Book of Chronicles exclufively.
2dly, To meet at Cambridge Eighe; viz. 1/1, Mr. Lively the King's Hebrew Reader in Cambridge. 2dly, Mr. John Richardson, Fellow of Emanuel College, afterwards Doctor of Divinity, Mafter first of PeterHouse, then of Trinity College. 3dly, Mr. Chadderton, after Doctor in Divinity, Fellow first of Christ College, then Master of Emanuel. 4thly, Mr. Dillingham, Fellow of Christ College, beneficed in Bedfordshire, where he died. 5thly, Mr. Amrows, after Doctor in Divinity and Master of Jesus College, Brother to the Bishop of Winchester. '6tbly, Mr. Harrison, Vice-Master of Trinity College. 5thly, Mr. Spalding, Fellow
of St. John's, and Hebrew Professor in that College. 8thly, Mr. Bing, Fellow of Peter-House, and Hebrew Profeffor therein.
To these were allotted the Books from the First of the Chronicles, with the rest of the History, and the Hagiographa, viz. Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Canticles, Ecclesiastes.
3dly, For Oxford were chosen Seven, viz. ift, Dr. John Harding, President of Magdalen College. 2dly, Dr. John Reynolds, President of Corpus Christi College ; dyed soon after his ingaging in this Work: He was born at Pinhoe in Devonshire, bred in Oxford where he was King's ProfefTor ; his Brother William and himself happened to divide in their Persuasion; John was a zealous Papist, and Williarn as heartily engaged in the Reformation. Afterwards the two Brothers entring into a clofe Dispute, argued with that Strength, that they turned each other. This Dr. Reynolds, notwithstanding his appearing for the Difienters at the Hampton-Court Conference, conformed himself to the Church Ceremonies. 3dly, Dr. Thomas Holland, Rector of Exeter College, and the King's Professor of Divinity. 4thly, Dr. Richard Kilby, Rector of Lincoln College, and Hebrew Professor. 5thly, Mr. Miles Smith, after Doctor in Divinity, and Bishop of Gloucester. He wrote the Preface to the Translation, and was one of the Revisers of the whole Work, when finished. 6thly, Dr. Richard Brett, Rector of Quainton in BuckinghamJbire
. 7thly, Mr. Fairclowe. These had for their Talk the four great Prophets, with the Lamentations, and the twelve lefser Prophets.
4thly, For the Prayer of Manaffes, and the rest of the Apochrypha, Seven were appointed at Cambridge. Ijt, Dr. Duport, Prebendary of Ely, and Master of Fefus College. 2dly, Dr. Brainthwaite, first Fellow of Emanuel, then Master of Gonvil and Caius College. 3dly, Dr. Radclif, Fellow of Trinity. 4thly, Mr. Ward of Emanuel, after Doctor in Divinity, Master of Sidney College, and Margaret Professor. 5thly, Mr. Downs, Fellow of St. John's, and Greek Professor. 6thly, Mr. Boyfe, Fellow of St. John's, Prebendary of Ely, and Parson of Boxworth in Cambridgeshire.athly, Mr. Ward, Fellow of King's College, after Doctor in Divinity, Prebendary of Chichester, and Rector of Bijlop-Waltham in Hanip
bire. 5thly, For the New Testament, there were the Four Gospels, Aas, and Revelations, assigned to Eight at Oxford, viz. f, Dr. Thomas Ravis, Dean of Christ Church, afterwards Bishop of London. 2dly
, Dr. - George Abbot, Master of University College, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury. 3dly, Dr. Evdes. 4thly, Mr. Thompson. şthly , Mr. Savil. 6thly, Dr. Peryn.
6thly, Dr. Peryn. 7thly, Dr. Ravens. Sthly, Mr. Harmer.
6thly, The Epistles of St. Paul, and the Canonical Epistles, were assigned to Seven at Westminster, viz. 1/1, Dr. William Barlow, of Trinity Hall in Cambridge, Dean of Chester, after Bithop of Lincoln. 2dly, Dr. Hutchenson. 3dly
, Dr. Spensir. qihly, Mr. Fenton. Stkly, Mr. Rabbet. Othly, Mr. Sanderson.
7thly, Mr. Dakins. That these might proceed to the best Advantage in their Method and Management; the King recommended the following Rules to be by them molt carefully observed :