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ceives Tyoga river. Batteaux pass to its source; thence to Mohawk river is but twenty miles, capable of good roails.

Tyaga river riles in the Allegary mountains, in about Latitude 42', runs caftwardly and empties into the Sulquehannah at Tyoga Point, in latitude 410 57. 1: is navigable for boats about fifty miles,

Seneca river rises in the Seneca country, and runs eatwardly, and in its passage receives the waters of the Seneca and Cayuga lakes, which lie north and south, ten

or tu clue miles apart, cach is between thirty and forty miles in length, and about a mile in breadth, and empties into the Onondago river, fourteen miles above the falls, at a place called Thico Rivers. From Three River point to Onondago lake, up Se5001 river, is twelve miles. Within half a mile of this lake a falt fpring iflues from the ground, the water of which is falter than that of the ocean : it constantly cmits water in fufficient quantity for works of any extent: it is probable the whole country will be supplied with salt from this spring,

a very cheap rate. This spring is the property of the State. This river is navigable for boats from the lakes downwards.

Chenessee river rises near the source of the Tyogy, and runs northwardly by the Cheneffcc castle and flats, and cmp. rics into luke Ontario, cighty miles call of Niagara fort. On this river is one let of large fülls, not far from its jurico sion with loke Ontario. The inhabitants improve theie isila to good purpose, by the cretion of mills upon them.

The north-cast branch of the Allegany river heads in the Allegany mountains, near the fource of the Tynga, and runs dircely weft until it is joined by a larger branch from the fouthward, which rises near the west branch of the Suque. hannah : their junction is on the line between Pennsylvania and New-York. From this junction the river purfues 3 north-west course, leaving a fegment of the river of about fifty miles in length, in the State of New York, thence it proceeds in a circuitious fouth-west direction, until it crosses into Penriylvania, from thence to ,


entrance into the Mili lippi; it has already been described.

There are few fish in the rivers, but in the brooks are plenty of trout; and in the lakes, yellow perch, sun-fim, Salmon trout, cat-fifli, and a variety of others,

Froin this account of the rivers, is is eaiy to conceive the excellent advantages for conveying produce to market from every part of the State.

The settlements already made in this State, are chiefly upon two narrow oblongs, extending from the city of New York, cast and north. The one cas, is Long- Island, which is one hundred and forty miles long, narrow, and surrounded by the sea. The one extending north is about forty miles in breadth, and bilected by the Hudson ; and such is the interfeâion of the whole State by the branches of the Hudson, the Delaware, the Susquehannah, and other rivers which have been mentioned, that there are few places throughout its whole extent, that

are more than

fifteen or twenty miles from fome boatable or navigible ftrcam.

York bay, which is nine miles long and four broad, spreads to the southward before the city of New-York. It is formed by the confluence of the East and Hudson's rivers, and emboloms several Imall islands, of which Governor's isand is the principal : it communicates with the ocean through the Narrows, between Staten and Long-Hands, which are scarcely two miles wide. The passage up to New York and Sandy-Hook, the point of land that extends farthest into the sea, is safe, and not above twenty miles in length. The common navigation is between the east and west banks, in about twentytwo feet water. There is a light-house at Sandy-Hook on peninsula from the Jersey fhore.

South bay lies twelve or fifteen miles north of the northern bend in Hudson's river: at its north end it receives Wood Creek from the south, which is navigable several miles, and lined with fine meadows ; soon after it mingles its waters with East bay, which stretches eastward into Vermont. At the junction of these bays commences another bay or lake, from half a mile to a mile wide, whose banks are steep hills, or cliffs of rocks, generally inaccessible. At Ticonderoga this bay receives the waters of lake George from the south-west, through a large brook, which rolls down a gentle declivity, at the foot of which were formerly a fet of faw mills. The waters of lake George are one hundred feet higher than thule of the bay.

Oncida lake lies about twenty miles west of fort Stanwix, and extends westward about thirty miles.

Salt lake is small, and empties into Seneca river foon after its junction with the Onondago river, about twelve miles from Three River point. This lake is strongly impregnated with faline particles. which circumstance gave rise to its name. The Indians inake their lult from it,


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Lake Oxiego, at the head of Susquehannah river, is about ninc miles lung and narrow, perhaps not more than a mile wide. The land on the banks of this lahe is very good, and the cultivation of it caly.

Caniaderago lake is nearly as large as lake Orrego, and fix miks west of it. A stream by the name of Osks creek, illues fiom it, and falls into the Suiquehınnıh river, about five miles below Ollego. The best cheele in the State of NewYork is said to be made upon the borders of the creck,

Chatoque lake is the fource of Comwongo river, which empties into the Allegany: the lower end of it, whence the river proceeds, is in latitude 420 10'; from thence to its head is about twenty-five miles. From the north-west part of this to lake Erie is nine miles, and was once a communication used by the French.

On the north fide of the mountains, in Orange county, is a very valuable truct called the Drowned Lands, containing about forty or fifty thousand acres. The waters, which defcend from the surrounding bills, being but flowly discharged by the river issuing from it, cover these vait meadows every winter, and render them extremely fertilr ; but they expose the inhabitants in the vicinity to intermittents. The Walkhill river, which passes through this extenfive amphiirious traét, and empties into Hudson's river, is in the spring stored with very large ecls in gicat plenty. The bottom of this river is a broken rock; and, it is fuppoted, that for two thousand pounds the channel inight be deepened to as to let off all the waters from the meadows, and thereby reduem froin the floods a large truct of rich land, for graís hemp, and India



Besides the trees already mentioned, there are in various parts of this State, the leveral kinds of oak, such as white, red, yellow, bluck, aud cheinut oak; white, yellow, spruce, and pitch pines: cedar, fii-tree, butternut, alpin, commonly called poplar, white wood, which in Pennsylvania is called poplar, and in England the tulip-tree, rock, maple, the linden tree, which, with the white-wood, grows on the low rich ground, the button wood, shrub-cranberry, the fruit of which hangs in clusters like grapes as large as cherries ; his thrub

on low ground. Beides there is the fumach, which bears clusters of red berries : the indians chew the

too grow's

leaves instead of tobacco ; the berries are used in dyes. Of the commodities produced from culture, wheat is the staple. Of this article in wheat and flour, equivalent to one million bushels are yearly exported. Indian corn and peas are likewise raised for exportation; and rye, oats, barley, &c. for home consumption.

In some parts of the State large dairies are kept, which furnish for the market, butter and cheese. The best lands in this State which are those that lie along the Mohawk river, and north of it, and west of the Allegany mountains, are yet mostly in a state of nature, but are most rapidly settling.

The county of Clinton, in the most northern part, of the State, on lake Champlain and lake George, lies about midway between Quebec and New York, and from two hundreet and thirty to tuc hundred and forty miles from each, and is feitled by about two thousand inhabitants. A great proportion of the lands in this country are of an excellent quality, and produce in abundance the various kinds of grain cultivated in other parts of the State. The inhabitants manufacture earthen ware, pot and pearl afh, in large quantities, which they export to New-York or Quebec. Their wool is of a better quality than that which is produced in more southern climates ; their beef and pork is second to none; and the price of stall-fed beef in Montreal, distant sixty miles from Platisburg, is such as to encourage the farmers to drive their cattle to that market. Their foreits supply them with sugar and molaffes, as every family, with no more imprements than are necessary for common use, can make a sufficiency for its own consumption, and that at a season when the farmer can be no otherwise einployed. The foil is well adapted to the culture of hemp. The land carriage from any part of the country, in transporting their produce to New York, does not exceed eighteen miles. The carrying place at Ticonderoga is one mile and a half; and from Fort George, at the fouth end of the lake of the same name, to Fort Edward, is about fourteen miles; after which there are two or three small obstructions by falls, which are about to be removed by the proprietors of the northern

From this country to Quebec are annually fent large rafts, the rapids at St. John's and Chawblee being the only interruption in the navigation, and those not so great but that at some seasons, batteaux with fixty hufhels of file can ascend them. At some distance from the led, salt is sold at half a dollar a bushel,

In the northern and unsettled parts of the State are plenty of moose deer, bears, some beavers, inartins, and most other inVol. II.


habitants of the foreft, except wolves. Ducks, growse, pigeons, and fish of m'ny kincs, and particularly talmon, are taken in gre. bundance in diterent parts, and cipecially in the county!! (litun. At the mouth of Saranac river, which falls ini Champlain, the salmon are found in fuch plenty, that it is utual to inke four or five hundred in a day with {scars and Imail koop nets. They are caught from May till November, and make excellent filted provifions, and every cottager, hy spend. ing an hour in the evening, may obtain a fufficient supply fur his family.


The roads in this State have been in general but indifferently attended to till within the two or three last years. The legislature, convinced of the importance of attending to the matter, and perhaps ftimulated by the enterprizing and active Pennsyl. vanians, who are competitors for the trade of the western countrv, have lately granted very liberal sums towards improving tsole roads cat traverse the moft settled parts of the country, and opening fch as lead into the western and northern parts of the State, uniting, as far as posible, the establishments on the Hudson river, and the most populous parts of the interior countıy by the nearest pra&ticable distances. A post regularly tides from Albiny to thc Chenesee river, once a fortnight, through Whitestown, Geneva, Canadaqua, Canawargus, and Williamsburgh, on the Chenesfee river. By this establishment a safe and direct conveyance is opened between the most interior parts of the United States to the west, and the several States in the Union.

A grand rond was opened through Clinton county, which borders upon Canda, in the year 1793, under the direction of a Mr. Rogers, of Duchels county, and after him called Rogers's road. This road aud's greatly to the convenience and safety of travelling between the State of New York and Canada, especially in the winter, when paling the lakes on ice is often dangerous, and alivays uncomfortable.

A road allo has been lately cut from Kitt's kill, on the Hudfun, westwardiy, which pacanear Owascolle.

A bridge, called Saad bridge, two hundied and fifty feet Long, and of a lutcient wii h to admit two carriages abreally has lutely been thrown across Abram's creck, which falls into the Hudson rivir, n'ar the ciry of Iludton, by which a com. Tuunication with the country, in a new direction, is opened from

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