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that before sun rise an able horse, with every accommodation, would be ready at the door of the tent, where he would meet him and expect him to depart with all expedition. The stranger, not able to account farther for the conduct of his host, retired to rest.

An Arab waked him in tiine to take refreshment before his departure, which was ready prepared for him ; but he saw none of the family till he perceived, on reaching the door of the tent the master of it holding the bridle of his horse, and supporting his stirrups for him to amount, which is done among the Arabs as the last office of friendship. No sooner was the stranger mounted than his host announced to him, that, through the whole of the enemy's camp, he had not so great an enemy to dread as himself. Last night, said he in the exploits of your ancestors, you discovered to me the murderer of my father. There lie all the habits he was slain in, (which were at that moment brought to the door of the tent,) over which, in the presence of my family, I have many times sworn to revenge his death, and to seek the blood of his murderer from sun-rise to sun-set. The sun has not yet risen, the sun will be no more than risen when I pursue you, after you have in safety quitted my tent, where, fortunately for you, it is against our religion to molest you after your having sought my protection and found a refuge there ; but all my obligations cease as soon as we part, and from that moment you must consider me as one determined on your destruction, in whatever part, or at whatever distance, we may meet again. You have not mounted a horse inferior to the one that stands ready for myself; on its swiftness surpassing that of mine depends one of our lives or both. After saying this he shook his adversary by the hand and parted from him. The Moor, profiting by the few moments he had in advance, reached the Bey's army in time to escape his pursuer, who followed him closely as near the enemy's camp as he could with safety.

NATURAL PHENOMENON-SOUTH-WEST MONSOON.

The most remarkable rainy season is that called in India the South-west Monsoon. It extends from Africa to the Malay Peninsula, and deluges all the intermediate countries, within certain lines of latitude, for four months in the year. In the the south of India this monsoon commences about the beginning of June, but it gets later as we advance towards the north. Its approach is announced by vast masses of clouds, that rise from the Indian Ocean, and advance towards the nort-east, gathering and thickening as they approach the land. After some threatening days, the sky assumes a troubled appearance in the evenings, and the monsoon in general sets in during the night. It is attended with such thunder storms as can scarcely be imagined by those who have only seen these phenomena in temperate climates.

It generally begins with violent blasts of wind, which are succeeded by floods of rain. For some hours lightning is seen almost without intermission. Sometimes it only illuminates the sky, and shows the clouds, near the horizon; at others it discovers the distant hills, and again leaves all in darkness ; when in an instant it re-appears, in vivid and successive flashes, and exhibits the nearest objects in all the brightness of the day. During this time the distant thunder never ceases to roll, and is only silenced by some nearer peal, which bursts on the ear with such a sudden and tremendous crash, as can scarcely fail to strike the most insensible heart with awe. At length the thunder ceases, and nothing is heard but the continued pouring of the rain, and the rushing of the rising streams. The next day presents a gloomy spectacle : the rain still descends in torrents, and scarcely allows a view of the blackened fields. The rivers, swollen and discoloured, sweep down along with them the hedges, the huts, and the remains of the cultivation which was carried on, during the dry season, in their beds. This lasts for some days, after which the sky clears, and discovers the face of nature changed as if by enchantment.

Before the storm, the fields were parched up, and, except in the beds of the rivers, scarcely a blade of vegetation was to bc

The clearness of the sky was not intercepted by a single cloud, but the atmosphere was loaded with dust, sufficient to render distant objects dim, as in a mist, and to make the sun

discoloured, till it attained a considerable elevation. A parching wind blew like a blast from a furnace, and heated wood, iron, and every other solid material, even in the shade ; and immediately before the monsoon, this wind had been succeeded by still more sultry calms. But when the first violence of the storm is over, the whole earth is covered with a sudden but luxuriant verdure; the rivers are full and tranquil ; the air is pure and delicious; and the sky is varied and embellished with clouds. The effect of the change is visible on all the animal creation, and can only be imagined in Europe by supposing the depth of a dreary winter to shoot at once into all the freshnes and brilliancy of spring. From this time the rain

seen.

appear dull and

falls at intervals for about a month, when it comes on again with great violence, and in July the rains are at their height. During the third month, they rather diminish, but are still heavy: and in September, they gradually abate, and are often entirely suspended, till near the end of the month, when they depart amidst thunders and tempests, as they came.

Such is the monsoon in the greater part of India. It is not, however, without some diversity, the principal feature of which is the delay in its commencement, and the diminution of the quantity of rain, as it recedes from the sea.

In the districts which are the subject of the present description, (Caubul and the neighbouring countries,) the monsoon is felt with much less violence than in India, and is exhausted at no great distance from the sea, so that no trace of it can be perceived in Caudahar. A remarkable exception to this rule is, however, to be observed in the north-east of Afghaunistaun, which, although much farther from the sea than Candahar, is subject to the monsoon; and, what is equally extraordinary, receives it from the east,

These anomalies may perhaps be accounted for by the following considerations. It is to be observed, that the clouds are formed by the vapours of the Indian Ocean, and are driven over the land by a wind from the south-west. Most part of the tract in which the kingdom of Caubul lies, is to leeward of Africa and Arabia, and receives only the vapours of the narrow sea between its southern shores and the latter country, which are but of small extent, aud are exhausted in the immediate neighbourhood of the coast. India lying further east, and beyond the shelter of Africa, the monsoon spreads over it without any obstruction. It is naturally most severe near the sea, from which it draws its supplies, and is exhausted after it has past over a great extent of land. For this reason, the rains are more or less plentiful in each country, according to its distance from the sea, except in those near high mountains, which arrest the clouds, and a larger supply of rain for the neighbouring tracts, than would have fallen to their share, if the passage of the clouds had been unobstructed.

The obstacle presented to the clouds and winds by the mountains has another effect of no small importance. The south-west monsoon blows over the ocean in its natural direction; and though it may experience some diversities after it reaches the land, its general course over India may still be said to be towards the north-east, till it is exhausted on the western and central parts of the Peninsula. The provinces in the north-east receive the monsoon in a different manner: the wind which brings the rains to that part of the continent originally blows from the south-west, over the Bay of Bengal, till the mountains of Hemalleh, and those which join them from the south, stop

procure

its progress, and compel it to follow their course towards the north-west. The prevailing wind, therefore, in the region southwest of Hemalleh, is from the south-east, and it is from that quarter that our provinces in Bengal receive their rains. But when the wind has reached so far to the north-west as to meet with Hindoo Coosh, it is again opposed by that mountain, and turned off along its face towards the west, till it meets the projection of Hindoo Coosh and the range of Solimaun, which prevent its further progress in that direction, or at least compel it to part with the clouds with which it was loaded.

The effect of the mountains in stopping the clouds borne by this wind, is different in different places. Near the sea, where the clouds are still in a deep mass, part is discharged on the hills and the country beneath them, and part passes up to the north-west ; but part makes its way over the first hills, and produces the rains in Thibet. In the latitude of Cashmeer, where the hills are considerably exhausted, this division is little perceived; the southern face of the hills, and the country still further south, is watered ; and a part of the clouds continue their progress to Afghaunistaun ; but few make their way over the mountains, or reach the valley of Cashmeer. The clouds which pass on to Afghaunistaun are exhausted as they go : the rains become weaker and weaker, and at last are merely sufficient to water the mountains, without much affecting the plains at their base.

The above observations will explain, or at least connect, the following facts. The south-west monsoon commences on the Malabar coast in May, and is there very violent ; it is later and more moderate in Mysore; and the Coromandel coast, covered by the mountainous countries on its west, is entirely exempt from it. Further north, the monsoon begins early in June, and loses a good deal of its violence, except in the places influenced by the neighbourhood of the mountains or the sea, where the fall of water is very considerable. About Delhi, it does not begin till the end of June, and the fall of rain is greatly inferior to what is felt at Calcutta or Bombay. In the north of the Punjaub, near the hills, it exceeds that of Delhi; but, in the south of the Punjaub, distant both from the sea and the hills, very little rain falls. The countries under the hills of Cashmeer, and those under Hindoo Coosh, (Pukhlee, Boonere, and Swaut,) have all their share of the rains, but they diminish as they go west, and at Swaut are reduced to a month of clouds. with occasional showers. In the same month (the end of July and beginning of August) the monsoon appears in some clouds, showers at Peshawer, and in the Bungush and Khuttuk countries. It is still less felt in the valley of the Caubul river, where it does not extend beyond Lughmaun; but in Bajeoura and Punjeora, under the southern projection, in the part of the Caufir country which is situated on the top of the same projection, and in Teera, situated in the angle formed by Tukhti Soliinaun and its eastern branches, the south-west monsoon is heavy, and forms the principal rains of the year. There is rain in this season in the country of the Jaujees and Torees, which probably is brought from the north by the eddy in the winds ; but I have not information enough to enable me to conjecture whether that which falls in Bunnoo and the neighbouring countries is to be ascribed to this cause, or tu the regular monsoon froin the south-west.

The regular monsoon is felt as far west as the utmost boundary of Mekraun. It is not easy to fix its limits on the north-west with precision, but I have no accounts of it beyond a line drawn through the northern part of the table land of Kelaut, and the northern parts of Shoraubuk, of Pisheen, and of Zhobe, to the source of the Koorum ; it falls, however, in very different quantities in the various countries south-east of that line, The clouds pass with little obstruction over Lower Sind, but rain more plentifully in Upper Sind and Domaun, where these rains, though not heavy are the principal ones in the year. On the sea-coast of Luss and Mekraum, on the other hand, they are arrested by the mountains, and the monsoon resembles that of India. In Seweestaun the monsoon is probably the same as in Upper Sind and Domaun : in Boree it is only about a month of cloudy and showery weather : it is probably less in Zhobe : and in the other countries within the line it only appears in shov

ers, more precarious as we advance towards the no

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Among the descendants of the sons of Noah, who soon replenished the earth with inhabitants, two families became conspicuous, for their power, influence and numerous offspring : and though both derived their existance from the same Parents yet were they quite opposite in temper, dispositions, and pursuits. Pride, the eldest born, was the favourite of his father, though his

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