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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE UNITED STATES.
THE American Republic, of which we have in the pre
ceding volume given a general account, consists of three grand divisions, denominated the NORTHERN, or more properly EastERN, MIDDLE, and SouthERN States, The first division, the Northern or Eastern States, comprehends VERMONT,
MASSACHUSETTS, NEW HAMPSHIRE,
RRODE-ISLAND, DISTRICT of MAINE, be- CONNECTICUT.
longing to Massachusetts. These are called the New-England States, and comprehend that part of America, which, since the year 1614, has been known by the name of New-ENGLAND.
The second division, the Middle States, comprehends New-YORK,
DELAWARE, NEW JERSEY,
TERRITORY, N. W. of Ohio, PENNSYLVANIA.
The third division, the Southern States, comprehends MARYLAND,
TERRITORY S. of Ohio, VIRGINIA,
GEORGIA, NORTH CAROLINA, Of each of these we shall now treat particularly in their order, Vol. II.
Or NORTHERN or EASTERN STATES.
SITUALION, BOUNDARIES, &c. N
F.W-ENGLAND lies between 41 and 46 degrees N. Lat. and between 1 degree 30 minutes, and 8 degrees E. Long. from Philadelphia; and is bounded north by Lower-Canada; east, by the province of New-Brunswick, and the Atlantic Ocean; fouth, by the same ocean, and Long-Iiland found ; west, by the State of New-York. It lies in the form of a quarter of a circle. Its west line, beginning at the mouth of Byram river, which empties into Long-Iland found at the south-west corner of Connecticut, lat. 41 degrees, runs a little east of north, until it strikes the 45th degree of latitude, and then curves to the eastward almost to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Its climate is very healthful, as is evinced by the longevity of the inhabitants; for it is estimated that about one in leven of them live to the age of seventy years ; and about one in thirteen or fourteen to eighty years and upwards.
North-west, west, and south-west winds, are the most prevalent. East and north-cast winds, which are unelastic and difagrecable, are frequent at certain feafens of the year, particularly in April and May, on the fea coalls. The weather is less variable than in the Middle and especially the Southern States, and more so than in Canada. The extremes of heat and cold, according to Fahrenheit's thermometer, are from 20° below, to 100° above o. The mediuin is from 480 to 50°. The inhabitants of New-England, on account of the dryness of their aimorplere, can endure, without inconvenience, a greater degree of heat than the inhabitants of a moiler climate. It is supposed by fome philofophis, that the difference of moisture in the atmofphere in Pennsylvania and New-England is fuch, as that a peiton miglii bcar at least ten degrees of heat more in the latter than in the founer.
The quantity of rain which falls in England annually, is computed to be twenty-four inches ; in France eighteen inches, and ia New England froin forty-eight 10 fifiy inches ; and yet in New-England they luffer more from diought than in either of the foremontioned countries, although they have more than double the quntity of rain. Thele facts evince the remaihuble dryers of the atmofphere in this eaftern civision of she Loned