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The qualifications of freemen are, quiet and peaccable behavi. our, a civil conversation, and freehold estate to the value of forty shillings per annum, or forty pounds personal estate in the list, certified by the select men of the town; it is necessary, also,t that they take the oath of fidelity to the State. Their names are inrolled in the town-clerk's office, and they continue freemen for life, unless disfranchised by sentence of the superior court, on conviction of misdemeanor.

The courts are as follow :- The justices of the peace, of whom a number are annually appointed in each town by the General Assembly, have authority to hear and determine civil actions, where the demand does not exceed four pounds. If the demand exceeds forty fhillings an appeal to the county is allowed. They have cognisance of small offences, and may punish by ane, not exceeding forty shillings, or whipping, not exceed. ing ten stripes, or fitting in the stocks. There are eight county courts in the State, held in the several counties by one judge, and four justices of the quorum, who have jurisdiction of all criminal cases arising within their respc&tive counties, where the punishment does not extend to life, limb, or banishment. They have original jurisdiction of all civil actions which exceed the jurisdi&tion of a justice. Either party may appeal to the fuperior court, if the demand exceeds 20l. except on bonds or notes vouched by two witnesses.

There are several courts of probate in each county, consisting of one judge. The peculiar province of this court is, the probate of wills, granting administration on intestate estates, ordering distribution of them, and appointing guardians for minors, &c. An appeal lies from any decree of this court to the fuperior court,

The fuperior court consists of five judges. It has authority in all criminal cases extending to life, limb, or banishment, and other high crimes and mildemeanors : to grant divorces; and to hear and determine all civil actions brought by appeal from the county courts, or the court of probate, and to correct the errors of all inferior courts. This is a circuit court, and has two futel fulfions in each county annually. The superior and county courts try iratters of faét by jury, or without, if ihe paities will agree.

There is a supreme court of errors, conlltins of ilie lieu. Imanit-governor and the twelve assistants; their tule business is to determine lits of error brought on judgments of the superior court, where the error coinplained of appears on the record, They have two stated tellions annually, viz. on the Tuesdays

of the weeks preceding the stated feftions of the General Aflembly.

The county court is a court of chancer, empowered to hear · ảnd determine cases in equity, where the matter in demand

does not exceed one hundred pounds. The superior court has cognisince of all cases where the demand exceeds that sum, Errors inan be brought from the county to the superior court, and from the superior court to the supreme court of errors, on judgment in cases of equity as well as of law.

The General Affembly only have power to grant pardons and reprieves——to grant commissions of bankruptcy--or protect the perions and estates of unfortunate debtors.

The common law of England, so far as it is applicable to this country, is considered as the common law of this State. The report of adjudication in the courts of king's bench, common pleas, and chancery, are read in the courts of this State as authorities; yet the judges do not consider them as conclufively binding, unless founded on folid reasons which will apply is this State, or fan&ioned by concurrent adjudications of their own courts.

The feudal system of descents was never adopted in this State. All the real estate of intestates is divided equally among the children, males and females, except that the eldest son has a double portion.

And all estates given in tail muf be given to some person then in being, or to their immediate ifiue, and shall become fee fimple estates to the issue of the first donee in tail. The widow of an intestate is entitled to a third part of the personal ellate for ever, and to her dower or third part of the houses and lands belonging to the inteftate at the time of his death, during her life.


The practice of law in this State has more fimplicity, but less precition, than in England. Aili{tants and judges are empowered to issue writs through the State, and justices through their :r.portive counties. In these writs the substance of the compaints, or the declarations must be contained, and if neither of : poi'i's Mew good reason for delay; the causes are heard

Hierminer tio fame term to which the writs are returnable. w of the S&tions of law, to common in the English practice, Pirineun in this State.

The plentiff'a' 'ways has his cle£tion to limon dc difendant. Attw. nies ac adinit:cd and

qualified by the county courts. Previous to their admission to the bar, they must study two years with a practiling attorney in the State, if they have had a college education, and three years if they have not; their morals must be good, and their characters unblemished, and they must sustain an examination by the attornies of the court of the county where they are admitted, and be by them recommended to the court. When admitted to the county court, they can practise, without other qualifications, in any court in the State. There are, upon an average, about fifteen attornies to each county, one hundred and twenty in the State; a very great proportion for the real exigencies of the people. Yet from the litigious spirit of the citizens, the most of them find employment and support. There is no attorneygeneral, but there is one attorney to the State in each county,


All freeholders in this State are required by law to give ini lifts of their rateable estate, such as horses, horned cattle, cultivated and uncultivated land, houses, shipping, all forts of riding-carriages, clocks and watches, filver-plate, money at intereft, &c. and of their polls, including all males between fixteen and seventy years of age, unless exempted by law, to persons appointed in the refpective towns to receive then, on or before the 20th of August annually. These are valued according to law, arranged in proper order, and sent to the General Assembly annually in May.

The sum total of the list of the polls and rateable estate of the inhabitants of Connecticut, as brought in to the General Affem, bly in May 1987, was as follows:


d. Sum total of the single list

1,484,901 Affcilments

47,790 9 One quarter of the four-folds

1,176 9 4

6 4


Total £. 1,533.867 18 5

Having thus taken a general view of the New-England States, we cannot help observing, that present appearances warrant us in concluding that industry and happiness are in a very great degree blended in them, that they offer every encouragement for the former, and furnish every thing necessary to promote the latter in a virtuous mind. In these States, the principles of liberty are universally understood, felt, and afted upon, ?s much by the simple as the wise, the weak as the strong. Their deepTooted and inveterate habit of thinking is, that all men are equal in their rights, that it is impoffible to make them otherwise ; and this being their undisturbed belief, they have no conception how any man in his sentes can entertain any other. This point once settled, every thing is fettled. Many operations which in Europe have been considered as incredible tales of dangerous experiments, are but the infallible consequences of this principle. The first of thefe operations is the business of eleilien, which, with the people of New England, is carried on with as much gravity as their daily labour. There is no jealousy on the occasion, nothing lucrative in office ; any man in fociety inay attain to any place in the government, and may exercise its functions, They believe that there is nothing more difficult in the management of the affairs of a nation, than the affairs of a family; that it only requires more hands. They believe that it is the juggle of keeping up impositions to blind the eyes of the vulgar, that constitutes the intricacy of state. Banish the mysticism of inequality, and you banish almost all the evils attendant on human nature.

The people being habituated to the election of all kinds of officers, the magnitude of the office makes no difficulty in the case. Every officer is chosen withi as little commotion as a church-warden. There is a public service to be performed, and the people say who fhail do it. The fervant feels honoured with the confidence repoled in him, and generally exprefles his gratitudc by a faithful performance.

Another of these operations is making cvery citizen, a foldier, and every foldier a citizen; not only permitting every man to arin, but obliging him to arm. This fact, told in Europe previous to the revolution, would have gained little credit; 0 ou lealt it would have been regarded as a mark of an uncivilized jeople, extiemely dangerous to a well-ordered ficiety. Men who build fyílems on an invertion of nature, are cbliged 10 invert every thing that is to make part of that lystem. It is becaule the people are civilized, that they are with safety arned. It is an effect of their conscious dignity, as citizens enjoying equal rights, that they wish not to invade the rights ol chris. The danger, where there is any, from armed citizons, is only 10 the govern:nent, not to the fociety; and as long as they have nothing to revenge in the governinent which ther cannot have while it is in their own hands) there are many

is in their being accustomed to the use of aims, and no



Power, habitually in the hands of a whole community, loses all the ordinary associated ideas of power. The exercise of power is a relative terin ; it supposes an opposition, fomething to operate upon. We perceive no exertion of power in the motion of the planetary fystem, but a very strong one in the movement of a whirlwind; it is because we see obstructions to the latter, but none to the former. Where the government is not in the hands of the people, there you find opposition, you perceive two contending interests, and get an idea of the exercise of power ; and whether this power be in the hands of the government or of the people, or whether it change from side to fide, it is always to be dreaded. But the word people in America has a different meaning from what it has in Europe. It there means the whole community, and comprehends every human creature ; hence it is impossible but the government must protect the people, and the people, as a natural consequence, fupport the government as their own legitimate offspring.

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