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dutiful assent to the endeavour of her parents to marry her into a richer family. Googe brought not only Sir William Cecil, but even Archbishop Parker to his aid, and, notwithstanding the wise counsel of his eclogues, he showed passion enough in his love.

But, next to the eclogues, the chief literary interest of Barnaby Googe's little volume lies in its longer poem of

"Cupido Conquered," an allegory that stands “Cupido Conquered.”

very distinctly on the path from Chaucer to the

“Faery Queene.” The poet, in the time of hawthorn blossom, and surrounded by the song of birds, slept in the woods under a stately laurel, by a fountain that reflected sky and trees and birds. He slept, and Mercury, who came to him in a dream, gave him wings, took him through the air to a great castle, and there left him. It was the castle of Diana, painted with stories of the doom of lust. Therein sat the chaste queen, enthroned among her ladies, above whom was placed “Hippolitus the unspotted pearl of pure Virginitie,

Whose noble heart could not agree to stepdame's villanie.
Next unto him sat Continence and next was Labour placed,
Of body big and strong he was, and somewhat crabtree faced,
Next him was placéd Abstinence, a lean unwieldy wight,

Whose diet thin had banished clean all fond and vain delight." A messenger brought tidings of a mighty prince with a great army who was invading the realm of Diana, and who shot her servants down with poisoned arrows. Hippolitus knew Cupid by the description, and was sent out as chieftain to resist and conquer him. He took Abstinence, Continence, and Labour as his captains. The dreamer followed the march of the army of Diana till they reached the plain where Cupid was encamped. The first that marched from Cupid's camp was drowsy Idleness, next followed Excess-

A lubbour great, mishapen most of all’that there I saw,

As much I thynk in quantitie as horses syxe can draw,

A myghty face both broad and flat and all with rubies set,
Muche nosed like a turky cock, with teth as blacke as get,
A belye byg, full trust with guts, and pestels two like postes,
A knaue full square in euery poynt, a prince of dronken oostes.
Vpon a camell couchéd hye, for horse coulde none hym beare,
A mighty staffe in hande he had, his foes a farre to feare.
Behynd them all, the blynded god doth com in charyot fayre,
With ragyng flames flong rounde about he pestres all the ayre,
And after hym for tryumphe leades a thousande wounded harts
That gush abrode hot streams of blud, new persed with his dartes.'

We may

add a piece like this to Stephen Hawes's “ Pastime of Pleasure ” and “ Example of Virtue,” Dunbar's “Golden Terge” and “Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins," and Sackville's "Induction," as illustration of that form of allegorical literature which, after the days of “The House of Fame” and “The Vision of Piers Plowman,” marked the course of art in the direction of Spenser's “Faerie Queene.” Cupid, of course, was conquered, and the dreamer woke to find himself again under the laurel shade beside the fountain in the wood.

·Barnaby Googe published, also, in 1570, a translation of a large Latin poem against the whole ceremonial and life of Rome, the Regnum Papisticum, which had been published by Thomas Kirchmayer in 1553. Kirchmayer had begun his career, some fifteen years earlier, with the famous Latin drama, “Pammachius," that set forth the Pope as Antichrist in the person of Pope Pammachius, who, when the Emperor Julian ceased to persecute him, gave up Christianity and went into alliance with the devil.* John Bale entered, among works of his


* The student will find account of Kirchmayer, and of many other German writers who had influence on English literature, in a very scholarly book published at the Cambridge University Press in 1886, “Studies of the Literary Relations of England and Germany in the Sixteenth Century, by Charles H. Herford, M.A., D.Litt.," who is now Professor of English Language and Literature at Aberystwith. The own, a translation of “Pammachius,” but this has not come down to us.

To the translation of the Regnum Papisticum Googe added a translation of Kirchmayer's Agricultura Sacra, or Book of Spiritual Husbandry, which deals with the sowing of the good seed, its culture in the home wholesome with flowers and books and above all the Bible, its culture by the pulpit, and the difficulties that beset the preacher's husbandry.

Barnaby Googe published also, in 1577, a translation of the Rei Rustice, Libri IV., by Conrad of Heresbach, who had died in the preceding year. Heresbach had been tutor, and afterwards trusted counsellor, of the Duke of Juliers. In 1579, Googe published also a translation of the Spanish Proverbs collected by Inez Lopez de Mendoza, Marquis of Santillana. The collection was first published by the Marquis of Santillana in 1508. It contained a hundred proverbs in rhyme, and six hundred taken from the lips of the people, as they were used, he said, by the old women in their chimney corners. It was this collection that first gave to the proverbial wisdom in which Spain always had excelled a corner of its own in Spanish literature. Barnaby Googe died at Alvingham, in the house of his fathers, in February, 1594, leaving a son Matthew, twenty-eight years old, to continue the succession.

We pass now to George Turbervile, whose translation of Mantuan's eight eclogues Spenser must have read before he

wrote The Shepheardes Calender.” He was a younger son of Nicholas Turbervile, of Whit

church, in Dorsetshire, five miles from Bridport. He was educated at Winchester School and New College, Oxford. He went to an inn of court, won credit for his verses, and was taken as secretary by Thomas Randolph

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seven chapters of Dr. Herford's book treat of Lyrics, Polemical Dialogues, the Latin Drama, the Faustus Cycle, the Ulenspiegel Cycle, the Ship of Fools, Grobianus and Grobianism.

when he went as Queen Elizabeth's ambassador to Russia for the advancement of trade. In 1553 Richard Chancellor, captain of the Bonaventure, had been separated from Sir Hugh Willoughby's expedition in search of a North-East Passage to India, had entered the White Sea, and travelled overland to Moscow, where he was well received and made a treaty of free trade for English ships. His report of his doings after his return led to the formation of the Muscovy Company. Chancellor visited Moscow again in the winter of 1555, but was lost on his way home by the wreck of his ship off the coast of Scotland in November, 1556. Thus the opening of trade with Russia became one of the interests of England, to which Queen Elizabeth attended so well that in 1579 Ivan the Terrible proposed to marry her. In 1568 Turbervile published a small collection of poems describing the places and manners of the country and people of Russia. He wrote letters from Russia “To his especiall Frende, master Edwarde Dancier," "To Spencer," and “ To Parker”; but the “Spencer” was not, as has been sometimes supposed, Spenser the poet. Turbervile, who did not like the Russians, ended his letter “To Spencer” thus, with a reserved frankness

“ To this I make an end ; none other news to thee

But that the country is too cold, the people beastly be.
I write not all I know, I touch but here and there,
For if I should, my pen would pinch and eke offend I fear.
Whoso shall read this verse, conjecture of the rest,
And think, by reason of our trade, that I do think the best.
But if no traffic were, then could I boldly pen
The hardness of the soil and eke the manners of the men.'

In 1567 appeared “The Heroical Epistles of the learned poet Publius Naso in English verse, set out and translated by George Turbervile gentleman, with Aulus Sabinus answer to certain of the same.” Six of the epistles are in blank verse, the others in septenars. In the same

Eclogues of

year with this translation from Ovid appeared also Turber

vile's translation of the Eclogues of Mantuan, and upon Mantuan Spenser founds three of the

eclogues in his “Shepheardes Calender.” Battista Spagnoli was born in the year 1448 at Mantua, for which reason, when he took a foremost place in Italy among the Latin poets of the Renaissance, he wrote himself Baptista Mantuanus, and is known in literature by that name. He was a man of great ability who became General of the Order of the Carmelites; but he quitted the Order, and, although he did not forsake the faith of his Church, his Latin poems contain vigorous attacks on its corruptions. The works of Mantuan, as printed in the author's lifetime at Bologna, in 1502, form a folio of 389 leaves, of which the eclogues occupy but twenty-six leaves and a page. Mantuan wrote also six books of “Sylvæ,” a book of epigrams, three books on the Calamities of the Times in which he lived, long poems on the Virgin, on St. Catherine, with other illustrations of purity in woman (a large offset, by the way, to his fourth eclogue), and other works, including a “ Trophæum” for the expulsion of the French from Italy. Mantuan died on the twentieth of March, 1516. His best poems, which are not his longest, were read and admired in England, where his attacks upon corruption in the Roman Church strengthened the hands of the Reformers.

His eclogues were read in schools, and Thomas Farnaby said that the

* He closed a poem, In Romam bellis tumultuantem, with the lines

“ Vivere qui sancte cupitis, discedite : Romæ,

Omnia cum liceant, non licet esse bonum."

and in the third book of his poem, De Suorum Temporum Calamitati. bus, he said of his corrupted Church

"venalia nobis
Templa, sacerdotes, altaria, sacra, coronæ,
Ignes, thura, preces, Cælum est venale, Deusque.”

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