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The “specialty of Divine suggestion and races, not only one form of Religion, but guidance" to which you refer can only mean all.

But more: it at once includes, within one thing, -the operation of the creative the domain of “Divine suggestion and guidenergy in the sphere of mind and soul, and ance, the wisdom, the insight, the devoPerhaps in an intense degree. But the cre- tion, and the love of all who have taken ative energy wells up or is forceful in a their place and done their part in the great million ways, and it does not in any or small redemptions of the world, in any sphere, imply perfection. That it does not sphere; nay, but it also brings within that make everything perfect at once may be a domain the very handicrafts of the world. mystery, but it is not a contradiction nor an The writer of the Book of Exodus underabsurdity: it only suggests that the mighty stood this when he penned the following Power works by steadfast laws, and deals remarkable words: “The Lord spake unto with matter and mind as they exist at every Moses, saying, “See, I have called by name stage, but ever leading both “out of dark- Bezaleel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of ness into his marvelous light." Much the tribe of Judah, and I have filled him mystery of course remains; but this view with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in of “Divine suggestion and guidance” is, at understanding, and in knowledge, and in all all events, one that can be presented to Rea- manner of workmanship, to devise cunning son, and that History and Science might works, to work in gold, and in silver, and readily admit.

in brass, and in cutting of stones, to set The Bible itself teaches that it is God them, and in carving of timber, to work in who worketh all in all. But that seems all manner of workmanship.' is So, then, inevitable. “My Father worketh hitherto," the Holy Spirit can be given to the goldsaid Jesus ; and that is so entirely reason- smith, the silversmith, the worker in brass, able, God works : that is all we can say, the mason, the builder, and the wood-carver, unless we add, He works always, every- and these may receive the revelations of the where, and in all. To him there is no Most High. What follows? This: that the supernatural: all is natural. So, then, his workshops and laboratories of the world are working is only a question of degree or aim, as truly the objects of “Divine suggestion not of time. Here the creative Power comes and guidance" as its altars; that the Statesto fruition in a violet, and there in a poem ; man may be as truly inspired as the Psalmto-day in a sea-breeze, and to-morrow in a ist, and that men in the House of Commons, Reform Bill; now in a martyr's dying cry, as well as in Westminster Abbey, may be and now in a psalm; in a corn-field or a God's serving priests. The difference is Christ. It is surely the same God who only in aim or in degree. worketh all in all; it is surely only a ques- This conception of Revelation restores tion of purpose on his part or of receptivity God to the race, Revelation to humanity, on ours.

and Religion to the world; and puts a meanA few days ago, I spent a Sunday evening ing of unspeakable pathos and suggestivein a Welsh Methodist Chapel, and ness into Christ's great prayer, “Our Father again heard the upsoarings and pathetic who art in heaven, thy kingdom come !" strains which, for me, more than any others, This is the barest indication of the muchcapture the soul, and speed it on to intens- needed reconciling view of Revelation; but est praise and prayer.

Whence came all it is as much as I can venture to lay before that but from the God in man?-a veritable you; and I have written thus much only berevelation from within and from above. cause your truth-loving mind seems to invite For my own part, I cannot but think that such confidences. there is as much of God in these heaven

Heartily yours, scaling hymns as there was in the temple

J. PAGE HOPPS. psalms of Jerusalem. “Out of the depths have I cried unto thee" describes them

MR. GLADSTONE'S REPLY. both. If “Divine suggestion and guidance” are proved because these Hebrew Psalms

LONDON, July 21, 1890. were struck out of the human heart in spite Rev. JOHN PAGE HOPPS: of (might we not say because of?) surround- My dear Sir, -I agree with much that is ing idolatries and depravity, why may not

contained in your letter, and I sympathize “Divine suggestion and guidance" be traced with what seems to me to be its spirit, as in these modern Psalms, -aye, in the very being neither that of cynicism nor of irrevmusic, “the strong crying and tears," struck erence, both so rife in our time. out from the human heart in spite of (or 1 do not in any way shrink from the because of) surrounding carelessness, sorrow, words you cite, and I look on all real narand sin?

rowing of differences as a good. Revelation thus conceived is not the com

You consider that the “specialty" of munication of infallible truth at once, but Divine suggestion and guidance signifies a the process of gradual enlightenment, from distinction not in kind, but in degree.

For stage to stage, in constant harmony with the this I can see that there is much to be said; law of natural development. This at once yet, before embracing the proposition as a brings it within the universal human sphere, basis, I should wish to consider it much and includes not only one race, but all more carefully and thoroughly.

once

а

Among the clearest of all clear things to

THE VISION OF CHRIST. me is the prevalence of that disturbance in creation which we call sin; and what appears to follow, as far as an argument a priori thee face to face, and feel the reality of thy

"O Christ, dear Master, if I could but see is admissible, is the propriety, the need, the enormous value of an adequate remedial pro

blessed life,” I prayed. ... vision. Such a provision we seek in revela- But at that moment my servant came to tion, and most of all in the grand revelation

me with a broken cup, much prized, and of the Person of our Lord.

now useless; and, after coldly remarkiog I hope these few words, which are much at your service, may not widen the space

that she ought to have had more care, I between us; and I remain, my dear Sir, bade her go away and not disturb me. So Faithfully yours,

she went away, unhappy and unforgiven. W. E. GLADSTONE.

"O Christ, dear Master, if I could but hear

thy blessed tones speaking to me,” I prayed MR. HOPPS'S REJOINDER.

yet again. ... BOURNEMOUTH, August 1, 1890. But a little disturbing voice cried loudly Dear Mr. Gladstone, — Thank you for your and sadly at my door for a broken doll, and reply. I did not intend to trouble you with I bade the baby go away and not break in another word, but am naturally anxious to reap for mankind the full effect of your

upon my quiet hour. words, “before embracing the proposition as

“O Christ, dear Master, if I could but a basis, I should wish to consider it much have a token of thy personal love for me," I more carefully and thoroughly." I will cher- prayed yet a third time. ... ish the hope that the fruit of this may yet But no voice nor vision came to me, so I appear. We who hare fully considered the proposi

rose from my praying, and went about in tion, and now admit its validity, would join the house. My servant sang not as usual with you in deeply feeling the misery of over her work, nor did she greet me as I “sin," and the need of “an adequate remedial passed; and there in a corner, asleep, with provision.” But we see in sin not so much a “disturbance in creation,”

the recent tears on the little pale cheek, lay

as a mysterious incident in it. We see

in

the child and her broken doll, and her first fallen, but a risen and a rising creature, great grief. whose sin is incidental to his painful but Aud somewhere in my heart a voice spoke necessary journey out of animal darkness into God's marvelous light.

out clear, so that I could not choose but Nor do we find any difficulty in admit

hear: “Forever and forever, I, the Christ, am ting that our Heavenly Father, who is al- that which asks for love and compassion. ways and everywhere revealing himself to These asked for both from thee, and thou

as a redeeming or saving power, did manifest himself in that supreme human gavedst not. Thou shouldst have looked being who, in a sense, may not unfitly be for me in them, and they would then have called “our Lord.” We would only add that found me in thee. Thou canst not find me he is also revealed every morning afresh when until thou art able to lose thyself in love the light from millions of mothers' eyes and the love from millions of mothers' hearts

and compassion. If thou wouldst know me, tell of the “remedial provision” which, every

thou must be me.” day and in innumerable ways, tends to save So I picked up the baby and her broken God's children from their sin.

doll, and spoke words of tender good cheer If you will permit me, I would urge upon you that the difference between us is one

to my servant, and led them both out into which, in the sphere of Science, has already

the sweet garden and the afternoon sunbeen worked out. You seem inclined to shine, to gather flowers and fruit, till by regard as exceptional and miraculous what I and by the air was full of laughter, and would treat as universal and normal. In the

smiles were on all our faces. sphere of Science that is settled. There, we have advanced from the theory of catas

Oh, then I knew that behind our smiles trophe and miracle to the perception of the was the face of Christ, and in our happy steady flow of natural law; and, in the tones his voice! sphere of Religion, a similar advance seems

For Christ is the love that redeems, and inevitable. There lies the great reconciling thought. What a splendid service you

the compassion that heals, and the unselfwould render to mankind if you would help lessness that brings joy and makes man us along that glorious road !

happy, even as God is happy. Heartily yours,

L. ORMISTON CHANT. J. PAGE HOPPS.

London, Dec, 25, 1890.

man

not a

us

DOES THE BIBLE TEACII “cursed,” or hardened, for their sake, just, EVERLASTING PUNISHMENT ? we may suppose, as one gives his growing

child rugged tasks and cares in order to Assuming, as we do, an existence for all make a man of him. men after death, the most serious question Well, come down through the history of which follows is, What have we to hope or the Jews as pictured in the books of the Old fear, beyond this life, for the worst, the Testament. Adam's sin and fall, carrying lowest, and most unpromising of our kind? the whole race to ruin with him, if it were Or, using a well-coined phrase, What is the a supposed fact, must needs have been a doom of the wicked?

matter of constant and most serious interest, Most Christians go very far back for their especially as the Jews were the most religsighting-ground on this great question, to the ious of peoples. What, then, do we find? story in Genesis of what is called the sin of Take the unabridged Concordance, and look Adam and the fall of man, wherein it is through the Old Testament, from the end of shown, as they claim, that the entire human Genesis to the last word of the last book, race is in a ruined and hopeless condition, and the name of Adam is found but twice,under the wrath of God, from which escape once in the book of Deuteronomy and once is provided for those who will accept it in in the poem of Job,--and both these times the gospel and death of Jesus.

in the way of literary allusion, and without But a few words of comment may well be reference to any fall. “The Fall of Man" made on this story of “The Fall.” First, it was clearly not one of the doctrines taught is without name or date; and the utmost by the prophets and teachers of the Old efforts of scholars have failed to discover Testament. when and where it was composed. It occurs We come now to the gospel of the New in Genesis; but Genesis is evidently a col- Testament, and hearken to Jesus. Surely lection of the short writings of several he will set forth this dire catastrophe of the authors, each distinguished by his particular first parent. It will, indeed, be the burden style and use of words, but no one signing of his thought; for has he not come into the his name or giving any clew to it. More- world to undo the terrible lapse and ruin of over, the story reads like a production of the human race? Listen, then. What do earlier date than written history, rather we hear from the Great Teacher?

Not a than a bundle of strict historical statements. sentence or a syllable on the subject, from Scholars are coming to agree that it is prob- the day of his birth until his departure from ably an old Oriental poem or legend, brought the world! The record does not tell us that by the Hebrews from Babylon at the close he ever spoke the word “Adam," or alluded of their captivity, a comparatively late period to our first parents, or intimated that there in their history.

had ever been a fall of man, Well, it But, again, if one will carefully read the would seem that an event, or a doctrine, story, forgetting the dogmatic interpretations which no prophet or psalmist of the Old which have been put upon it, I doubt Testament ever mentions, and which Jesus whether he will find any fall of Adam or passes by in absolute silence, does not defall of anybody. The word “fall” is not mand very much attention on Bible or used; and, when the first pair are said to be Christian grounds. The Christian of to-day, expelled from the Garden, it seems very if he follows the example of his Master, will much like the history of us all, when we let the matter entirely alone. ceased to be children, and were sent forth But, it is said, Jesus did teach the everfrom the nursery, where our idleness had lasting punishment of the wicked. Let us begun to produce mischief, into the real There is a Greek adjective, “aiðnios,world of real life, -not for our punishment, which in three instances he is represented but because we had grown too large to be as using to describe the retributions of sin. treated longer as babes. No curse of God This Greek word is capable of being applied is said to descend on the first man and to things which are everlasting; though, in woman : they are simply put to work to earn a large majority of cases, as used in the their own living, and take their share of re- Bible and other books, it is applied to sponsibility; and the ground, it is said, is things which endure only for a while. It is

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an adjective from the noun "aiðn," meaning lieved in a life beyond this or ignored the “age,” or “world,” and has no necessary ref- subject altogether. The Pharisees, at this erence to duration.

time, believed in future existence, and added Prof. Moses Stuart, for so many years an to this belief the conviction that all Jews honored teacher in the Andover Theological who did not forfeit their Jewish birthright Seminary, says of aiðnios,The different by some treason or disloyalty-all Jews who shades by which the word is rendered de- remained Jews to the end of their livespends on the object with which aionios' is were sure of resurrection to everlasting hapassociated.” Olshausen, the able orthodox piness hereafter. They believed, or many commentator of the Scriptures, says, “The did, that the heathen were doomed to wanBible is deficient in an expression for time- der as dim shades in the underworld, and lessness.Jeremy Taylor, who surely bad perhaps to be tortured there, but that all no leanings to Liberal Christianity, wrote, loyal Jews, either by transmigration or in "Everlasting' signifies only to the end of some other way, were sure of endless felicity. its own proper period.” Dr. Isaac Watts, Here, then, was an audience of men, the great hymn-writer and Bible student, considerable and very important part of says we ought not, when speaking of men, whom did not believe that the soul survives “to positively affirm that their existence the body's death, and of whom the other shall be equal to that of the blessed God, principal part had no thought that they or especially with regard to the duration of any of theirs were in any danger of an unpunishment.And the orthodox Prof. happy doom in the world to come. The Taylor Lewis, speaking of Matthew xxv. doctrine of everlasting punishment, as affect46, says, “All we can etymologically or ing the destiny of either of these two classes exegetically make of the word in this pas- of his hearers, was therefore a thing ensage is, “These shall go away into the re- tirely new to them. Jesus, according to straint, imprisonment, of the world to come. the theory, was declaring to these uninI could quote at great length from students structed men predictions of the greatest of the Scriptures, reaching from Saint Origen catastrophe which could possibly befall them, in the third century to Canon Farrar in the unimaginable and sickening in its horrors; nineteenth, to show the indefiniteness of and every man he spoke to was in instant this word, or, rather, that it does not ex- danger of this doom which words cannot depress duration at all, but refers to the in- scribe, and from which no escape, save that herent and spiritual quality of the punish- which he could offer them, would be possiment to be endured. A signal instance is ble. It was a peril of which no one of found in the seventh verse of Jude, where them had ever thought as possible to himthe destruction of Tyre and Sidon, which is self. Think carefully of this, and then we represented as occupying but a single day, will turn to these farther facts. Supposing is called “the punishment of eternal (ai)nios) that Jesus' words mean actually endless fire.” Spiritual, as distinguished from and punishment, he never, by the record clearly contrasted with all reckonings of time, alluded to the matter but three times in all would be an approximate definition of the his three years' ministry. All he is reword.

ported to have said could have occupied no Now, consider this: The congregations more than two or three minutes by the that Jesus addresses, so far as the record clock; and whether he actually said anyshows, seem to be composed largely of Phar- thing on the subject depends on the meaning isees and Sadducees. Possibly, some repre- of a variable word, which in a large majority sentative of the Essenes, the third school or of cases means something quite different from division of the Jewish people at that day, “everlasting.” We may add to this that the may have been present, and perhaps some Gospels of Luke and John do not record others; but only Pharisees and Sadducees that Jesus ever spoke this word at all, or seem conspicuous. Jesus and his biographers any word applied to punishment which can appear to regard them as the most important possibly signify its endlessness. part of his hearers, and to them his dis- I am aware that other passages are some

are very largely addressed. Now, times quoted than those which contain this the Sadducees, as we know, either disbe- adjective, but only in a secondary way,

courses

these three passages in Matthew and Mark meaning in the ten cases, why we should being the main and indispensable supports not render the eleventh, “O Hell, where is of the doctrine in question. Without thy victory?” these, it would never bave occurred to Chris- Gehenna, which is spoken of twelve tians that everlasting punishment is taught times, is the valley of Hinnom, near Jerusain the New Testament.

lem, where the worship of Moloch had at Perhaps, however, I ought to speak of two times been celebrated, which had long been or three other expressions which are re- used as a city cesspool, and where, accordgarded by many as corroborating the doctrine ing to some' authorities, the city had long of endless punishment. The Greek word for kept a bonfire for the destruction of its offal punishment in Matthew xxv., above alluded and refuse. Of course, every reference to to, is “kolasis,the expression being the place in connection with the thought kolasis aionios” [eis kóhaoi aibvior). But of punishment must be purely melaphorical, the most superficial student of the lan- as no one is known to have been actually guage, as well as the most profound, is punished there. Very naturally, it would aware that this noun involves the idea of seem, from its later uses, the idea of correccorrection, pruning, or discipline, and only tion and purification became associated with by straining it far beyond its original and the spot. Saint Origen, who made a thorcurrent meaning can the idea of torment, ough study of this matter in his Scriptural other than for amendment and restoration, investigations, declared that he had found be associated with it.

that the Jews metaphorically associated the The words translated “hell,” too, should idea of future punishment with this valley, have a moment's consideration. The Old because it suggested to them purification Testament word “sheol,” thus rendered, and correction. At all events, there is no means simply the underworld of spirits instance in the New Testament where either good and bad; and no unbiased scholar, I gehenna or hadēs is described as everlasting. believe, claims that it has any necessary ref- There is another word still, which, in one erence to punishment. In Genesis xxxvii., instance, in the second chapter of 2 Peter, Jacob is represented as saying, “I will go is translated “hell,”—namely, Tartarus, a down into the grave, unto my son, mourn

word borrowed from pagan mythology, and ing.” Here the word translated “grave" is in this case clearly used to express an event sheol, meaning the place or state of the of temporary duration. dead. The translators of the common ver- Every reader can judge for himself with sion render it, in the sixty-five cases where what reason or moral right translators of the it occurs in the Old Testament, thirty-one Scriptures can thus play fast and loose with times as "grave," thirty-one times as “hell,” these words, no one of which ever meant and one as "pit.” It does not really mean “hell,” and which, to suit doctrinal emer“hell” in a single case, nor, indeed, “grave.” gencies, the translators seem to render in How would it seem to represent Jacob as whatever way best suits their present strait. saying, “I will go down into hell, unto my Now, if any one can think that Jesus, son, mourning"?

foreseeing this awful fate into which almos In the New Testament, the two words every one of his hearers was surely destined "hades” and “gehenna" translated to fall unless warned and rescued by him, “hell.Hadēs here occurs eleven times, and into which any one of them might in ten of which it is rendered “hell.” In plunge at any moment, yet could spare but the remaining instance, it is translated so small a part of his time to speak of the “grave”: “O Grave, where is thy victory?” matter, while he discoursed at length on No person, to my knowledge, has ever at- other subjects, and even then suspended the tempted to show why hadēs should not doctrine on a word, or a few words, of so always be understood as the equivalent of uncertain meaning that the unbiased stusheol, meaning "the underworld.” But, dent is left more than in doubt whether he surely, if it can be translated “grave" in ever meant everlasting punishment,-if any this one instance, it could equally well be so one can think this of Jesus, I do not envy rendered in the other eleven. And there is him his mental attitude toward the Master. no reason, if the word “hell" expresses its Under this view, Jesus would seem a heart

are

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