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repulsing, at the head of five hundred demi-lances, a sally of the besieged French garrison at Leith.* His father died in 1562, and Arthur then succeeded to a barony, of which the estate had been impoverished by heavy charges for William Lord Grey's ransom, due to the Count of Rochefoucault, after the taking of Guines Castle. To pay that ransom Wilton Castle had been sold, and when the son Arthur, at the age of twenty-six, succeeded to the barony, the family seat was at Whaddon, in Buckinghamshire. There the estates remained to the Greys, who held also the neighbouring manor of Eaton by the service of keeping one ger-falcon for the queen, whence the family bore for its crest a falcon on a glove. Arthur Lord Grey was also keeper of whaddon Chase, and steward, under the Crown, of Olney park and bailiwick. In September, 1566, Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton was summoned to Parliament. Two years later Queen Elizabeth, in a progress, honoured him with a visit at Whaddon. In 1572 he was elected a knight of the Garter, and there were then rumours that he would be appointed to Ireland. In the next year he was one of the peers for the trial of the Duke of Norfolk. After this he was, for some unknown reason, in disgrace at Court and imprisoned in the Fleet. He was released in 1574.

It may have been during this imprisonment that Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton wrote “A Commentarie of the Services and Charges that my Lord my Father was employed in while he lived,” which was found in his own handwriting in a box of old deeds and papers at Oulton Park, Cheshire, in 1844, and was first published by the Camden Society in 1847.7 A copy of this MS. was lent by Lord Grey to

* “E. W.” viii. 253.

† “A Commentary of the Services and Charges of William Lord Grey of Wilton, K.G., by his son Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton, K.G., with a Memoir of the Author and illustrative Documents. Edited by Sir Philip Malpas Grey Egerton, Bart.” London, 1847.

Raphael Holinshed, who used it as material in compilation of his “Chronicles,” and repeated some parts of it word for word. The sketch of William Lord Grey's services must therefore have been written by his son before 1577, when the first edition of those “ Chronicles appeared.

After unsuccessful pleadings for employment in the service of the State, Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton received towards the end of June, 1580, a sudden notice that he must proceed after ten days to Ireland as Lord Deputy. “Scarborough warning "* he called this in a letter to the Earl of Sussex, for he was unprepared and had lost hope of employment. He was sent out when Sir William Pelham, who described Ireland as the grave of English reputations, was by his own wish recalled.

The rebellion headed by the Earl of Desmond, after partial suppression, had again grown dangerous. The Earl of Ormond and Sir William Pelham marched into Kerry with two divisions of the army, wasting the land and slaying men and women, old and young. They reasoned- -as afterwards Spenser reasoned—that to strike immediate terror was best mercy in the end. In July, 1580, the month of Arthur Lord Grey's appointment as Lord Deputy, James Eustace, third Viscount Baltinglas, of Baltinglas, in Wicklow, sent defiance to the Earl of Ormond in the Pope's name, and repudiated the authority of Queen Elizabeth, a woman, as head of the Church. He had not sufficient following, and at the end of the next year escaped to Spain, where he died in 1585. After Lord Baltinglas had left Ireland his property was confiscated to the Crown, and his house in Dublin

* This phrase arose from the fact that in 1557 Thomas Stafford with a small company took Scarborough Castle by surprise when the townspeople had no notice whatever of his approach. Within six days afterwards Stafford himself was taken, brought to London, and beheaded.

Nicholas Sanders.

was granted to Edmund Spenser. That is a glance forward from which we return at once to July, 1580.

Detained on the way for ten days at Beaumaris by a contrary wind, the new Lord Deputy, accompanied by Spenser as his private secretary, landed at Dublin on the second of August, 1580. On Sunday, the eleventh of September, four Spanish vessels entered Smerwick Bay and landed soldiers of the Pope, Spanish and Italian, with Dr. Nicholas Sanders, the Pope's nuncio.

Nicholas Sanders was of Charlwood, in Surrey. He was educated at Winchester School, and went in 1548 to New College. At Oxford he graduated, in 1551, as Bachelor of Laws. In 1557 Sanders lectured upon law at Oxford, but after Elizabeth's accession, being unable to conform to the Reformed Church, he left England in 1560 and went to Rome, where he was ordained priest and made Doctor of Divinity. In 1563, the last year of the Council of Trent, Dr. Nicholas Sanders went to Trent with the Polish Cardinal Stanislaus Hosius, and distinguished himself by his skill in argument. Hosius, who was himself a writer of some mark, liked Sanders so well that he took him into Poland and made him his companion in travel through Prussia and Lithuania. In 1566 Sanders published at Louvain, with a dedication “To the Body and Blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ,” a book on the Roman view of the Eucharist, addressed to English readers, “The Supper of our Lord set foorth in six Bookes according to the Truth of the Gospell and the Faith of the Catholike Church.” There was added to it "the seuenth Book containing a Confutation of the fifth article of M. Iuel's reply against D. Harding. In the following year, again publishing at Louvain, Dr. Nicholas Sanders (whose name was written also Sander and Saunders) addressed his countrymen in defence of the use of images,

* “E. W." viii. 202.

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describing his book as “A Treatise of the Images of Christ and of his Saints : and that it is vnlawfull to breake them, and lawful to honour them. With a Confutation of such false doctrine as M. Iewel hath vttered in his Replie, concerning that matter.” In the same year, 1567, Dr. Sanders issued also from Fouler's press at Louvain, “ The Rocke of the Churche wherein the Primacy of S. Peter and of his Successours the Bishops of Rome is proued out of God's Worde.” Sanders next published at Louvain, in 1568, “A briefe Treatise of Usurie.” This was followed, in 1571, by a Latin treatise in eight books on the Visible Monarchy of the Church, which two years later was answered in Latin by Bartholomew Clerk in a book published at London by John Day. That one of the books published by Nicholas Sanders which has had most influence upon the minds of other men was not published until after his death. It was his Latin history of the origin and progress of the Anglican schism : Nicolai Sanderi de Origine ac Progressu Schismatis Anglicani libri tres. This work was freely drawn upon by later controversialists. It was first published at Cologne in 1585, completed and revised by Edward Rishton. There were two other editions in 1586, one published at Ingolstadt, another at Rome, and there was another edition at Ingolstadt in 1588.* Another book by Sanders that appeared after his death was a thick octavo in Latin against Luther's doctrine of Justification by Faith. This also was first published in 1585.

In November, 1577, Dr. Sanders had been of opinion that the welfare of Europe depended on the stout assailing of England. In July, 1579, he landed in the harbour of Dingle, on the coast of Kerry, with James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald (known as the "arch-traitor"), Matthew of Oviedo,

* There were editions also at Cologne in 1610 and 1628, and there was a translation into French in 1673–4, which caused Burnet to write his “History of the Reformation in the Church of England.”

before the Fort del Ore.

Apostolic Commissary, a few friars and English refugees, and about five-and-twenty Spanish and Italian fighting men. They left Dingle for Smerwick Bay, about four miles distant, where they chose a rock which they joined to the shore by a wooden bridge, and shaped into a fort called "del Ore." Here they received from two galleys the addition of a hundred foreign soldiers. In

Spenser and

Raleigh four days their ships had been taken by the English fleet under Sir William Winter. Fitzmaurice was killed in a skirmish when upon his way to pay vows at a monastery in Tipperary. Treacherous murder of two English officers, who had come as guests into the house of the Earl of Desmond's brother, forced the Desmond clan to join in the rebellion for protection of its chief. There was active war during the winter of 1579-80.

About the twenty-sixth of February, 1580, two Spanish barks touched at Dingle to learn whether it was true that the rebellion had been crushed. They carried away vehement letters from Dr. Sanders to urge the speedy sending of more soldiers into Ireland. The Spaniards and other foreigners in the fort, though few in number, held their ground against attack. Then came, in September, 1580, the four ships in the Pope's service, that landed about four hundred men and carried away more than two hundred, sick or malcontent. There were rumours, also, of a larger Spanish force

upon the

way. The new men, under Sebastian St. Joseph, strengthened the Pope's fort and victualled it; so it became very necessary to use force enough for the certain taking of the Fort del Ore.

On the thirty-first of October, 1580, the Lord Deputy, attended by his secretary Spenser, encamped his troops of horsemen eight or ten miles from the fort, waiting for Admiral Winter, whose ships came into the harbour of Smerwick on Saturday, the fifth of November. On the same day the Lord Deputy, having brought his camp closer


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