« PreviousContinue »
cember Anno 1558, she allowed by Proclamation, the Liberty of read. ing the Epistles, Gospels, and Ten Commandments in English, the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the Litany might likewise be said in the same Langaage. As to the rest of the Service, 'twas to go on by the Rubrick of the Millals and Breviaries, and no Innovations to be made, in any of the Rites and Ceremonies thereunto belonging, 'till 'twas otherwise ordered.
When the Queen passed through the City from the Tower to her Coronation, in a Pageant erected in Cheapside, an old Man with a Scythe and Wings, representing Time, appeared, coming out of a hollow Place or Cave, leading another Perfon all clad in white Silk, gracefully apparelled, who represented Truth, (the Daughter of Time) which Lady had a Book in her Hand, on which was written Verbum Veritatis
, the Word of Truth. It was the Bible in English, which, after a Speech made to the Queen, Truth reached down towards her, which was taken and brought by a Gentleman attending, to her Hands. As soon as she received it, the killed it, and with both her Hands held it up, and then laid it upon her Breast, greatly thanking the City for that Present, and said,
be would often read over that Book. In the Beginning of the next Year 1559, the Queen appointed a Conference about Religion, between the Papists and Protestants, when three Points were to be argued. The first was, Whether 'tis againg the Word of God, and the Custom of the Ancient Church, to officiate and adminifor the Sacraments in a Language unknown to the People? Dr. Cole Dean of St. Paul's was appointed to deliver the Sense of the Papists, who taking the Negative of the Question, endeavoured amongst other Are guments, to fortify his Reasoning, with one drawn from the ill Transiation of the Bible; If we should (fays he) consent to the English Service, uz must be obliged to King Edward's Common-Prayer Book; now this Book consists of Verfions of the Psalms, and other parts of the Scripture, in which are several plain Mistakes and Deviations from the Original; now this, continues he, is downright depraving the Holy Scriptures, and if the Liturgy must be regulated upon this falfe Transation, we may be said to jerve God with Lyes.
The Papists would not be kept to the Conditions of the Conference, but broke the Method agreed upon, and fell to wrangling and shifting, so the Affembly was dismisled. The Popish Disputants thought it their wiseft Course to prevent any farther Proceeding, left they might have been too closely pinched in their Cause, and the Weakness of their Arguments too openly appear to all. However it occasioned two Things to be done, ift. To set out the Doctrine of the Church, in several Articles"; and 2dly, To review the Translation of the Bible.
For the Translation of the Bible, the Sees being all filled, the most learned Lithops were by the Quecn's Commillion appointed thereunto, whence it took the Name of the Bithops' Bible. To each his Pait and Portion was afligned, with Orviers to add some Marginal Notes, for the Illustration of the Text, where they found it obscure or difficult
. The Pentateuch was committed to William Ailey Bishop of Exeter i Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and the two Books of Samuel, were given to
Richard Davis, who was afterwards made Bishop of St. David, when Young was translated to York; all from Samuel to the second Book of Chronicles, was aligned to Edwyn Sandys, then Bishop of Worcester; from thence to the End of Job, to one whose Name is marked A. P. C. which Collier says, might probably stand far Andrew Perfon Cantuarienfis, one of the Archbishop's Chaplains, and Prebendary of Canterbury; the Psalms were given to Thomas Bentham Bishop of Coventry and Litchfield; Collier thinks this was more probably Thomas Beacon Prebendary of Canterbury; the Proveris to one that is marked A. P. here is a Ć standing at some Distance, probably (lays Collier) to distinguish the Person from the former A. P. C; the Song of Solomon, to one marked A. P. E. these Collier says, stand or Andrew Pern Elienfis, he being at thát Time Prebendary of Ely; all from thence to the Lamentation, was given to Robert Horn Bishop of Winchester; Ezekiel and Daniel, to Bentham; from thence to Malachi, to Edmund Grindal Bishop of London ; the Apocrypha, to the Book of Wisdom, to Barlow Bishop of Chichester; and the rest of it to John Parkhurs7 Bishop of Norwich; the Gospels, Acts, and the Epistle to the Romans, to Richard Cox Bishop of Ely; the Epistles to the Corinthians, to one marked G. G. which Collier says, probably may stand for Gabriel Goodman, then Dean of Westminster : "To whom the rest of the New Testament was assigned is not known, there being no Capital Letters subjoined. All these Allotments may be gathered from the Bible itfelf, as it was afterwards set out by Archbishop Parker; for at the End of every Section or Portion, the initial Letters of his Name or Title that had translated it, were printed. Upon the Death of Queen Mary the English
, Exiles at Geneva returned home, except some few, Witting ham, and one or two more, who staid behind to finish their Translation of the Bible, wherein they had proceeded a good way already. They congratulated the Queen's Accession to the Crown, by presenting her with the Book of Psalms in English, which they had printed at Geneva in a little Volume, with Notes in the Margent, (being Part of the Work they were about) and dedicated to the Queen; the Dedication dated from Geneva, February the ioth, 1559, ( Anno ineunte ) exhorts her now in her Entrance on her Government, to go on with Resolution in reforming Religion, from the Corruptions of Papistry. That in the mean Season, they, according to the Talents God had given them, thought it their Duty, with the most convenient Speed, to further, even with the utmost of their Power, her godly Proceedings. And albeit they had begun more than a Year ago, to peruse the English Translation of the Bible, and to bring it to the pure Simplicity and true Meaning of the Spirit of God; yet when they heard that Almighty God had miraculoully preserved her to that most excellent Dignity, with most joyful Minds and great Diligence, they endeavoured themselves to set forth this most excellent Book of the Pfalms, unto her Grace, as a special Token of their Service and good Will, 'till the reit of the Bible, which was in good Readiness, should be accomplished and presented.
And now Care was taken by those in Commission for Religion, to fupply vacant Churches, and that fit Men might be provided to officiate in them. For that purpose those that were admitted to Curacies, were
bound to subscribe certain Articles of Doctrine, and other Articles or Injunctions for their Behaviour and Obedience, in the Discharge of their Ministry. By these last, all Ministers were obliged to read every Day, one Chapter of the Bible at least; and all that were admitted Readers in the Church, were daily to read one Chapter at least of the Old Testament, and another of the New, with good Advisement, to the Increase of their Knowledge.
As the Bishops, and the learned sober Divines, preached much themselves, so they did what they could to promote it every where : But several People, instructed and directed secretly by Papists, despised preaching, and absented themselves as much as they could from Sermons. The Priests were desperately afraid the People should have too much Knowledge; they would have them in Blindness still. And as these Men would speak their Mind against Preaching, fo would they do also against the common Vie of the Scriptures. It was never a good World (would they say) Jince the Word of God came abroad; and that it was not meet for the People to have it, or read it ; but they must receive it at the Priest's Mouth ; they were the Nurses (say they) that must chew the Meat, before the Children eat it. But to these it was replied, It is fo poyfoned in their filthy Mouths, and slinking Breaths, that it poyfoneth, but feedeth not the Hearer.
The Geneva Bible being finished, was printed in Quarto Anno 1560, with an Epistle to the Queen, and another to the Reader : These Addresses charged the Englijh Reformation with the Remains of Popery, and endeavoured to prevail with the Queen to strike off several Ceremonies; this giving Offence, might be the Reason why they were left out in the after Editions, Brief Annotations were set upon all the hard Places, as well for the understanding obfcure Words, as for Declaration of the Text, that is, they made a Calvinistical Comment on the Bible, and endeavoured to lead the Reader into the Opinions of the Geneva Brethren. Figures were inserted in certain Places in the Books of Mofes, Kings, and of Ezekiel, which feemed so dark, that by no other Description they could be made easy to the Reader. There were joined two Tables, the one of Interpretations of Hebrew Names, and the other containing the principal Matters of the whole Bible. There was a Design afterwards, Anno 1505. for reprinting it, and some Time had been spent in reviewing and correcting it, and Application was made to the Secretary Cecil by the Undertakera, who refused to assist them, 'till he had consulted with Archbishop Parker., The Archbishop wrote to the Secretary in their Behalf, but with this Condition, that he should bring thein under an Engagement, that the Impreffion flould pass under the Archbishop's Regulation, and not be published without his Confent and Advice
. This Caution Collier thinks was thrown in, that the Bishops might have it in their Power to alter forne mis-translated Paflages, and expunge fome exceptionable Annotations, relating to Civil Government. The Undertakers not being willing to come under these Restraints, deferred the Impresiion untill after Parker's Death : This was taken ill, and the · Author of the Troubles at Franckfort maketh this Complaint, p. 104.
If that Bible wwere fuch as no Enemy of God could justly find fault with, then inay Men marvel, that such a Work, being so profitable, nould find fo fomull
Favour, as not to be printed again ; if it be not faithfully translated, then let it fill find as little Favour as it dotħ, because of the Inconveniencies that a false Translation brings with it.
The Great Bible, was Anno 1562, reprinted, viz. that of Coverdale's Translation, that had been printed in the Time of King Henry the VIII, and also in the Time of King Edward, for the Use of the Church; and now again under Queen Elizabeth, having undergone the Archbifhops Review. This was to serve till the Bishops, who were assigned their particular Portions of the Holy Scriptures (as before related) had finished their Review, in order to the setting it forth more correctly. This likewise was taken ill by the Favourers of the Church of Geneva, who wanted an Order to have their Translation set up, and used in all Churches, instead of the old Bible. They alledged that the old Tranflation (whose-ever it is) although it ought not to be condemned, yet it is found both obscure, unperfect, and fuperfluous, and also false in many Places.
In a Convocation Anno 1563, it was determined that the common Service of the Church, ought to be celebrated in a Tongue which was understood by the People, as may be seen in the Book of Articles which came out this Year, Art. 24. And whereas in Wales the People were very Popishly inclined, and very ignorant, it was ordered in Parliament, 5 Eliz. c. 28. that the whole Bible, both Old and New Testament, with the Book of Common-Prayer, be tranlated into the Welħ or British Tongue. The Act puts the Direction of this work into the Hands of the Bishops of Hereford, St. David, Bangor, Landaff, and St. Afaph, who were to inspect the Translation, and take care for the printing of such a Number, that every Cathedral, Collegiate, and ParishChurch and Chapel of Ease, within their respective Dioceses, where Wellb was commonly spoken, might be furnished with one.
In 1568, the Translation of the Bible mentioned in 1759, which Archbishop Parker had the Care of, and who added the last Hand to it, being finished, was printed in a large Folio, and published, and called the Bishops' Bible, because feveral of that Order were concerned in the Version, as was said before. The Archbishop's Province was not so ch to trantlate, as to oversee, direct, examine, prepare, and finish all, which he performed with great Care and Exactness. He employed several Criticks, in the Hebrew and Greek Languages, to review the old Translation, and compare it with the Original. One Lawurence an eminent Grecian was made use of to examine the Version of the Greek Teftament: He made several Animadversions upon the Performances of Beza and Erasmus this way. This Bible hath divers Alterations in the Translation, from the former English ones, which Mew's it to have been all revised anew; and there are divers Notes set in the Margin by the Archbishop, very fignificant and instructive, but different from the Notes of Tyndal and Coverdale. At the head of this Bible is a Preface of the Archbishop's, in which he recommends the Work, but takes care to preserve a Respect to the Version published by Archbishop Cranmer : He observes the Impression was in a great measure spent, and that many Churches were unfurnished with conve'nient Bibles, . The Scarcity of Copies, was one Reason for the under
taking the Work: neither was any thing done to disparage the former
Translation, which they mostly followed, and esteemed next to the Original. And as for the Variety of Translations, they are to be looked upon as a special Blessing of Providence, that by this Means the Divine Pleasure is farther communicated, and a fuller Provision made for general Instruction, and the Perplexity of the Text often disintangled.
The next Year 1569, the Archbishop put out another Impression of it in large Octavo, for the Use of private Families, which could not purchase the Folio, that so they might be supplied with the Sacred Bible. And in a Convocation convened 1571, in April, a Book of Canons passed, wherein it was required, That every Bishop fould cause
. the Holy Bible in the largest Volume, to be set up in some convenient Place of his Hall or Parlour, that as well those of his own Family, as all such Strangers as refort to him, might have recourse to it, if they pleased. Which Canon seems to have been made for keeping up the Reputation of the English Bibles, publickly authorized for the Use of this Church, the Credit and Authority of which Tranflation, was much decried by those of the Genevean Faction, to advance their own.
This Bible was again reprinted the next Year 1572, with feveral Corrections and Amendments : Before it is a Preface by Archbishop Parker on the Old Testament, and another to the New, together with Cranmer's Prologue before the Bible. It hath all along many Marginal References and Notes, and many ornamental Cuts
, and instructive Pictures dispersed up and down, and divers useful Tables.
In 1575 there was a Convocation, when on the 17th of March, Archbishop Grindal being present, several Articles were read, and afterwards subscribed by both Houses, for the Regulation of the Clergy. By the Eleventh the Bishops were to take Care, That all Incumbents and Curates under the Degree of Master of Arts, and not Preachers, should provide themselves the New Testament, both in Latin
and English or Welsh, read a Chapter every Day, and compare the Translations together.
And in 1583 Archbishop Whitgift published his Visitation Articles, wherein it was ordered, That one Kind of Translation of the Bible be only used in public Service, as well in Churches as Chapels, and that to be the same which is now authorized by the Consent of the Bishops. From whence it is probable the Archbishop might be sensible, the Geneva Translation was used in fome Parishes.
Wood in his Athena Oxonienses, Vol. 1. p. 297. tells us one Lawrence Thomson, an under Secretary to Secretary Wallingham, made a new Verhon of the New Testament from Beza's Latin Translation, together with
Tranilation of Beza's Notes, but very feldom varied from the Geneva Tranilation.
And now the Protestants had made Translations of the Bible, into the Languages of their several Countries, that the People might read the Holy Scriptures. Hereupon the Romanists made new Translations alsó, into moft Languages of Europe, to oppose those of the Hereticks (as they called them) and to keep the Faithful (those of their