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This State is situated between 4040% and 45° north latitude,

HIS and 5° welt and 1° 30' east longitude from Philadelphia. Its length is about three hundred and fifty miles, and its breadth about three hundred. It is bounded south-eastwardly by the Atlantic occan; east by the States of Connecticut, Matfi.chusetts, and Vermont; north by the 45th degree of latitude, which divides it from Canada ; north-westwardly by the river Iroquois, or St. Lawrence, and the lakes Ontario and Erie; south-west and south by Pennlylvania and New-jersey.


This State, to speak generally, is intersected by ridges of mountains running in a north-east and south-west direction.Beyond the Allegany mountains, however, the country is a dead level, of a fine rich soil, covered in its natural state with maple, becch, birch, cherry, black walnut, locust, hickory and some mulberry trees. On the banks of lake Erie are a few cheinut and oak ridges. Hemlock swamps are interfperfed thinly through the country. All the creeks that empty into lake Eric have falls which afford many excellent mill-feats.

The lands between the Seneca and Cayuga lakes are represented as uncommonly excellent, being most agreeably diverfificd with gentle rifings, and timbered with lofty trees, with little underwood. The legislature of this State have granted one million and a half of acres of land as a gratuity to the of. ficers and soldiers of the line of this State. This tract is bounded weft by the east shore of the Seneca lake, and the Maffichuletts lands in the new county of Ontario ; north by part of lake Ontario near fort Olwego ; south by a ridge of the Allegany mountains and the Pennsylvania line; and east by the TutcaVol. II.


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zoro Creek, which falls nearly into the middle of the Oneida lake, and that part of Montgomery which has been festling by the New-England people very rapidly since the peace.

This pleasant country is divided into twenty-five townships of Sixty thousand acres each, which are again subdivided into one hundred convenient farins, of six hundred acręs, making in the whule two thousand five hundred farms.

East of the Allegany mountains the country is broken into mills with rich intervening vallies. The hills are clothed thick with timber, and when cleared, afford a very fine pafture: the vollies, when cuitivated, produce wheat, hernp, fax, peas, grass, Dats, and Indian coin. The rivers in this State are numerous.

Hudson's river is one of the largest and finest in the l'nited States: it rises in the mountainous country between the lakes Ontario and Chaplain. In its courle south-easterly it approaches within six or eight miles of lake George ; then, after a fhoit course east, turns southerly and receives the Socondaga from the south-wet, which heads in the ncighbourhod of Mo. hawk river. The course of the river thence to New-York, where it empties into York bay, is uniformly south, twelve degrees, or fifteen degrees weft. Its whole length is about two hundred and fifty miles; from Albany to lake George is fixty-five miles. This distance, the river is navigable only for butteaux, and has two portages, occasioned by falls, of half a mile each.

The banks of Iludson's river, especially on the western fide, as far as the highlands extend, are chiefly rocky cliffs. The podlage through the highlands, which is fixteen miles, affords

wid romamic Icene ; in this narrow pass, on each side of which the mountains tower to a great hcight, the wind, if there be any, is collected and comprefied, and blows continually as wrough a bellows: vetiels, in pailing through it, are often obliged to lower their fails. The bed of this river, which is deep and smooth to an aftunishing diflance, through a hilly, rocky country, and even through riuges of fome of the highesi mounlains in the United States, mut undoubtedly have been produced by loine mighty convullion in nature. The tide flows a few iniles above Albany, which is one hundred and fixiy miles from New-York : it is navigable for foors of eighty tons to Albany, and for fhips to liudlon : fiip navigation to Albany is interrupted by a number of islands, fix or eight miles below the city, called the Oterflaugh. It is in contemplation to contine the river to one channel, by which means the channel will be deepened, and the difficulty of approaching Albany with


veliels of a larger size be removed. About sixty miles above New-York the water becomes fresh. The river is stored with a variety of fish, which renders a summer passage to Albany delightful and amusing to those who are fond of angling.

The advantages of this river for carrying on the fur trade with Canada, by means of the lakes, have been already mentio oned :* its conveniencies for internal commerce are singularly great: the produce of the remotest farms is easily and speedily conveyed to a certain and profitable market, and at the lowest expense : in this reprét, New-York has greatly the advantage of Philadelphia. A great proportion of the produce of Pennsylvania is carried to market in waggons, over a great extent of country, some of which is rough; hence it is that Philadelphia is crowded with waggons, carts, horses and their drivers, to do the same business that is done in New-York, wliere all the produce of the country is brought to market by water, with much less fhew and parade. But Philadelphia has other advantages, which will be mentioned in their proper place, to compensate for this natural defect. The increasing population of the fertile lands upon the northern branches of the Hudson must annually increase the amazing wealth that is conveyed by its waters to New-York : added to this, the ground has been marked out, the level ascertained, a company incorporated, by the name of “ The President, Directors, and Company of the Northern Inland Lock Navigation, in the State of New York,” and funds fubscribed for the purpose of cutting a canal from the nearest approximating point of Hudson's river, to South bay, which empties into the south end of lake Champlain : the distance is eighteen miles. The difference of level and the face of the country are fuch, as to justify a belief that the opening of this canal will not be less practicable than useful.

Saranac river passes through Plattsburg into lake Champlain : it has been explored nearly thirty miles, and there found equal in size to the mouth. In this river is the greatest abundance of fish, such as faimon, bass, pike, pickcrel, trout, &c.

Sable river, not far from the Saranac, is scarcely fixty yards wide. On this stream are remarkable falls: the whole descent of the water is about two hundred feet in leveral pitches, the greatest of which is forty feet perpendicular: at the foot of it the water is unfathomable. A large pine has been seen, in a freshet, to pitch over endwise, and remain several minutes un. der water. The stream is confined by high rocks on either side, a space of forty feet, and the banks at the falls are, at least, as many feet high. In a freset the flood wood frequently Indges, and in a few minutes the water rises to full banks, and then bursts away its obstructions with a most tremendous craih. ing. The Big and Little Chazy rivers are in the township of Champlain, which borders on the Canada line; both are navi. gable fome miles, the former fix or seven, affording good mill seats--several mills are already erected. The British have a post, and maintain a small garrison, at Point-au-fer in this township.

* Page 192 and 193, vol. 2.

The river Boquet passes through the town of Willborough, in Clinton county, and is navig, ble for boats about two miles, and is there interrupted by falls, on which are mills. At this place are the remains of an entrenchment thrown up by General Burgoyne.

Here he gave his famous war feast to his i numerous host of SAVAGES," and here, probably, he first conceived that celebrated proclamation which he afterwards brought forth,

Black river rises in the high country, near the sources of Canada Creek, which falls into Mohauk river, and takes its course north-well, and then north-east, till it discharges ittelf into Cataraqua, or Irequois river, not far from Swegauchee: it is said to be navigable for batteaux up to the lower falls, fixty miles, which is distant from the flourishing settlement of Whitestown twenty-five miles. The whole length of this river is reckoned at one hundred and twelve miles.

Onondago river rises in the Oneida lake, runs westwardly into lake Ontario at Osweg?: it is navigable for boats from its mouth to the head of the lake, seventy-four miles, except a fall which occasions a portage of twenty yards, thence batteaux go up Wood creck almost to Fort Stanwix, forty miles, whence there is a portage of amile to Mohawk river. Toward the head waters of this river salmon are caught in great quantities.

Mohawk river rises to the northward of Fort Stanwix, about eight miles from Black river, and runs fouthwardly twenty miles to the fort ; thien caftward, one hundred and ten miles, into the Hudson. The produce that is conveyed down this river is landed at Skenectady, and is thence carried by land fixteen miles, over a barren shrub plain, to Allany. Except a portage of about a mile, occafioned by the little falls, fifty-fix miles above Skenectady, the river is pailable for boats from Skenectady nearly or quute to its Source, The perpendicular defcent of ihce falis is estimated at

forty-two feet in the course of one mile; and it is supposed, they might be locked so as to be rendered paflable for boats carrying five tons, for about fifteen thousand pounds currency, The Cohoez in this river are a great curiosity; they are three miles from its entrance into the Hudson. The river is about one hundred yards wide, the rock over which it pours as over a mill dam, extends almost in a line from one side of the river to the other, and is about thirty feet perpendicular height, In.cluding the de!cent above, the fall is as much as fixty or seventy feet; the rocks below, in some places, are worn many feet deep by the constanı friction of the water. The view of this tremenduous cataract is diminished by the height of the banks on each side of the river, Abcut a mile below the falls the river branches and forms a large island; but the two mouths may be {een at the time time from the opposite bank of the Hudton : the branches are fordable at low water, but are dangerous. A company by the name of “The Prefident, Directors, and Compa. ny of the Western Inland Lock Navigation, in the State of New-York,” were incorporated by the legislature of NewYork, in March, 1792, for the purpose of opening a lock Tiavigation from the now navigable part of Hudson's river, to be extended to lake Ontario, and to the Seneca lake. This route has been surveyed and found practicable, the ex- . pence estimated, and the funds fubfcribed, and the work is to be executed with all possible dispatch. The opening of this navigation will be a vast acquisition to the commerce of this Stute, A shore at least one thousand miles in length: will, in confequence of it, be washed by beatable waters, exclusive of all the great lakes, and many millions of acres of excellent tillige land, rapidly settling, will be accommodated with water conmunication for conveying their produce to market.

Delaware river rises in Lake Urayantho, latitude 42° 25', and takes its courle south-west, untill it croffes into Penniylvania in latitude 43%; thence southwardly, dividing NewYork from Pennsylvania, untill it strikes the north-wcft corner of New Jersey, in latitude 41° 24'; and then palles cft to sea, through Delaware bay, having New- Jericy on the east lide, and Pennsylvania and Delaware on the west.

Susquehannah, E. Branch river has its source in lake Ousega, latitude 12. 55', from which it takes a south-weit courle ; it crosses the line which divides New-York and Pennsylvan's three times, the last time ncar Tyoga Point, where is des

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