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but distinctly specified that I might visit the lish system to me; and some account of grammar and primary rooms of a certain the way England maintains her schools may building and one kindergarten school. be interesting.

My card of adniission was very closely The schools are supported, first by a scrutinized by each teacher, and in several government subsidy, of so much per capita. of the rooms I was treated with almost dis- This amount depends, in a measure, upon courtesy. One teacher actually seated her- the report of the government inspector, self, and left me standing by the door. official entirely independent of the school From the confusion and excitement among

board. If the work is found satisfactory, the pupils caused by my presence, it was that school receives the maximum sum per evident that visitors were unusual. I asked capita. Second, by a tax collected from an official, Why all these difficulties in the the rate-payers, the amount of which the way of visiting their schools? The reply schooi boards fix. These boards are elected

“that visitors distracted the attention of by the rate-payers; and, if they are extravthe pupils and interfered with their work, agant, the rate-payers can refuse to re-elect and that, if permitted to do so, the parents them. Third, by a fee varying from threewould visit the schools frequently, to the pence to one shilling per week for each detriment of the schools."

pupil. In the poorer districts of London, This was a new view of the subject. In Miss Hill told me there

many beAmerica the parents have always been urged quests which they were able to use for to visit the schools; and the complaint of school purposes, and so reduce the fees, and teachers is that parents do not show enough that there were many more bequests now interest in the schools, and visit them so useless, because of the conditions attached little.

by the donors, which it is hoped can, by In Paris I was obliged to give up visiting act of Parliament, be made available for the “trade schools,” because the application school purposes. For instance, in one parfor a permission would have consumed too ish a very orthodox individual left a fund much time.

for the purchase of fagots for burning herBut in London the school-house doors are etics; and, as heretics are no longer burned as wide open in America, and the in England, no use can be made of this teachers are just as hospitable. It was only fund. necessary to walk in and state one's inter- Accustomed to our American idea that est in the work, to insure a cordial wel- it is the duty of the State to provide free come.

education for the people, I could not unThe “board schools” of England derstand the strong opposition on the part schools for the lower classes. No family of very good people to the “Free Educaof any social position would think of send- tion Bill,” which passed the House last ing their children to a “board school.” I July. was attempting to explain our free school Education is compulsory in England ; and system, with its high schools, and the son yet hitherto a fee has been demanded for of the merchant-prince and the son of the the tuition of the pupils. In this country mechanic in the same classes, to a young we have always felt that it was only beman.

He listened with undisguised dis- cause the State supplied an education, free gust, and replied, “Think of Eton boys in to all, that the State had the right to comsuch a rabble!”

pel the attendance of the children. England is emphatically an aristocratic A member of Parliament said to me of country. In France the republic has es- the “Free Education Bill”: “This is a govtablished a school system very similar to ernment bill, greatly opposed by many promours; and in Germany the respect for schol- inent Conservatives, but which will be arship is so great, and education is so much carried, because the ‘Home Rulers' will the main object of life, that fees in all vote for it. It does not go far enough to schools are very small, so that rich and suit us, but it is better than we could have poor are found in all schools.

expected from the government.” This genMiss Davenport Hill, a member of the tleman felt that the present system of fees London School Board, explained the Eng- was a real hardship to many. “Think,” he



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said, “of a man out of work, with four or working classes, because their candidates five children in school, and the lowest fee are often poor men. twopence or threepence per week! He Hyde Park is an example of the same must send his children to school, and can spirit. No cabs are allowed in this fashonly be relieved of the fee by going before ionable drive in the afternoon. The result the school board, proving himself a pauper, is that nowhere in the world can such a being thoroughly humiliated, and having display of fine turn-outs, such elegantly what poor remnant of self-respect still re- dressed ladies, faultlessly attired gentlemains to him crushed."

men, and liveried servants, be seen as in Last July the Factory Act was passed; Hyde Park during the season. But people i.e., a law raising the age at which chil- without carriages are shut out of this gay dren may be employed in factories and concourse; and there is no such cheap enmines to twelve years. This was the first joyment for the people as in the Bois de victory won by the Liberals in five years, and Boulogne or on the Pincian Hill at Rome, was received by them with great enthu- where the shabbiest vehicles jostle the fine siasm.

carriages. On the evening of the passage of this act Indeed, in all the great parks of Europe, I was in the House, or, rather, in the cage except Hyde Park, the cheap and comfortabove the House, where the few women who able little cabs are admitted. are so fortunate as to secure an entrée are On Sunday afternoon the "Ladies' Mile" shut up, to peer through the grating at the in Hyde Park presents a brilliant spectacle. House below. On this evening the bill to Here London society sits or walks, attired limit the hours of women engaged in laun- in goodly apparel. No one drives in Londries was before the House. This bill was don on Sunday: that is wicked, or unfashthe outcome of a huge mass meeting of ionable. Good and fashionable people walk laundresses in Hyde Park.

in the park and display fine toilets; and it The subject was treated with the greatest certainly furnishes an admirable opportucourtesy by both sides of the House, and all nity to display good clothes. But the sinthe speakers claimed to be actuated by a gular thing is that the portion of the park sincere desire to do the best thing possible known as the “Ladies' Mile” is given up to for these poor women, whose lot is, at best, the swells, and the unfashionable multitude hard. That debate in the House of Com- never intrude upon this ground devoted to mons, by representative men of England, “society." could not have failed to convince an

However, to me the fashionable quarter biassed listener that even the “submerged of the park was not nearly so interesting as tenth” have been able to make their cries the part where the "great unwashed” hold heard in high places, and that the legis- their meetings. Respectability and fashion lators of England realize that their cries are always a little tiresome, and well-dressed must be regarded. One of the members people look alike the world over. The who took part in this debate was a Welsh- groups around the different speakers nerer man, sent by his trades-union, who had ceased to attract me. There was one afterbeen a working miner up to the time he noon a socialist addressing a group; a Salentered the House,-a man of real earnest- vation Army meeting; religious controness and ability.

versialists denouncing each other; an atheist It seems so out of all proportion that inveighing against all religious; a political members of Parliament receive no pay, and orator; a young man reciting poetry; and an yet the presiding officer receives a salary of Anarchist, with red flag unfurled, denounesix thousand pounds per annum and a fine ing the government, and calling upon his residence.

hearers to destroy the existing order of Here, again, is the aristocratic spirit in things. A policeman stood stolidly by the government, in the theory that no money last-named speaker to see that he bad the must be received by England's law-makers. fair play so dear to Englishmen. Of course, many poor men are in Parlia- For studying all sorts and conditions of ment whose expenses are borne by various men, no place equals Hyde Park on a Sunassociations. But all this falls upon the day afternoon.





ing.” The young and brilliant Henry Vane, a graduate of Magdalene College, Oxford,

was president of that court, and John WinA rounded life with ripened years,

throp, a graduate of Trinity College, CamSoftened with autumn's harvest glow, bridge, was an active member. Soon after, Made purer by its burning tears, Made kindlier by its frost and snow,

Vane, a friend of Ann Hutchinson, named Grand prophet of the inner life,

in Milton's sonnet as Apostle of the truth of God, Thon makest peace flow out of strife,

“Vane, young in years, but in sage counsel For weakness thou art staff and rod.

old," With pity filled for others' woes,

returned to England to pursue his historic Low bent to lift the bowed and lost, Whose throbbing heart for them o'erflows,

career for the liberty and emancipation of Aside thy pains and burdens tossed,

his race, and end that career by being beO brother, in thy heart's great love,

headed on Tower Hill, leaving a name that Yearning for souls enslaved by sin, Thy strength flows down from founts above,

stands on the roll of liberty's martyrs with And Christ finds welcome room within! Raleigh, Russell, and Sydney.

The name of Newtown was soon changed Brought up at thy Gamaliel feet,

Anointed men have learned God's word, to that of Cambridge in affectionate rememAnd, clothed in Truth's fair robe complete, brance of the Alma Mater of many of those Its message spoken has been heard.

emigrants. Of their number one hundred Strong, gentle, kindly, and serene, Simple in thought, just, true, and wise,

were graduates of Oxford and Cambridge, With learning wide and insight keen,

seventy being from Cambridge, of whom Born was thy gospel from the skies.

thirty were from Emmanuel College. It So reverent, full of faith divine,

was in 1638 that the non-conforming clergySo moulded by the Christian thought, man, John Harvard, died at Charlestown, Whose vital flow is life's true vine,

leaving half of his whole property and his The strength by which thy hand hath wrought,

entire library, about three hundred classic Thy fourscore years and silvered hair

volumes, to the proposed college; and, as Åre symbols of that holy crown

you well know, the name which our uniOf Faith and Hope and Love you wear, On which the angel hosts look down.

versity has borne from that day to this is

his. At the celebration of the two hundred () saintly soul, a halo bright

and fiftieth anniversary the undergraduates, Enwraps, illumines, lifts thee far Toward that divine, celestial light,

in merry mood, displayed “Johnnie HarThe brightness of thine own soul's star. vard's Papas" in their torchlight procesAccept, dear friend, the words, “Well done!”

sion, representing, in appropriate costume, For you and yours, this happy hour, Whose course is toward the rising sun,

a butcher, a cooper, and a grocer, two of Whose glory is its growing power.

whom, by tradition, were step-fathers; and Unfinished is thy life-work here,

it was from them that the estate was inImmortal is thy coming sphere.

herited, through his inother, that rendered A. J. Rich.

John Harvard the wealthy clergyman of the young colony. Little is known further of

him than that he was a graduate of EmA GLANCE AT THE STORY OF

manuel College, Cambridge. A monument HARVARD. *

has been erected to his memory, with apIt has been said that God sifted three propriate exercises, including an oration by kingdoms to make New England.

Edward Everett. Among the few books It was in November, 1636, that the Gen

that were preserved from the destruction of eral Court of the colony of Massachusetts

the ibrary in 1764, only one of John HarBay passed the following vote: “The court

vard's three hundred volumes remains, en

titled "Christian Warfare agree to give £400 toward a school or college,


the whereof £200 shall be paid the next year

World, Flesh, and Devil.” In the grateand £200 when the work is finished, and the

ful remembrance of mankind, how many next court to appoint where and what build

names in all the annals of light and learn

ing are sure to hold so firm a place as his? • Part of an address delivered before the Harvard Club of Seattle, Wash., Oct. 9, 1891.

While the college was founded on Nov. 7, 1636, now recognized as Foundation Day, shut the door!” and one is reminded of it was in 1650 that the permanent char- Heine's saying that his only hatred of the ter was granted, creating it a corporation Roman race was their invention of the with rights and franchises that have re

Latin grammar. mained to the present day substantially un- Exercises were required by candle-light changed. However, under the name of before breakfast in translating Hebrew “The President and Fellows of Harvard Col- Scripture into Greek; and at evening twilege," minor statutes have been passed. light it was English that was thus transThe mode of selecting Overseers has been mogrified. The humanities were thus rig. substantially modified, more especially in idly pursued, and we are reminded of the recent times, until now that authority is scholar who regretted that his whole life vested in the alumni of the college proper, had been spent upon Greek in general inwhile the Corporation proper is a self-per- stead of upon verbs in mi. petuative body of seven.

We have the authority of the late poet and The three objects in view in founding the statesman, Lowell, in saying tbat the foundinstitution were to furnish the Common- ing of Harvard College is second to no event wealth with knowing and understanding in real importance that has happened on the men, and the churches with an able minis- Western Continent, -that it saved New Eng. try, and the Indians with Christian educa- land from being a mere geographical exprestion. The first brick building erected was sion, and insured our intellectual indepenthe Indian college, with dormitories for dence of the Old World. Its immediate and twenty occupants; and therein, subsequently, natural effect was to create a body of eduJohn Eliot's Bible was printed. Only two cated and earnest men, maintaining high Indians ever availed themselves of the priv- ideals of life and its purpose, fit and zeal

ges of the college. According to the ous to be educators of the people, as schoolquinquennial catalogue, one Indian, coming teachers and as ministers of the gospel. To from Martha's Vineyard, graduated in 1665, a large degree we may say that it is by this and died the next year.

His nomen claris- influence that New England assumed and has simum, do not forget, was Caleb Cheehau- maintained its permanent influence in litteaumuck.

erature and thought. Thus we are reminded Of the twenty-two presidents of Harvard of Beecher's exclamation: “What! shut College, the first was John Dunster, of re- New England out in the cold! You may as vered memory, an earnest, consecrated minis- well try to shut the cold out of New Eng. ter of the gospel. He devoted his time most land." assiduously to building up the school within Thus, having briefly told the story of the and without, by contributions from other founding of our Alma Mater, let me glance colonies; and the religious controversies at a few of the most important events in its relative to Pedobaptism, in which he be subsequent history. It was in 1680 that the came involved with the powers of State, have college was granted the revenues from in no way shadowed his cherished memory. the Charles River ferry. In Revolutionary At the outset, the requisites for admission times the undergraduates voted unanimously were rigidly prescribed : the student must be to take their degrees clad only in the man“able to read Tully or such like classics, and ufactures of their native land; and, after make and speak true verse and Latin prose, Washington drew his sword under the Camand decline the paradigms of nouns and bridge Elm as commander of the continental verbs in the Greek tongue.” The rules re- armies, the college authorities and students quired that students should speak Latin in forsook their buildings to find temporary all college intercourse, and double penalties shelter at Concord. Among the most emiwere imposed if excuses were not presented nent of the Revolutionary leaders were the in that classic tongue. Hungry had to go graduates from Harvard, -such as the two the student, if the Roman language failed Adamses, Hancock, Warren, and Otis. him at meal-time. The story is historic President Washington visited the college in that the laugh went round when a professor, 1790, while the reception to Gen. Lafayette whose room was invaded by a wandering in 1824 was a marked epoch. The two dog, exclaimed, Exclude canem et, et- hundredth celebration of the college occurred

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in 1836, with imposing ceremonies, wherein which it built in the midst of the multiEdward Everett delivered one of his most farious and restless history of man." And pleasing orations; and Dr. Holmes, of the Dr. Brooks says that no break is to be found famous class of 1829, whose name awakens in its progressive history which conforms to thrills of affectionate respect in all the advancement of humanity. Yet that hearts, gave a poem on that occasion, as he history presents four epochs about one-half did also in more elaborate form at the recent century apart. In 1700 there was a movetwo hundred and fiftieth celebration in ment of marked significance connected with 1886. At the latter celebration the follow- the university regarding the true recipients ing three stanzas from his poem recited fifty of the Christian sacraments, wherein the years before were repeated, as the ones re- Mathers, both father and son, took active membered by the venerable poet :

part. The result was a wider and deeper

appreciation of the true significance of the “ When the Puritans came over, Our hills and swamps to clear,

Christian symbols. The woods were full of catamounts

Again, in 1736 and 1740 there was And Indians red as deer,

epoch in connection with the rigid teachWith tomahawks and scalping-knives

ings of Jonathan Edwards, arising through That make folks' heads look queer. Oh, the ship from England used to bring

the extraordinary enthusiasm created by the A hundred wigs a year!

coming of Whitefield to Boston. Again, in “And who was on the catalogue

1804, the choice of Henry Ware to the Hollis When college was begun?

professorship of theology was a crisis, Two nephews of the President

wherein dogma came in conflict with truth; And the professor's son.

and, whatever views may be entertained in (They turned a little Indian boy,

regard to modes of church polity and beAs brown as any bun).

lief seriously entertained by the respective Lord, how the seniors knocked about The Freshman class of ore!

controversialists, sure it is that the change

was in the direction of that higher and “God bless the ancient Puritans ! Their lot was hard enough;

broader Christianity which we recognize as But honest hearts make iron arms,

love to God and love to man. Lastly, in And tender maids are tough.

recent times, those of us who are in middle So love and faith bave formed and fed

life have witnessed a revolution. We can Our true-born Yankee stuff, And keep the kernel in the shell

recognize the marked effects of the emphasis The British found so rough."

placed upon sociology and psychology, the

extension of the elective studies, the enFain would I dwell on the part Harvard largement of all methods of culture, confined took in the war for the Union; but time no longer to the humanities. We have seen forbids me to do more than merely mention great advances, so as to include not only the the fact that, of her 1,232 volunteers, 361 fell trivium of the mediæval schoolmen, embracas martyrs, and their names are enrolled in

ing grammar and rhetoric and logic, and the Memorial Hall.

quadricium, embracing algebra, geometry, The two hundred and fiftieth celebration music, and astronomy, but all philosophy of the college, in 1886, is of recent memory; and science and much of art. and its exercises, in which some of you took Dr. Brooks tersely put it: “Experience part, call for little mention, especially as became larger than Whitefield, dogma than they have been published in a handsome Calvin, life than theology”; and under this volume. But, among the profoundly inter- new method we rejoice to think that neither esting and brilliant utterances on that oc- scholarship nor aspiration for the highest casion, I was impressed with the sermon of religious thought has declined. Bishop Brooks, wherein he said: “The col- At Commencement time two years ago, lege lay like a ball of light in the intention among the brilliant orations and speeches of its founders. Like a reck in a great it was my privilege to hear, I was especially sea, resting on its own foundations, beaten impressed with the speech of President by the waves, of which it takes no manner Eliot, wherein he gave assurance, with a of account, so stands the Puritanism of the simplicity which bespoke his sincerity, that seventeenth century in the Harvard College Harvard University cherishes all the good

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