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the city of Hudson ; and a distance faved of four or five miles in the main polt road from New York to Albany.

Skaticook bridge, in the town of that name, ten miles from Lanfinburgh, is an ingenious structure, built at the private expense of an enterprising and liberal gentleman. It cost one thousand four hundred pounds currency

The legislature of this State have granted three thoufand pounds to build a bridge over the sprouts of Mohawk viver, whenever the sum of one thousand pounds shall be subscribed and paid. This bridge will be one of the longest in America, and will open a direct communication to a very extensive country, increasing fast in population, in the north-western parts of the State.

MEDICINAL SPRINGS.

The most noted springs in this State are those of Saratoga : they are eight or nine in number, situated in the margin of a marsh, formed by a branch of Kayadaroffora creek, about twelve miles west from the confluence of Fish creek and Hudson's river. They are surrounded by a rock of a peculiar kind, formed by petrifa&tions. One of them, however, more particularly attracts the attention ; it rises above the surface of the carth five or six feet, in the form of a pyramid. The aperture in the top, which discovers the water, is perfe&ly cylindrical, of about nine inches diameter. In this the water is about twele inches below the top, except at the time of its annual discharge, which is commonly in the beginning of summer, At all times it appears to be in as great agitation as if boiling in a pot, although it is extremely cold. The same appearances obtain in the other springs, except that the surrounding rocks are of different figures, and the water flows regularly from them,

By observation and experiment, the principal impregnation of the water is found to be a foslile acid, which is predominant in the taste. It is also strongly impregnated with a faline subItance, which is very discernible in the tale of the water, and in the taste and smell of the petrified matter about it. From the corrofive and diffolving nature of the acid, the water acquires a chalybeate property, and receives into its composition a portion of calcareous earth, which, when separated, resembles an impure magnesia. As the different springs have no effential variance in the nature of their waters, but the proportions of the chalybeate impregnation, it is rendered probable that they are derived from one common source, but flow in separate channels, where they have connc&ion with metallic bodies in greater or less proper. tions. The stomachs of tone females, however, are to delicate, as to perccive a d.Herence in the effect and cperation of the difcrent Ipri.gs.

The prodigious quantity of air contained in this water makes another wistinguishing priperty of it. This air, friving for enlargement, produces the fermentation and violent action of the water before defcribed. After the water has food a small timo in an open vele!, for no tight one will contain it, the air clo capes, the water becomes vapid, and lefes all that life and pungency which distinguishes it when fif taken from the pool. The particles of diftulved earth are deposited as the water flows oll, which, with the combination of the lalts and fixed air, concrete and form the rocks about the springs.

As to the quality of the!c medicinal fprings, to most people who drink the waters, they are at fist very difagreeable, have ing a strong, brackis.', briny tafte; but ule in a great measure tikes of the nauserumefs, ar d renders them palaiable, and to may very grateíul. C'pon a few tlicy operate as an emetic; upon most as cathartic and diuretic. They may be taken in very large quantities witiou: fendible injury, or disagreeable operation,

The following curious experiments made on the waters, ale extracted froin Dr. Nlitchell's Journal :

A young turkey held a few inches above the water in she crater of the lower Spring, was thrown into convulsions in kis than half a minute, and gifping, thewed figns of approaching death; but on removal from that place, and exposure to the fresh air, revived and became lively. O:n innerlion again for a minute in the gas, the bird was taken out larguud and motions Icis.

* A finail dog put into the saine cavity, and made to breathe the contained air, was, in lels than one mintite, thrown into convullive motions, made to pint for bucati, and, luftly, to iole entirely the power to cry or mure; when taken out, he was too weak to fland, bue scon, in tinc common ainuequired Arersih enough to rise and stagger away,

" A trout recently caught, ard brilkly swim.ning in a pail of brook water, was carefully put into a veild just filled from the fpring, the fish was intantly agitated with violent convulfions, gradually lof the capacity to move and peile itself, grew turidandincolocis a few minutes was dead.

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"A candle repcatedly lighted, and let down near the surface of the water was suddenly extinguished, and not a veftige of light or fire remained on the wick.

- A bottle filled with the water and shken, emits suddenly a large quantity of aerial matter, that either forces out the cork, or makes a way belide or through it, or burits the vefsel.

“A quantity of wheaten flour moistened with this water, and kneaded into dough, when made into cakes and put into a baking pan, role, during the application of heat, into a light and spongy bread, without the aid of yeast or leaven: from which it appears, that the air extricated from the water is precisely similar to that produced by ordinary fcrmentation.

“Some lime water, made of stala&tises brought from the subterranean cave at Rhynebec, became immediately turbid on mixture with the spring water, but when the water had · been lately drawn, the precipitate was quickly re-dissolved.

“ Some of the rock furrounding the spring, on being put into the fire, calcined to quick-lime and flaked very well.

“ When the aerial matter has evaporated, the water loses its transparency, and lets fall a calcareous fediment: whence it is evident that the gas is aerial acid, that the rock is limeftone, and that by means of the former, the water becomes capable of diffolving and conveying the lat:er."

Great numbers of people, under a variety of maladies, resort to these springs, and many find relief, and a considerable number a complete cure, particularly in bilious disorders, falt Theum, and relaxations, But as the waters are unfriendly and even fatal in some disorders, they ought to be used under the direction of a physician thoroughly acquainted with the qualities of the waters, and the dileases of the patient. Ignorant of the suitableneis of the waters to their complaints, inariy have imprudently thrown away their lives in the use of i hem.

New-Lebanon springs are next in celebrity to those of Saratoga. New-Lebanon is a pleasant village, situated partly in a vale, and partly on the declivity of hills. The pool is situated on a commanding eminence, overlooking the valley, and surrounded with a few houses, which afford but indifferent accommodations for the valet idinarians who resort here in search of health. The waters have an agreeable temperature, and are not unpleasant to the taste. From the experiments of Dr. Mitchell it appears, that the water contains iron, line,

neutral salt, fixed air, nor any other acid; that soap unites very well with the water, makes a good lather, and is excellent for bleaching cloths; that the spring is a Tierme, and has plenty of lime-ftone in its neighbourhood. Its warmth is so considerable, that during the coolness of the morning, even in August, copious vapours are einitted by the pool, and the stream which issues from it, for a considerable distance; but the evaporated matter has no peculiar odour. Frum all which particulars taken together, this theory rationally relult; a quantity of iron and brimstone, fornewhere within the mountain, are, by reason of their chemical affinity, in the act of combin. ing into martial pyrites. During their action upon each other, hiat is produced, and pure air is absorbed. The water running in the neighbourhood of this bed of pyrites borrows some of its heat, and reccives also that part of the atmospheric fluid which remains after the consumption of the pure air, i, e. foul, or azoti, gas. But as the heat is excited in the bowels of a calcarcous nountain, it happens, that by the combiaation of the linfine with a very small portion of the fulphur, a calcareous h bar is formed, which flying off in the form of hepatic gas, gives an exceedingly fight tincture to the water of the pocl. These waters are used with success, it is said, in scorbutic and reumatic diseases, falt rheums, &c. but are pernicious to confumptive persons.

In the new town of Renfallaer, nearly opposite to the city of Albany, a medicinal spring has lately been discovered comLining most of the valuable properties of the celebrated waicrs of Sıratng?. Should further experiments confirm the favourable opinion already entertained of this spring, it will pure a fortunate discovery for the city of Albany, and for

country adjoining, as well as for the invalids who annually In It to Saratoga, under many inconveniencies and at a grcal conie. ielt springs we have already mentioned. The weight

bathel of the falt made of these waters is fifty-fix ws, and is equal in goodness to that imported from Turks ..

State cinboloms vast quantities of iron ore. Naturalills ve that ore, in swamps and pondy ground, vegetates and

There is a llver mine at Philipsburgh, which prom join filver. Lead is found in Herkener county, a1.a

nery. Spar, zirk, or fpelier, a femi-meia. 'S, Pyrites of a golden hue, various kinds

and coal mines, are found in tlns Sluie.

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Alo petrified wood, plaster of Paris, ifinglafs in sheets, talo and crystals of various kinds and colours, flint, asbestos, and several other fossils. A small black stone has also been found, which vitrifics with a small heat, and, it is said, makes excellent glass.

ISLAND S.

There are three islands of note belonging to this State, viz. York-Island, which will be hereafter described,* Long-Iland • and Staten-Island.

Long-Island extends one hundred and forty miles, and terminates with Montauk point. It is not more than ten miles in breadth on a medium, and is separated from Connecticut by Long-Ifand sound. The island is divided into three counties; Kiri's, Queen's and Suffolk.

King's county lies at the west end of Long Island, opposite New-York, and is not above ten miles long and eight abroad ; the inhabitants are principally Dutch and live well; it contains a number of pleasant villages, of which Flatbush, Brooklyn and Bedford, are the principal,

Queen's county lies next to King's as you proceed eastward ; it is about thirty miles long and twelve broad. Jamaica, , Newtown, Hampstead, in which is a hadsome court-house, and Oyster-bay, are the principal villages in this county. Suffolk courty

is about one hundred miles long and ten broad, and comprcheuds all the eastern part of the island and several little islands adjuining, viz. Shelter island, Fisher's island, Plum island, and the Isle of Wight. Its principal towns are Huntington, Southamp'on, Smithtown, Brook-Haven, EastHampton, in which is the academy, Southhold and Bridge. Hampton.

The south side of the island is flat land, of a light sandy soil, bordered on the sea coait with large tracts of salt meadow, extending from the west point of the island to Southampton; this foil, however, is well calculated for raising grain, especial. Jy Indian corn. The north fide of the island is hilly and of a ftrong foil, adapted to the culture of grain, hay, and fruit. A ridge of hills extends from Jamaica to Southhold. Large herds of cattle feed upon Hampftead plain, and on the falt marshes upon the south side of the island.

Hampstead plain, in Queen's county, is a curiosity; it is fixteen miles in length, cast an, weft, and leven or cight miles wide; the soil is black, and to appearance rich, and yet it was

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